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Full text of "NYC PLUMBING (2008): New York City Plumbing Code"



Plumbing Code, Mechanical Code 

and Fuel Gas Code 

of New York State 




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2008 New York City Plumbing Code 



First Printing: June 2008 



ISBN-978-1-58001-718-3 (loose-leaf) 



The New York City Construction Codes are based on the 2003 I-Codes, which is a copyrighted work owned by the International 
Code Council. ICC reserves all rights in its copyrighted works. For information on permission to copy material exceeding fair use, 
please contact: Publications, 4051 West Flossmoor Road, Country Club Hills, IL 60478. Phone 1-888-ICC-SAFE (422-7233). For 
information from New York City, please contact: Code Counsel, New York City Department of Buildings, 280 Broadway, New 
York, New York 10007. 

Trademarks: "International Code Council," the "International Code Council" logo and the "International Plumbing Code" are 
trademarks of the International Code Council, Inc. 



PRINTED IN THE U.S.A. 



DEDICATION 



The New York City Construction Codes reflect the work of many, many people and organizations. The story of their development, 
detailed in the following pages, barely scratches the surface of the passion, determination, and focus that launched and kept the ef- 
fort going from beginning to end. The singular voice we heard at every juncture was that of Patricia J. Lancaster, FAIA, Commis- 
sioner of Buildings during the period of the codes' development, adoption, and implementation planning. Without her, none of this 
would have been possible. And so, we thank the Commissioner and dedicate this first publication of the New York City Construction 
Codes in her honor. 



Fatma Amer, PE Benjamin Jones, PMP Phyllis Arnold 

Deputy Commissioner and Assistant Commissioner Deputy Commissioner and 

Chief Code Engineer Strategic Planning and Chief Code Counsel 

Implementation 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES 

PREFACE 



Background 

The New York City Construction Codes, effective July 1, 2008, are patterned after the family of model construction codes pub- 
lished by the International Code Council (ICC). While the ICC Codes, with their interpretive commentary and history of amend- 
ments, will in the future be a rich new source for interpreting the City's building laws, New York City has extensively modified the 
ICC text. As modified, the provisions incorporate the collective wisdom of more than 350 years of building regulation in the City. 

New York City was the first jurisdiction in the country to experience the problems associated with building construction in a 
high-density urban environment and the first to attempt to solve them through regulatory measures. In 1 625, the Dutch West India 
Company established rules for the types and locations of houses that could be built in the colony of New Amsterdam. This early at- 
tempt at meeting public safety and sanitation needs would evolve into one of the most comprehensive building codes in the United 
States. 

Based initially on fire prevention principles, the City's regulations evolved into provisions governing sanitation and building 
construction and materials. From their start in the late 17th century, to creation of the position of ''Superintendent of Buildings" 
within the Fire Department in 1 860, to creation of a citywide Department of Buildings in 1 936, through comprehensive revisions in 
both 1938 and 1968, the City's building code grew to become one of the most stringent in the nation. The 1938 revisions were 
geared toward capturing provisions to meet the needs of new skyscrapers and multiple dwellings. The 1968 revisions were designed 
to incorporate new technologies and building practices, including performance criteria for building construction. 

The 1968 revisions reflect the last comprehensive update of New York City's building construction laws. Predictably, they had 
begun to show their limitations. Obsolete provisions remained on the books, conflicting amendments became loopholes for indus- 
try to navigate, and new technologies and construction practices that had become industry standards were noticeably absent. Signif- 
icant amendments over the years tended to be reactions to unfortunate events rather than comprehensive revisions. 

Recognizing these problems, in November 2002, Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg signed Executive Order No. 30, creating an ad- 
visory commission to study the feasibility of adopting a model code for the City. The Mayor's Advisory Commission issued its re- 
port in May 2003, recommending that the City adopt, in modified form, the ICC's family of codes. The NYC Construction Codes 
Program* was born, housed in and supported by the City's Department of Buildings ("Department"). 

Construction Codes Program 

Although many jurisdictions have adopted the I-Codes, New York City is recognized as a unique and premiere urban environ- 
ment. No other American city can match the diversity of New York's built environment. From the canyons of Manhattan to the 
brownstones and houses of Brooklyn, Queens, the Bronx, and Staten Island, New York City poses a unique challenge for any build- 
ing code. As a result, the City extensively rewrote the I-Codes in many technical areas. Some chapters were deleted entirely and re- 
placed with requirements that better reflect the City's singular needs. 

Moreover, given the complex nature of New York City's built environment, the Department of Buildings performed exhaustive 
reviews of the proposed code to determine the impacts it might have on the City and the construction industry, including a cost im- 
pact study and an environmental assessment. In terms of scope and level of review, New York City's construction code effort was 
more akin to a state-level effort. 

The Code Development Process 

Although administered by the Department, the Construction Codes Program reached well beyond the agency's corridors. In an 
unprecedented public/private partnership, over 400 participants from the architectural and engineering community, industry, labor, 
and government contributed more than 300,000 hours attending more than 500 technical, advisory, and managing committee meet- 
ings, as they pored over and developed new text and debated policy. 

Recognizing that any significant stakeholder opposition at the City Council could frustrate the effort, the Department used a con- 
sensus-based model. Technical committees were asked to reach agreement on as many proposed changes as possible, a process that 
yielded a result on all but about two dozen issues. The Department mediated a resolution on seven of those issues, and the Commis- 
sioner made the final determination on the remaining ones. The result was that virtually all stakeholders walked away with some- 
thing and had an interest in seeing the product enacted as law. Issues that proved too difficult to resolve for this revision were 
committed to the 3-year revision cycle contemplated by the ICC model. 

The first phase of the Construction Codes Program was completed in December 2005, when the Council enacted and the Mayor 
signed Local Law 99 of 2005 . That legislation established the bluepri nt for the City's adoption effort: it enacted a new Title 28 of the 
New York City Administrative Code reflecting new administrative and enforcement provisions as well as a new plumbing code; it 
contemplated the subsequent passage of a completion bill, consisting of a new building code, mechanical code, fuel gas code and 
* Formerly Model Code Program 
iv 2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



residential code; and it provided an effective date of July 1 , 2007 for all provisions, provided that the completion bill was passed by 
that date. 

Local Law 33 of 2007 was that completion bill. It revised the administrative and enforcement provisions of Local Law 99. Many 
of those provisions were edited and placed in more appropriate locations in the first chapter (Chapter 1) of the individual codes. 
Moreover, Local Law 99 did not contain a complete and uniform schedule of penalties, requiring the development of an integrated 
enforcement text. And of course, it filled out the technical provisions of the new construction codes by adding a new building code, 
fuel gas code, and mechanical code. Local Law 33 repealed those portions of Titles 26, 27, and 28 of the Administrative Code super- 
seded by the new provisions. All portions of the new construction codes are effective July 1 , 2008, although they will not be manda- 
tory until July 1,2009. 

Three other local laws complete the package of legislation reflected in this publication: Local Laws 37 and 38 of 2007 and Local 
Law 8 of 2008. Each of those enactments contained provisions either making nonsubstantive corrections and clarifications or incor- 
porating stand-alone legislation that was not reflected in Local Law 33. 

Structure and Applicability of the New Codes 

The new Title 28 contains five chapters that will govern all of the new construction codes, covering administration, enforcement, 
maintenance obligations, licensing, and miscellaneous provisions, including outdoor signs. These provisions were written by and 
for New York City and thus do not appear in the I-Codes. They are followed by four additional chapters containing the plumbing, 
building, mechanical, and fuel gas codes. Each of the individual codes, in turn, contains a Chapter 1 with additional administrative 
provisions applicable to the specific matters covered by the particular code. Each of the separate codes reflects modifications to the 
I-Codes. 

Section 28- 1 1 .4 contains the effective date provisions. The new codes will apply effective July 1 , 2008, prospectively to all new 
construction . For a period of 1 year after the effective date, owners may elect to use the technical requirements of the 1 968 building 
code for new buildings and for alterations of existing buildings. After that 1 year period, new construction must comply with the new 
codes. However, alterations of existing buildings, at the option of the owner, will be permitted to comply with the 1 968 building 
code, with significant exceptions noted below that the Department determined are sufficiently important to public safety to be im- 
plemented immediately regardless of the choice of underlying code. 

Provisions of Title 28 that apply to all codes should be cited as "28-section number." The technical codes may be cited sepa- 
rately; provisions of each should be cited as "PC section number," "BC section number," "MC section number," and "FGC section 
number." Section 28-101.3 governs the interpretation of the various codes, sections, and subsections of the law by providing: 

28-101.3 Codes. Any reference in this title to "this code" or "the code" shall be deemed to be a reference to this title and all of the 
codes comprising the New York City Construction Codes unless the context or subject matter requires otherwise. Whenever a 
section or subsection of this code is cited or referred to, subordinate consecutively numbered sections and subsections of the 
cited provision are deemed to be included in such reference unless the context or subject matter requires otherwise. 

While the Department expects to promulgate new rules necessary to implement the new codes, Local Law 8 provides that exist- 
ing rules are continued: 

§28-103.20 Rules. Rules promulgated by the department in accordance with the law in effect prior to the effective date of this 
code shall remain in effect for the matters covered to the extent that such rules are not inconsistent with this code unless and until 
such rules are amended or repealed by the department. 

Existing Buildings 

While the ICC family of codes includes an existing building code, the Department determined to continue to allow compliance 
with the 1968 code as a first step in transitioning from the 1968 code to a new set of standards for all buildings. Once the codes re- 
garding new construction are in place, the Department will turn to the development of an existing building code for the city, antici- 
pated within the next 2 to 3 years. In the interim, at the owner's option, existing buildings may be governed by either the new codes or 
the technical requirements of the 1 968 building code. The latter option is subject to several important exceptions: 

@ Where permits were issued prior to July 1 , 2008, construction will be governed by the laws in effect prior to July 1, 2008, 
@ As of July 1 , 2008, except as otherwise limited by the commissioner, administration and enforcement will be in accordance 
with the new provisions, including but not limited to approval of construction documents, issuance of permits and certifi- 
cates of occupancy, tests and inspections, penalties and enforcement. Controlled inspections and semi controlled inspections 
as referenced in the 1 968 building code will be deemed to be special inspections and will be required to comply with the new 
provisions relating to special inspections. Materials regulated in their use by the 1.968 building code will, be required to com- 
ply with the new provisions. 

@ For permits issued after July 1 , 2008, construction operations, including demolition, will be required to comply with the new 
construction codes. 

• As of July 1, 2009, encroachments onto the public right-of-way will be governed by the new construction codes. 
2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE v 



s As of July 1 , 2009, appliances, equipment, and systems regulated by the plumbing, mechanical and fuel gas codes will be re- 
quired to comply with the new construction codes. 

• As of July 1 , 2009, installation, alteration and additions to certain fire protection systems will be required to comply with the 
new construction codes. 

As of July .1, 2009, installation and alteration of certain elevators, conveyors, and amusement rides will be governed by the 
new construction codes. 

@ As of July 1, 2009, where the estimated cost of an alteration in any 12-month period exceeds 50 percent of the cost of re- 
placement of the building or where there is a change in the main use or dominant occupancy of the building, facilities for 
people with physical disabilities must comport with the new construction codes. 

The City did not enact a new residential code. The ICC's residential code covers one- and two-family dwellings three stories or 
less, whereas its building code covers all other new buildings. After reviewing the work product of the technical committees that de- 
veloped the text, the Department concluded that the City could effectively address one- and two-family dwellings in the body of the 
building code itself. Accordingly, the new building code covers new construction of all building types. 

Enforcement of Construction Codes and their Relationship to New York State Law 

The Department is charged with the responsibility for enforcing the construction codes in the City. New York City Charter §643. 
Effective January 2003, New York State adopted its version of the I-Codes, but they do not govern in New York City. Executive Law 
§383. However, the City is subject to the Energy Conservation Construction Code of New York State ("Energy Code"). Accord- 
ingly, the Department enforces both the New York City Construction Codes as well as the State Energy Code in New York City. 

Codes Maintenance 

At the national level, the I-Codes are kept current through the review of proposed changes submitted to the ICC by code enforce- 
ment officials, industry representatives, design professionals and other interested parties. Proposed changes are considered through 
an open code development process in which all interested and affected parties may participate. 

The Department is mandated by Local Law 33 to review the latest edition of the I-Codes and to suggest modifications for use 
within New York City. This cycle will help ensure that New York City maintains an updated set of construction codes far into the fu- 
ture. This revision cycle is anticipated to occur every 3 years. 

Marginal and Other Markings 

Solid vertical lines in the margins within the body of the codes indicate a technical change from the 2003 version of the I-Codes. 
Deletion indicators (^) are provided in the margin where a paragraph or item has been deleted. 

A double dagger ($) within the body of the codes indicates text that is corrected from the enacted legislation for purposes of clar- 
ity. Substantive corrections will appear in future code revisions. 

Indices 

These codes do not include indices. An index for each of the individual codes will be available at a later date on the New York 
City Department of Buildings Website (http://www.nyc.gov/html/dob). 



vi 2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The New York City Department of Buildings gratefully acknowledges the following individuals who 
contributed to the development of the New York City Construction Codes, 

Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg 

Deputy Mayor Daniel L. Doctoroff 

Deputy Mayor Edward Skyler 

NEW YORK CITY COUNCIL 

Christine Quinn, Speaker 

Gifford Miller, Speaker 

Housing and Buildings Committees 
Erik Martin Dilan, Chair 

Members : Tony Avella; Maria Baez; Leroy G. Comrie, Jr.; Lewis A. Fidler; Robert Jackson; RosieMendez; James S.Oddo; Joel 
Rivera; Thomas White, Jr.; James Vacca 

Madeline Provenzano, Chair 

Members : Tony Avella; Gale Brewer; Leroy G. Comrie, Jr.; Lewis A. Fidler; Robert Jackson; Letitia James; MelindaKatz; James 
S. Oddo; Diana Reyna; Joel Rivera 

MANAGING COMMITTEE 
Members: Julian Bazel; Robert Benazzi, PE; John Bower, PE; Aine Brazil, PE; Irwin Cantor, PE; Bernie Carr; Louis J. Coletti; 
Anthony Crowell; Marolyn Davenport; Chief Stanley Dawe (retired); Edward DePaola, PE; Enzo Depol, AIA; Erik Martin Dilan; 
Carl Galioto, FA1A; Melvin Glickman; Maria Gotsch; Jessica Handy; Chief Howard Hill, FDNY (retired); Chief Thomas Jensen; 
Timothy Joseph; Henry C. Kita; James Kunen; Gary LaBarbera; Nicholas LaPorte; Fred Lindquist, PE; Ronny Livian, PE; Pam 
Loeffelman; Edwin Lopez; Edward Malloy; Herbert Mandel, AIA; James Maxwell; Raymond McGuire; Patrick McPartland, PE; 
Brian Meacham, PE; Peter Molinaro; Monty Mitchell, AIA; FrumaNarov, PE; Patty Noonan; Paul O'Brien; Stewart O'Brien; Anne 
Papageorge, RLA; Madeline Provenzano; Martin Rebholz, RA; George Reilly; Jack Rudin; Matthew Sapolin; Ismene Speliotis; 
William Stein, AIA; Gerard Vasisko, AIA; Chester Vogel, PE; Margot Woolley; Michael Zenreich, RA 

TECHNICAL COMMITTEES 

Accessibility 

Matthew Sapolin, Chair 

Robert Piccolo, AIA, Co-chair 

Members : Fredric Bell, FAIA; Brian Black; Dennis R. Boyd; Douglas W. Boydston; Marrilie Camhe; Gregory J. Carlson; Charles 
Cellura, PE; Ernest Conrad, PE; Marolyn Davenport; Anne M. Davis; Enzo Depol AIA; Sheila Horgan; Nicholas A. Kaminski; 
Mark H. Leeds; Diane Lowy; Dominic Marinelli; Jason R. Mischel; Terrence J. Moakley; Edward D. Re, Jr., RA; Mary Ann 
Rothman; Charles Rudesill, RLA; John A. Van Deusen; Elliott Vilkas, AIA; Linda M. Volpe; Suzanne Wertz, AIA; Brian M. White; 
Alexander Wood 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



Administration/Enforcement 
Fatma Amer, PE, Chair 
Marzio Penzi, Co-Chair 

Members : Susan Bacas; Fredric Bell, FAIA; Harvey Blind; John M. Callahan; Suzanne Carroll; Marolyn Davenport; Albert 
Fredericks; James Hirani; Janene Jaeger; Michael Jaycox; David May, RA; Peter McCourt; Stewart O'Brien; John O'Donoghue; 
Christine Pawelczak; Joseph Polcha; Martin Rebholz, RA; Dennis Rizzo; George Roussey; Douglas Roy; Medhat Salaam; Manuel 
A. Santiago, RA; Gaston Silva, RA; Carole Slater; Paul Spears; Jose Valencia; Kenneth Warshaw; Margot Woolley, AIA; Tarek 
Zeid 

Construction Requirements 
Ronny A. Livian, PE, Chair 
Enzo Depol, AIA, Co-Chair 

Members : Joseph Aliotta; Robin Burns; Colin Cheny; Dennis Crichton; Glen V. Cutrona, AIA; Nicholas Grecco, PE; Gary B. 
Higbee, AIA; Harold Jupiter; Jeffrey Kieffer; Edward T. LaGrassa, RA; Joseph Razza, PE; Brendan Weiden, PE 

Construction Safety / Demolition 

Louis J. Colletti, Chair 

Henry C. Kita, Co-Chair 

Members : James Bifulco; David Bolger; Kenneth Brancaccio; Ken Buettner; James Conway; Marolyn Davenport; Ted Frank; Al 
Gerosa; Michael Handler; Joseph S. Kaming, PE; Michael LaBate; Chief Daniel Martinetion, FDNY; Frank McArdle; Jerry 
McCloskey; Joyce Nastasi; Paul O'Brien; John O'Hare; James Ramsburgh; Bruce Rottner; Larry Shapiro, PE; Joseph Vouglas; 
Harry Weidmyer 

Egress 

William Stein, FAIA, Chair 

John McCormick, PE, Co-Chair 

Members : Warren Calwil, AIA; Roberta Darby Curtis, AIA; Sheila Horgan; Mariana Lishnevski, RA; Chris Marrion, PE; Guy 
Maxwell, AIA; William McShane, PE; Richard Murphy; Peter E. Olney, AIA; Michael Plottel, AIA; George Shelden, AIA; 
Kathleen Sullivan, AIA; Chief Jack Taddeo, FDNY; Ron Tagliagambe, RA; Hamir Vadi, RA; Chief James Wendling, FDNY 

Elevators 
Patrick McPartland, PE, Chair 

Members : Christopher Afuwah; John Beckmann; Jeff Blain; Tom Donovan; Jim Duffy; Jerry L. Frascelli; Caiman Goldstein, PE ; 
Hubert Hayes; Shaji Joseph; Andrei Peck; John Merkel, PE; Nicholas Montessano; Kevin Murphy; Robert Walsh 

Existing Buildings 

Michael Zenreich, RA, Chair 

Monty Mitchell, AIA, Co-Chair 

Members : George Belnavis; Warren Calwill, AIA; Marolyn Davenport; Elliott M. Glass; Alex Herrera; Ambrose A. Kelly, AIA; 
Ben Lavon, PE; Robert J. Marino; Elizabeth McTigue; William Neeley; Robert K. Otani, PE; Michael Plofker, AIA; BrianWhite; 
Maria Yao 

Fire Protection 

Chief Stanley Dawe, FDNY (retired), Chair 

Chief Howard Hill, FDNY (retired), Chair 

John Bower, Co-Chair 

Members : Glenn P. Corbett; Captain John Dunne, FDNY; Joseph P. Esposito; Chief Edward Ferrier, FDNY; James W. Guinan, PE; 
Michael P. Gimpel; Thomas Hill; David Jacoby, PE; Chief Thomas Jensen, FDNY; Frank Lorenz, PE; Chris Marrion, PE; Joseph 
McCormick Jr.; James McGowan; Jack J. Murphy; Nicholas Peluso, RA; Joseph Razza, PE; Chief Patrick Savage, FDNY; Frank J. 
Servello; Chief Ronald Spadafora, FDNY; Jack Torpey; Stephen Weinryb, AIA; John J. Whalen 

viii 2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



Materials 
Fruma Narov, PE, Chair 

Members : Carmine Attanasio; Casimir Bognacki, PE; Pablo Bruno; Sam Francis; Thomas Gesauldi; Raymond Heun, PE; Sheila 
Morgan; Jonathan Humble, AIA; Eve Lustig; Stephen Moro; Mathew Park, AIA; Carmela Pasqua; Michael Peragine; Steve 
Rosario; Michael Stallone; Siglinde Stern, RA; Robert Vecchio, PhD, PE; Judith Zuckerman 

Mechanical 
Chester T. Vogel, PE, Chair 

Members : Valentin Antohi, PE; Rock J. Antonios, PE; Edward T. Bosco, PE; Chief Richard Gallery, FDNY; Ernest Conrad, PE; 
Ellas F. Dagher, PE; Frank DeNicola; John L. Elder, PE; Joseph P. Esposito; Roger Firoozan; Robert F Germain, PE; James Hansen, 
PE; William Hayes; Kevin T. Lillis; John Maniscalco; Christopher O. McHugh, PE; Paul Parker; Daniel J. Pitiger; Abraham 
Pitsirilos; Ashok Raiji, PE; Michael Reese, PE; Chaya Romano, PE; Alfred Schroeder; Thomas A. Seery, PE; Mitchel W. Simpler, 
PE; William M. Singer, RA; John S. Solla, PE; David Tanenbaum, PE; Laurence Turner, PE; James D. VerEecke, PE; Saul Wechter; 
Donald J. Winston, PE; John Yacovone 

Plumbing 
Robert Benazzi, PE, Chair 

Members : Edward J. Angelone; Julius Ballanco; Robert J. Bellini ; John D. Callaghan; Thomas Cavallo; Jon J. Conway; Dom Diaz; 
Charles A. Dimino; Robert Greenburg; James Hart; John Hubbard; Kenneth E. Klein, PE; Garo Koumijian, CIPE; Aydin Kurun; 
Dan Lucarelli; Kush Makhijani; John D. McMullen; Ardash Meguerdichian; Anthony J. Montalto; Phillip F. Parisi Jr.; George W. 
Reilly; Robert J. Ricco Sr.; Anthony Rini; Stephen Rosario; Vincent Scialli; Richard A. Stamm, PE; Vic Struber; Richard Toder; 
Hershel Weiss, CIPE; Battalion Chief Brian M. White, FDNY; Leonard A. Williams; Frantz V. Woolley, PE 

Residential 
Herbert L. Mandel, AIA, Chair 
Gerard Vasisko, AIA, Co-Chair 

Members : Willis DeLaCour, AIA; Steven Faicco, RA; Michael S.Gelfand, AIA; Alan Goldstein, AIA; Battalion Chief Edwin 
Huberts, FDNY (retired); Edward Lauria, PE; Nicholas Lembo; David Mandl, AIA; James McCullar, FAIA; Battalion Chief John 
McEneaney, FDNY; James Muscianesi; Steven Pekofsky; Eftihia Tsitiridis, AIA; Richard Visconti, AIA; Susan Wright, AIA 

Structural / Foundation 

Irwin G. Cantor, PE, Chair 

Edward M. DePaola, PE, Co-Chair 

Members : Robert Abramson, PE; Hamid R Adib, PE; Robert Alperstein, PE; William F. Baker, PE; Tim Barnard, PE; Andrew 
Ciancia, PE; Frank M. Clemente, Jr., PhD, PE; Charles A. DeBenedittis; Brian A. Falconer, PE; Bill Faschan, PE; Satyendra K. 
Ghosh; Ramon Gilsanz, PE; Douglas P. Gonzalez, PE; Jacob Grossman, PE, FACI; Borys I. Hayda, PE; Kenneth A. Hiller, PE; 
Cawsie Jijina, PE; Robert Ledwith; Craig A Leech, PhD, PE; J. Butch Almazan Macutay, Jr., PE; Stephen S. Marchese, PE; Joel 
Moskowitz, PE; Michael Mota, PE; Andrew D. Mueller-Lust, PE; Sissy Nikolaou, PhD, PE; Allan Paul], PE; Ricardo M. Pittella, 
PE; Ahmad Rahimian, PhD, PE; Karl J. Rubenacker, PE; Raymond E. Sandiford, PE; Christopher Schneider; Jeffrey Smilow, PE; 
Robert Smilowitz, PE; Michael J. Squarzini, PE; George J. Tamaro, PE; Andrew Vanderveen; Bojidar Yanev, PE; Bernard Yostpille, 
PE; John Zils, PE; Rick Zottola, PE 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



ADVISORY eOiiSVfBTTEES 



Affordable Housing 

Bertha Lewis/Ismene Speliotis, Co-Chair 

Bernie Carr, Co-Chair 

Members: Vicki Been; Les Bluestone; Carlton Browne, RA; James Buckley, Don Cappocia; Howard Chin, RA; Willis Delacour; 
John Ferndell; Maureen Friar; Cindy Harden; David Hunter; Carol Lamberg; Brad Lander; Roland Lewis; Magnus Magnusson, 
AIA; Lucille McEwen; Constantino Sagonas; Petr Stand; Hugo Subotovsky, ATA; Philip Tugendrajch; John Tynan; Adam 
Wein stein. 

Banking and Insurance 
Peter Molinaro, Co-Chair 
James Maxwell, Co- Chair 

Members : Berdj Benlian; Joseph Charczenko; James Chin; Ralph Dorio; Dorothy Harris; Matthew Kamin, PE; Roberta Kotkin; 
John Murphy; Thomas Reilly 

Economic Development 

Maria Gotsh, Chair 
Patty Noonan, Co-Chair 

Members : Sandra Acosta; Bill Fair; Veronica Hackett; Susan L. Hayes; Damon Hemmerdinger; Melissa Konur; Irwin Lefkowitz, 
AIA; George Mejias; Richard Radliffe; Jeff Roseman; Frank J. Sciame; Mitch Simpler, PE; Scott Simpson, FAIA; Stanley Stark, 
AIA; Marilyn J. Taylor; Daniel R. Tishman; Elise Wagner; John F. Williams; Jane Woodcock; Alan Yood 

Labor 
Gary LaBarbera, Chair 

Members : Kuba Brown; James P. Conway; Martin Daly; Thomas Gesualdi; Dennis Ippolito; Howard Kelly; Robert Ledwith; Brian 
Mu.lli.ns; George W. Reilly; John Torpey; Sandy Vagelatos 

Risk & Security 

Brian Meacham, PhD, PE, Chair 

Gayle Katzman, PE, Co-Chair 

Mario Palmieri, RA, Co-Chair 

Members : George Bauries, PhD; Matt Bednar: Len Billet; Dan Brown; Andy Chin; Peter Ciotoli; Cheryl Coto; Dorothy Harris; 
David Harville; Gary Higbee: Gayle Katzman, PE; Stuart Klein; Tracy Leibowitz; May Ann Marrocolo; Lt. Cmdr. Luis Martinez, 
USCG; Mario Palmieri, RA; Ashok Patel, PE; Joseph Razza, PE; Brady Richards; Marco Shmerykowsky, PE 

Sustainability 
Deborah Taylor, AIA, Chair 

Members : Carlton Browne, RA; Scott Ceasar, PE; Colin Cheney; Earnest Conrad, PE; Randolph R. Croxton, FAIA; Michael 
Deane; Martin Dettling; Susan Drew, FAIA; Robert Fox, FAIA; Robin Guenthher, FAIA; Ashok Gupta; Mark Harari, PE; Adam 
Hinge, PE; Susan Kaplan, LEED AP; Henry C. Kita; John Kri.eb.le, RA; Joyce Lee, AIA; Murray Levi, AIA; Robert Licopoli, PE; 
Warren Liebold; James A. Luke, PE; Helena Meryman, PE; Dr. Albert Montague; Dan Nail, FAIA, PE; Thomas Outerbridge; 
Anthony O. Pereira; Thomas Scarola; William Stein, FAIA; Adrian Tuluca, FAIA; Anthony Woo, PE 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



NYC DEPARTMENT OF BUILDINGS 

Rosaura Almonte; Oscar Alvarez; Fatma Araer, PE; Susanne F. Arbitman; Phyllis Arnold; Fred Badalamenti; Jon Bosse; 
Irving Brofsky; Sharon Brown; Louis J. Bunk; James Colgate, RA; Arthur Cordes; Maurice Cosentino; Robert Daly; Makeda 
Davis; Danielle Delahanty; Michelle Depew; Shin Derkhidam; Dan Eschenasy, PE; Donald Franklin; Bonnie Gerard; Allison 
Ginsburg; Helen Gitelson; Adam Goold; Randi Gordon; Donald Gottfried; Danielle Grillo; Faizul Haque; Robert lulo; Benjamin 
Jones, PMP; Natarsia Joye; Kelly Kamen; Kristen Keller; Patricia Ketterer; Bethany Klein, PE; Patricia Knobloch, RA; Stephen 
Kramer; Marietta Kremmidas; Derek Lee, RA; John Lee, RA; Vivian Lieberman; Terrence Lin, PE; Timothy Lynch, PE; Andrea 
Maggio; Sam Marc ovici; Ronald McCain; SabrinaPanfilo; MarinettaPaone; Marzio Penzi; Alan Price; Sharmila Rampersaud; Eric 
Reid, PE; Gathfney Sanders; Sandy Santemaria; Michael Schneider; Mona Seghal; Chantal Senatus; Manher Shah, PE; 
Bashirahmed Shaikh, PE; Charles Shelhamer; Dehlia Shumway, PE; Sharima Singh; Constadino (Gus) Sirakis, PE; Deborah 
Taylor, AIA; Glanda Thomas; Lei Tian; Luis Torres, Valerie Tourso; Jr.; Laurence Turner, PE; Audrey Vishev; Harry Vyas; Keith 
Wen, RA; Peggy Willens; Dennis Zambotti 

NYC CITY COUNCIL STAFF 

Rick Arbelo; Benjamin Goodman; Jeffrey Haberman; Terzah Nasser; Ramon Martinez III, Kamilla Sjoden 

NYC LAW DEPARTMENT 

Stephen Ackerman; Martha Alfaro; Andrea Berger; Michael Cardozo; Carlos Cruz-Abrams; Kevin Ellis; Andrea Fastenberg; 
Spencer Fisher; Tal Golomb; Ashley Goodale; Olivia Goodman; Steven Goulden; William Heinzen; Jack Hupper; Stephen Louis; 
Phebe Macrae; Karen Miller; Keith Miloscia; Ines Nedelcovic; Michael Pastor; Melanie Perez; Jonathan Pinn; Natalie Prokop; 
Evan Sinclair; Rochelle Wakefield; Katherine Winningham 

OTHER GOVERNMENT AGENCIES 

New York City Department of City Planning; New York City Economic Development Corporation; New York City Department of 
Environmental Protection; New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene; New York City Department of Housing 
Preservation & Development; New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission; New York City School Construction 
Authority 

PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK & NEW JERSEY 
Casimir Bognacki, PE; Saroj Bhol, PE; Mario Palmeri, RA; Ray Sandiford, PE; Hamir Vadi, RA; Bernard Yostpille, PE 

CONSULTANTS 
AKRF, Inc; Curtis + Ginsberg Architects LLP; DeSimone Consulting Engineers, PLLC; Grubb & Ellis; Gruzen Samton Architects 
LLP; Irwin G. Cantor PE; M-E/Vogel Taylor Engineers; Otis Elevator Company; Severud Associates, Consulting Engineers PC; 
STV Incorporated in association with the NYC School Construction Authority; Turner Construction Company; Thornton 
Tomasetti; Weidlinger Associates Inc. 

COVER DESIGN 
Rachel Blandi 

COVER PHOTOGRAPH 

Andreanna Seymore 



The code development process involved the work of more than 400 individuals. Together with the Committee Chairs, the 
Department has made every effort to include all who participated. Any errors or omissions in the Acknowledgments are entirely un- 
intended. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 
GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



CHAPTER 1 ADMINISTRATION A-l 

Article 101 Genera! A-l 

Section 

101.1 Title A-l 

101.2 Intent A-l 

101.3 Codes A-l 

101.4 Effective Date A-l 

101.5 Definitions A-2 

Article 102 Applicability A-5 

Section 

102. 1 General A-5 

102.2 Other Laws A-5 

102.3 Separability A-5 

102.4 Existing Buildings A-5 

1 02.5 Grading of Lots A-5 

102.6 Appendices A-5 

102.7 References in Other Laws A-5 

Article 103 Duties and Powers of 

Commissioner of Buildings A-6 

Section 

103.1 Jurisdiction A-6 

103.2 Interpretation A-6 

103.3 Variations A-6 

103.4 Appeals A-6 

103.5 Seal; Judicial Notice A-6 

103.6 Proofs, Affidavits and Oaths A-6 

103.7 Cooperation of Other Departments A-6 

103.8 Matters Not Provided For A-6 

103.9 Additional Tests '. A-6 

103.10 Supporting Documentation for Materials A-6 

103.11 Applications and Permits A-7 

103.12 Identification A-7 

103.13 Right of Entry A-7 

103.14 Department Records A-7 

103.15 Insurance A-7 

103.16 Inspections of Completed Buildings, 

Structures, Signs, Service Equipment and 
Construction Machinery and Equipment. . . . A-7 



103.17 Certain Outside Work, Employment and 

Financial Interests of Department 

Employees Prohibited A-7 

103.18 Investigation of Complaints A-7 

103.19 Addition, Modification, and Deletion of 

Referenced Standards A-7 

103.20 Existing Rules Continued A-8 

Article 104 Construction Documents A-8 

Section 

104.1 General A-8 

104.2 Application for Approval of Construction 

Documents A-8 

104.3 Amended Construction Documents A- 10 

104.4 Place of Filing A-10 

104.5 Fees A-10 

104.6 Applicant A-10 

104.7 Submittal of Construction Documents A-10 

104.8 Applications A-l 1 

Article 105 Permits A-12 

Section 

105.1 General A-12 

105.2 Classification of Work Permits A- 13 

105.3 Separate Permits Required A- 13 

105.4 Work Exempt from Permit A-l 3 

105.5 Application for Permit A-15 

105.6 Fees A-15 

105.7 Time Limitation of Applications A-15 

105.8 Validity of Permit A-15 

105.9 Expiration A-15 

105.10 Suspension or Revocation of Permit A-15 

105.11 Posting of Permit A-15 

105.12 Conditions of Permit A-15 

Article 106 Asbestos Investigation A-16 

Section 

106.1 Asbestos Investigation A-16 

106.2 Demolition and Alteration of Buildings 

Constructed on or Before April 1, 1987 . . . A-16 

106.3 Asbestos Project , A-16 

106.4 Definitions A-16 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



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Article 107 Alteration or Demolition of Single 
Room Occupancy Multiple 
Dwellings A-16 

Section 

107.1 General A-16 

107.2 Definitions A-16 

107.3 Covered Categories of Work A-17 

107.4 Required Submittal Documents A-17 

107.5 Filing Process A-17 

107.6 Time Period for Acceptance or Rejection A-17 

107.7 Denial of Certification A-17 

107.8 Request for Stop-Work or Rescission A-18 

107.9 Effect of Denial or Rescission A-18 

Article 108 Pavement Plan A-18 

Section 

108.1 General A-18 

108.2 Pavement Plan Required A-18 

108.3 Improvement of Streets A-18 

Article 109 Fire Protection Plan A-18 

Section 

109.1 Fire Protection Plan Required for Covered 

Buildings A-18 

109.2 Covered Buildings A-18 

109.3 Scope A-18 

Article 110 Site Safety Plan A-19 

Section 

110.1 Site Safety Plan A-19 

110.2 Phased Site Safety Plans A-19 

Article 111 Temporary Structures and Uses . , A-19 
Section 

111.1 Genera] A-19 

11 1.2 Conformance A-20 

1 1 1.3 Termination of Approval A-20 

1 1 1 .4 Application Processing A-20 

11.1.5 Fees A-20 

Article 112 Fees A-20 

Section 

1 12.1 Payment of Fees A-20 

1 1 2.2 Schedule of Permit Fees A-20 

112.3 Building Permit Valuations A-20 

1 12.4 Work Comme.nci.ne; before Permit Issuance . . . A-20 



1 1 2.5 Related Fees A-20 

1 12.6 Refunds and Rebates A-20 

1 12.7 Inspection Fees . . . A-21 

112.8 Special Fees A-21 

1 12.9 Lien on Premises for Unpaid Fee or 

Other Charge A-21 

Article 113 Materials A-29 

Section 

113.1 General A-29 

1 13.2 Use of Materials A-29 

1 13.3 Approval Procedure A-30 

113.4 Labeling A-30 

Article 114 Approved Agencies A-30 

Section 

114.1 General A-30 

114.2 Written Evaluation by Approved Agency A-31 

114.3 Records A-31 

114.4 Re- Authorization of Approved Agencies A-31 

Article 115 Special Inspectors A-31 

Section 

115.1 General A-31 

1 15.2 Disqualification A-31 

115.3 Records A-31 

Article 116 Inspections and Sign-Off of 

Completed Work A-31 

Section 

116.1 General A-31 

116.2 Types of Inspections A-31 

1 16.3 Inspection Requests A-32 

1 16.4 Sign-off of Completed Work A-32 

116.5 Payment of Outstanding Penalties A-32 

116.6 List of Approved Inspection Agencies A-32 

1 .1.6.7 Fabricator Approval A-32 

Article 117 Places of Assembly A-33 

Section 

117.1 Place of Assembly Certificate of Operation . . . A-33 

1 17.2 Temporary Place of Assembly Certificate 

of Operation A-33 

1 17.3 Duration and Renewal of Certificate A-33 

1 17.4 Security Guards A-33 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



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Article 118 Certificates of Occupancy A-33 

Section 

1 18.1 General Provisions A-33 

1 18.2 New Buildings or Open Lots A-33 

1 18.3 Completed Buildings or Open Lots A-34 

1 18.4 Applications for Certificates of Occupancy . . . A-34 

118.5 Review of Applications for Certificates of 

Occupancy A-34 

118.6 Issuance of Certificate of Occupancy A-34 

1 18.7 Pavement Plan A-35 

1 18.8 Sanitary/Storm Water Drainage A-35 

1 18.9 Fire Protection Plan A-35 

1 1 8.10 Electrical Work A-35 

1 18.1 1 Certificates of Compliance A-35 

1 18.12 Place of Assembly Certificate of Operation . .A-35 

1 18.13 Certificates of Occupancy for Air-Inflated 

Structures, Air-Supported Structures, and 

Tents A-35 

1 1 8.14 Payment of Outstanding Penalties A-35 

118.15 Temporary Certificates of Occupancy A-35 

118.16 Amended Certificate of Occupancy A-35 

1 18.17 Revocation of Certificates of Occupancy .... A-36 

1 18.18 Record of Certificates A-36 

1 18.19 Posting of Certificates of Occupancy A-36 

Article 119 Service Utilities A-36 

Section 

1 19.1 Connection of Service Utilities A-36 

1 19.2 Temporary Connection A-36 

1 19.3 Authority to Disconnect Utility Service A-36 

CHAPTER 2 ENFORCEMENT A-37 

Article 201 General A-37 

Section 

201.1 Unlawful Acts A-37 

201.2 Classification of Violations A-37 

201 .3 Methods of Enforcement A-37 

201.4 Aggravating and Mitigating Factors A-38 

Article 202 Civil Penalties A-38 

Section 

202.1 Civil Penalties A-38 

202.2 Continuing Violations A-38 



Article 203 Criminal Penalties A-38 

Section 

203.1 Criminal Fines and Imprisonment A-38 

203.2 Continuing Violations A-38 

Article 204 Environmental Control Board A-38 

Section 

204.1 General A-38 

204.2 Order to Certify Correction A-38 

204.3 Failure of Proof , A-38 

204.4 Failure to Certify the Correction of a 

Violation A-39 

204.5 False Statements in Certification of 

Correction A-39 

204.6 Tax Lien A-39 

Article 205 Civil Judicial Proceedings A-39 

Section 

205.1 Civil Judicial Enforcement A-39 

Article 206 Criminal Judicial Proceedings A-40 

Section 

206.1 Criminal Judicial Enforcement A-40 

Article 207 Peremptory Orders A-41 

Section 

207.1 Contents and Service A-41 

207.2 Stop Work Orders A-41 

207.3 Public Nuisance A-41 

207.4 Vacate Order A-41 

207.5 Cease Use Orders for Service Equipment A-42 

Article 208 Commissioner's Request for 

Corrective Action A-42 

Section 

208.1 Commissioner's Request for 

Corrective Action A-42 

Article 209 Commissioner's Order to Correct 

Unlawful Use or Condition A-42 

Section 

209.1 General A-42 

209.2 Contents and Service of Orders A-43 

Article 210 Illegal Conversions A-43 

Section 

210.1 Illegal Residential Conversions A-43 



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210.2 Illegal Industrial or Manufacturing 

Conversions A-43 

Article 211 False Statements A-43 

Section 

2.11.1 False Statements in Certificates, Forms, 
Written Statements, Applications, 
Reports or Certificates of Correction A-43 

21 1 .2 Falsely Impersonating an Officer A-43 

Article 212 Abatement of Public Nuisance 
Caused by Certain Illegal 
Occupancies A-43 

Section 

212.1 Abatement of Public Nuisances Caused 

by Illegal Commercial or Manufacturing 

Occupancy in Residence Districts and 

Certain other Zoning Districts A-43 

212.2 Order of Closure A-43 

212.3 Notice of Hearing A-44 

21 2.4 Service of Notice of Hearing A-44 

212.5 Conduct of Hearing by Office of 

Administrative Trials and Hearings A-44 

212.6 Lack of Knowledge Not a Defense A-44 

212.7 Closure Not an Act of Possession A-44 

212.8 Posting of Order of Closure A-44 

212.9 Enforcement of Order of Closure A-44 

212.10 Rescission of Order of Closure A-44 

212.1 1 Violation of Closure Order A-45 

Article 213 Penalty for Work Without a 

Permit . . . . A-45 

Section 

213.1 Department Penalty for Work Without 

a Permit A-45 

213.2 Waiver A-45 

213.3 Payment of Penalty Required Before 

Issuance of Permit A-45 

21 3.4 Procedure A-45 

Article 214 Order to Seal, Secure and Close , . A-45 
Section 

214.1 Order to Seal, Secure and Close A-45 

214.2 Access to Sealed Premises A-46 

214.3 Additional Penalties for Harm or 

Injury from Violation of Order to Seal, 

Secure and Close A-46 



Article 215 Emergency Powers of the 

Commissioner A-47 

Section 

215.1 Emergency Work A-47 

215.2 Stopping Work and Securing Structures A-47 

215.3 Vacating Structures A-47 

215.4 Violations of Protective Measures During 

Construction or Demolition A-47 

215.5 Investigation of Accidents or Other 

Emergency Conditions A-47 

215.6 Closing Streets Temporarily A-47 

215.7 Recovery of Bodies from Wrecked 

Structures A-47 

215.8 Noncompliance with Orders; 

Execution of Work by Department A-47 

Article 216 Unsafe Buildings A-47 

Section 

216.1 Conditions Constituting an Unsafe 

Building or Structure A-47 

216.2 Record and Notice of Unsafe Building, 

Structure or Premises A-48 

216.3 Notice and Order A-48 

216.4 Method of Service A-48 

216.5 Owner Abatement of Unsafe or 

Dangerous Conditions A-48 

216.6 Survey A-48 

216.7 Court Proceeding A-48 

216.8 Execution of Precept A-49 

216.9 Return of Precept and 

Reimbursement of City A-49 

216.10 Judgment Lien A-50 

216.11 Tax Lien A-50 



CHAPTER 3 



MAINTENANCE OF 
BUILDINGS 



. A-51 



Article 301 General A-51 

Section 

301.1 Owner's Responsibilities A-51 

Article 302 Maintenance of Exterior Walls . . . A-51 
Section 

302.1 General A-51 

302.2 Inspection Requirements A-51 

302.3 Immediate Notice of Unsafe Condition A-51 

302.4 Report of Critical Examination A-51 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



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302.5 Repair of Exterior Walls, Unsafe Condition . . . A-51 

302.6 Safe Condition With a Repair and 

Maintenance Program A-5 1 

Article 303 Periodic Boiler Inspections A-52 

Section 

303.1 General A-52 

303.2 Annual Inspection A-52 

303.3 Inspection of High-Pressure Boilers A-52 

303.4 Staggered Inspection Cycles A-52 

303.5 Repair of Defects A-52 

303.6 Owner's Annual Statement A-52 

303.7 Report of Inspection A-52 

303.8 Removal or Discontinuance Notice A-52 

303.9 Additional Inspections A-52 

303.10 Fees A-52 

Article 304 Periodic Inspection of Elevators . . A-52 
Section 

304.1 General A-52 

304.2 Elevators, Escalators, Moving Walkways, 

Material Lifts, Vertical Reciprocating 
Conveyors (VRC) and Dumbwaiters A-52 

304.3 Chair Lifts and Stairway Chair Lifts A-52 

304.4 Amusement Devices A-52 

304.5 Frequency of Inspection and Testing A-52 

304.6 Inspection and Testing Process A-52 

304.7 Required Contract A-53 

304.8 Fees A-53 

304.9 Additional Inspections A-53 

Article 305 Retaining Walls A-53 

Section 

305.1 Retaining Walls, Partition Fences and 

Other Site Structures A-53 

305.2 Retaining Walls Required A-53 

305.3 Special Agreement A-53 

Article 306 Party Walls A-53 

Section 

306.1 Responsibility for Party Walls A-53 

Article 307 Workplace Exits A-54 

Section 

307.1 Obstruction of Workplace Exits Prohibited . . . A-54 

307.2 Unannounced Inspections of 

Workplaces by Fire Department A-54 



307.3 Retaliation A-54 

CHAPTER 4 LICENSING AND REGISTRATION 
OF BUSINESSES, TRADES AND 
OCCUPATIONS ENGAGED IN 
BUILDING WORK A-55 

Article 401 General A-55 

Section 

401.1 Application A-55 

401.2 General Requirements for All Licenses A-55 

401.3 Definitions A-55 

401.4 Requirement of License A-56 

401.5 Application and Conditions A-56 

401.6 Qualifications of Applicant A-56 

401.7 Examination of Applicant A-57 

401 .8 Investigation of Applicant A-57 

401 .9 Insurance A-57 

401.10 Issuance of License, Plate and/or Seal, 

where Applicable, or Certificate of 
Competence A-57 

401.1 1 Term of License A-57 

401.12 Renewal of License or Certificate of 

Competence A-57 

401.13 Reinstatement A-57 

401.14 Continuing Education A-57 

401.15 Schedule of Fees A-57 

401.16 Restrictions on Use of License A-59 

401.17 Use on Behalf of a Business A-59 

401.18 New York City Location Required A-59 

401.19 Suspension or Revocation of 

License or Certificate of Competence A-59 

401 .20 Cooperation Required A-60 

401.21 Judicial Review of Determinations A-60 

Article 402 Site Safety Manager 

Certificate A-60 

Section 

402.1 Certificate Required A-60 

402.2 Qualifications A-60 

Article 403 Site Safety Coordinator 

Certificate A-61 

Section 

403.1 Certificate Required A-61 

403.2 Qualifications A-61 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



xvn 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



Article 404 Rigger License A-61 

Section 

404.1 Rigger License Required A-61 

404.2 Classification A-61 

404.3 Additional Qualifications A-61 

404.4 Additional Requirements A-62 

Article 405 Hoisting Machine Operator 

License A-62 

Section 

405.1 Hoisting Machine Operator 

License Required A-62 

405.2 Classification A-62 

405.3 Additional Qualifications A-62 

405.4 Fitness to Perform Work A-63 

405.5 Insurance Exemption A-63 

Article 406 Concrete Testing 

Laboratory License A-63 

Section 

406.1 Concrete Testing Laboratory 

License Required A-63 

406.2 Qualifications A-63 

406.3 Additional Requirements A-63 

406.4 No Examination Required A-63 

Article 407 Welder License A-63 

Section 

407.1 Welder License Required A-63 

407.2 Qualifications A-63 

407.3 Fitness to Perform Work A-63 

407.4 Insurance Exemption A-63 

Article 408 Master Plumber License A-63 

Section 

408.1 Master Plumber License Required A-63 

408.2 Seal A-63 

408.3 Additional Qualifications A-63 

408.4 Certificate of Competence and License, 

Plate and/or Seal A-64 

408.5 Surrender of License, Plate or Seal A-65 

408.6 Master Plumber Business A-65 

Article 409 Journeyman Plumber 

Registration A-66 

Section 

409.1 Journeyman Plumber Registration; 

Additional Qualifications A-66 



409.2 Experience A-66 

409.3 Registration Need Not Be Renewed A-66 

409.4 Registration Card A-66 

Article 410 Master Fire Suppression Piping 

Contractor License A-66 

Section 

410.1 Master Fire Suppression Piping 

Contractor License Required A-66 

410.2 Seal A-66 

410.3 Classification A-66 

410.4 Additional Qualifications A-66 

410.5 Certificate of Competence and 

License, Plate and/or Seal A-67 

410.6 Waiver of Examinations A-68 

410.7 Surrender of License, Plate and/or Seal A-68 

410.8 Master Fire Suppression Piping 

Contractor Business Required A-68 

Article 411 Journeyman Fire Suppression Piping 

Installer Registration A-69 

Section 

411.1 Journeyman Fire Suppression Piping 

Installer Registration; Additional 

Qualifications A-69 

411.2 Experience A-69 

411.3 No Required Expiration, Renewal or 

Reissuance A-69 

411.4 Required Statement A-69 

Article 412 Oil-Burning Equipment Installer 

License A-69 

Section 

412.1 Oil-Burning Equipment Installer 

License Required A-69 

412.2 Classifications A-69 

412.3 Qualifications A-69 

412.4 Fitness to Perform Work A-70 

Article 413 High-Pressure Boiler Operating 

Engineer License A-70 

Section 

413.1 High -Pressure Boiler Operating 

Engineer License Required A-70 

413.2 Qualifications A-70 

413.3 Fitness to Perform Work A-70 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



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Article 414 Portable High-Pressure Boiler 

Operating Engineer License A-70 

Section 

414.1 Portable High-Pressure Boiler 

Operating Engineer License Required A-70 

414.2 Qualifications A-70 

414.3 Fitness to Perform Work A-71 

Article 415 Sign Hanger License A-71 

Section 

415.1 Sign Hanger License Required A-71 

415.2 Exemptions A-71 

415.3 Classification A-71 

415.4 Additional Qualifications A-71 

415.5 Additional Requirements A-71 

41 5.6 Fitness to Perform Work A-71 

Article 416 Filing Representative Registration A-71 
Section 

416.1 Filing Representative Registration Required . . A-71 

416.2 Exemptions A-71 

416.3 Rules A-72 



CHAPTER 5 



MISCELLANEOUS 
PROVISIONS. 



A-77 



Article 417 
Section 



Boards A-72 



417.1 Plumbing and Fire Suppression 

Piping Contractor License Board . 



A-72 



Article 418 General Contractor Registration . A-72 

Section 

41 8.1 Requirement of Registration A-72 

418.2 Unlawful Use of General Contractor Title A-73 

418.3 Application Requirements A-73 

418.4 Warranties A-73 

418.5 Duties and Responsibilities A-73 

418.6 Posting of Disciplinary Actions A-73 

Article 419 Seizure and Forfeiture A-73 

Section 

419.1 General A-73 

419.2 Definitions A-73 

419.3 Seizure Procedure A-74 

419.4 Abandoned Property A-74 

419.5 Combined Hearings A-74 

419.6 Separate Hearings A-74 

419.7 Forfeiture Procedure A-75 



Article 501 Maintenance Permit for 

Outdoor Signs A-77 

Section 

501.1 Permit Required A-77 

501.2 Application A-77 

501.3 Permit Expiration A-77 

501.4 Civil Penalties A-77 

501.5 Construction A-77 

501 .6 Exemption A-77 

Article 502 Outdoor Advertising 

Companies A-78 

Section 

502.1 Definitions A-78 

502.2 Registration of Outdoor Advertising 

Companies A-78 

502.3 Revocation or Suspension or Registration .... A-78 

502.4 Reporting Requirement A-79 

502.5 Display of Name and Registration 

Number of Outdoor Advertising 

Company A-79 

502.6 Criminal and Civil Penalties A-79 

502.7 Signs under Control of Unregistered 

Outdoor Advertising Company Are 

Public Nuisance A-80 

502.8 Franchise or Concession Disqualification A-80 

502.9 Investigations A-80 

Article 503 Nuisance Abatement for 

Illegal Signs A-80 

Section 

503.1 General A-80 

503.2 Notice A-80 

503.3 Hearing A-80 

503.4 Posting of Order A-80 

503.5 Enforcement of Order A-81 

503.6 Rescission of Order A-81 

503.7 Costs A-81 

503.8 Lien A-81 

503.9 Storage and Disposal A-81 

503.10 Definitions A-81 

503.1 1 Review of Order A-81 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



CHAPTER 1 

ADMINISTRATION 



ARTICLE 101 
GENERAL 

§28401.1 Title. The provisions of this chapter shall apply to 
the administration of the codes set forth in this title and the 
1968 building code. The codes set forth in this title shall be 
known and may be cited as the "New York city construction 
codes" and shall consist of: 

The New York city plumbing code. 

The New York city building code. 

The New York city mechanical code. 

The New York city fuel gas code. 

§28-101.2 Intent The purpose of this code is to provide rea- 
sonable minimum requirements and standards, based upon 
current scientific and engineering knowledge, experience and 
techniques, and the utilization of modern machinery, equip- 
ment, materials, and forms and methods of construction, for the 
regulation of building construction in the city of New York in 
the interest of public safety, health and welfare, and with due 
regard for building construction and maintenance costs. 

§28-1013 Codes. Any reference in this title to "this code" or 
"the code" shall be deemed to be a reference to this title and all 
of the codes comprising the New York city construction codes 
unless the context or subject matter requires otherwise. When- 
ever a section or subsection of this code is cited or referred to, 
subordinate consecutively numbered sections and subsections 
of the cited provision are deemed to be included in such refer- 
ence unless the context or subject matter requires otherwise. 

§28-101.4 Effective date. Except as otherwise provided in 
sections 28-101.4.1, 28-101.4.2, 28-101.4.3 and 28-101. 4.4 on 
and after the effective date of this code, all work shall be per- 
formed in accordance with the provisions of this code. 

§28-101.4.1 Permit issued or work commenced prior to 
effective date. If a permit for work was issued prior to the 
effective date of this code or, if no permit was necessary, 
work was commenced prior to such effective date, all of the 
provisions of chapter 1 of title 27 of the administrative code 
as heretofore in effect shall apply to such work. 

§28-101.4.2- Applications for construction document 
approval submitted prior to and within twelve months 
after the effective date of this code. Any work for which an 
application for construction document approval was sub- 
mitted to the department prior to the effective date of this 
code and not thereafter abandoned, or for which an applica- 
tion for construction document approval is submitted to the 
department within a period of twelve months after such date 
may, at the option of the owner, be performed in its entirety 
in accordance with the provisions of this code, or in accor- 
dance with the 1 968 building code, provided that such work 
is commenced within twelve months after the date of issu- 
ance of a permit therefore and is diligently carried on to 
completion. The commissioner may, for good cause, extend 



the time period for commencement of the work beyond 12 
months. Where the owner elects to perform the work in 
compliance with the 1968 building code, the following con- 
ditions shall apply: 

1. Except as otherwise limited by the commissioner, 
administration and enforcement of the 1968 building 
code shall be in accordance with this code, including 
but not limited to approval of construction docu- 
ments, issuance of permits and certificates of occu- 
pancy, tests and inspections, penalties and 
enforcement. Controlled inspections and semi-con- 
trolled inspections as referenced in the 1968 building 
code shall be deemed to be special inspections and 
shall comply with the provisions of this code relating 
to special inspections. Materials regulated in their use 
by the 1968 building code shall be subject to applica- 
ble provisions of this code. 

2. Safety of public and property during construction 
operations including demolition shall be governed by 
chapter 33 of the New York city building code. 

§28-101.4.3 Optional use of the 1968 building code for 
alteration of existing buildings. At the option of the owner, 
and subject to appropriate approval, a permit may be issued 
after the effective date of this code authorizing work on 
existing buildings constructed in accordance with the 1968 
building code or with the building laws in effect prior to the 
effective date of the 1 968 building code, to be performed in 
accordance with the requirements and standards set forth in 
the 1968 building code, subject to the following conditions: 

1. The installation and alteration of all appliances, 
equipment and systems regulated by the New York 
city fuel gas code, the New York city plumbing code 
and the New York city mechanical code shall be gov- 
erned by applicable provisions of those codes relating 
to new and existing installations. 

2. The installation, alteration and additions to fire pro- 
tection systems regulated by Chapter 9 of the New 
York city building code, including a change of occu- 
pancy group that would require such systems, shall be 
governed by applicable provisions of such chapter 
and related referenced standards. With respect to 
existing buildings, references to occupancy classifi- 
cations in Chapter 9 of the New York city building 
code shall be deemed to refer to the equivalent occu- 
pancy classification of the 1968 building code. 

3. The installation and alteration of elevators, convey- 
ors, and amusement rides shall be governed by chap- 
ter 30, appendix K of the New York city building code 
and the rules of the department. 

4. Safety of public and property during construction 
operations including demolition shall be governed by 
chapter 33 of the New York city building code. 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



A-1 



ADMINISTRATION 



5. Where the estimated cost of such alteration in any 
twelve-month period exceeds fifty percent of the cost 
of replacement of the building or where there is a 
change in the main use or dominant occupancy of the 
building, facilities for people with physical disabili- 
ties shall be provided in accordance with chapter 1 1 of 
the New York city building code as if the building 
were hereafter erected. 

6. Encroachments onto the public right of way shall be 
governed by chapter 32 of the New York city building 
code. 

7. Except as otherwise limited by the commissioner, 
administration and enforcement of the 1968 building 
code shall be in accordance with this code, including 
but not limited to approval of construction docu- 
ments, issuance of permits and certificates of occu- 
pancy, tests and inspections, penalties and 
enforcement. Controlled inspections and semi-con- 
trolled inspections as referenced in the 1968 building 
code shall be deemed to be special inspections and 
shall comply with the provisions of this code relating 
to special inspections. Materials regulated in their use 
by the 1968 building code shall be subject to applica- 
ble provisions of this code. 

§28-101.4.4 Alterations that reduce the fire safety or 
structural safety of existing buildings. Notwithstanding 
any other provision of this code, where the alteration of any 
existing building in accordance with a provision of this code 
would result in a reduction of the fire safety or structural 
safety of such building, relevant provisions of the 1968 
building code shall apply to such alteration unless there is 
full compliance with those provisions of this code that 
would mitigate or offset such reduction of fire protection or 
structural safety. 

§28-101.5 Definitions. As used in this chapter and elsewhere 
in this title, the following terms shall have the following mean- 
ings unless the context or subject matter requires otherwise; 

1968 BUILDING CODE. Chapter 1 of title 27 of the adminis- 
trative code as hereafter in effect. 

ACCEPTANCE OR ACCEPTED. In reference to construc- 
tion documents, the endorsement by the department of con- 
struction documents with less than full examination by the 
department based on the professional certification of a regis- 
tered design professional in accordance with a program estab- 
lished by the commissioner. 

ADDITION. An alteration of a building in existence that 
increases its exterior dimensions including but not limited to an 
extension or increase in floor area or height (including an 
increase in height or area resulting from the construction of a 
rooftop structure for mechanical equipment) of the building. 

ADMINISTRATIVE CODE. The administrative code of the 
city of New York. 

ALTERATION. Any construction, addition, change of use or 
occupancy, or renovation to a building or structure in existence. 

APPROVAL OR APPROVED. In reference to construction 
documents, the determination by the department after full 



examination that submitted construction documents comply 
with this code and other applicable laws and rules. In reference 
to materials, the determination by the commissioner that mate- 
rial is acceptable for its intended use. 

APPROVED AGENCY. An established and recognized 
agency, or other qualified person, regularly engaged in con- 
ducting tests or furnishing inspection services, when approved 
pursuant to department rules as qualified to perform or witness 
identified testing or inspection services. 

APPROVED FABRICATOR. An established and qualified 
person, firm or corporation approved by the commissioner to 
custom manufacture or build products or assemblies regulated 
by this code. 

APPROVED INSPECTION AGENCY. An approved 
agency that is approved by the department as qualified to per- 
form one or more of the inspections required by this code. 

APPROVED TESTING AGENCY. An approved agency that 
is approved by the department as qualified to test and evaluate 
the performance of one or more of the materials regulated in 
their use by this code. Such term shall include, when approved 
pursuant to department rules, a third party testing or certifica- 
tion agency, evaluation agency, testing laboratory, testing ser- 
vice or other entity concerned with product evaluation. 

ARCHITECT. A person licensed and registered to practice 
the profession of architecture under the education law of the 
state of New York. 

BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or 
sheltering any use or occupancy. The term shall be construed as 
if followed by the phrase "structure, premises, lot or part 
thereof unless otherwise indicated by the text. 

CHARTER. The New York city charter. 

CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE. A certificate stating 
that materials meet specified standards or that work was done 
in compliance with approved construction documents and 
other applicable provisions of law and with respect to specified 
service equipment, a certificate issued by the department 
authorizing the operation of such equipment. 

CITY. The city of New York. 

COMMISSIONER. The commissioner of buildings of the 
city of New York, or his or her duly authorized representative. 

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. Plans and specifica- 
tions and other written, graphic and pictorial documents, pre- 
pared or assembled for describing the design, location and 
physical characteristics of the elements of the project necessary 
for obtaining a building permit. 

DEFERRED SUBMITTAL. Those portions of the design 
that are not submitted at the time of the application for con- 
struction document approval and that are to be submitted to the 
department within a specified period of time after the issuance 
of a permit. 

DEMOLITION. Full or partial demolition. 

DEMOLITION, FULL: The dismantling, razing, or removal 
of all of a building or structure, including all operations inci- 
dental thereto. 



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ADMINISTRATION 



DEMOLITION, PARTIAL: The dismantling, razing, or 
removal of structural members, floors, interior bearing walls, 
and/or exterior walls or portions thereof, including all opera- 
tions incidental thereto. 

DEPARTMENT. The department of buildings of the city of 
New York. 

ENGINEER. A person licensed and registered to practice the 
profession of engineering under the education law of the state 
of New York. 

ENLARGEMENT. An addition. 

EXISTING BUILDING OR STRUCTURE, (i) A building 
or structure in existence prior to the effective date of this code 
or one for which a lawful building permit was issued for the 
erection of such building or structure prior to the effective date 
of this code, (ii) A building or structure erected in accordance 
with the 1968 building code under a lawful building permit 
issued for the erection of such building or structure after the 
effective date of this code in accordance with section 
28-101.4.2 of this code. 

FABRICATED ITEM. Products and assemblies regulated by 
this code, that are custom manufactured, or built prior to their 
incorporation into the work at the job site. Fabricated items 
shall not include listed, labeled or approved products or assem- 
blies. 

FIRE PROTECTION PLAN. A report containing a narrative 
description of the life and fire safety systems and evacuation 
system for a structure. 

HEREAFTER. On or after the effective date of this code. 

HERETOFORE. Before the effective date of this code. 

INSPECTION CERTIFICATE. Identification applied to a 
product by an approved agency containing the name of the 
manufacturer, the function and performance characteristics, 
and the name and identification of the approved agency that 
indicates that the product or material has been inspected and 
evaluated by such approved agency. An inspection certificate 
shall also mean a certificate issued by the department upon sat- 
isfactory completion of an inspection or test. 

LABEL. Identification applied to material by the manufac- 
turer or an approved agency that contains the name of the man- 
ufacturer, the function and performance characteristics of the 
material, and the name and identification of the approved 
agency that conducted the evaluation of a representative sam- 
ple of such material. 

LABELED. Material to which has been attached a label, sym- 
bol or other identifying mark of the manufacturer that contains 
the name of the manufacturer, the function and performance 
characteristics of the product or material, and the name and 
identification of an approved agency and that indicates that a 
representative sample of the material has been tested and evalu- 
ated by an approved agency for compliance with nationally 
recognized standards or tests to determine suitable usage in a 
specified manner. 



LAND SURVEYOR. A person licensed and registered to 
practice the profession of land surveying under the education 
law of the state of New York. 

LISTED. Material identified in a list published by an approved 
agency that maintains periodic inspection of production of 
listed material or periodic evaluation services and whose list- 
ing states either that the material meets identified nationally 
recognized standards or has been tested and found suitable for 
a specified purpose when installed in accordance with the man- 
ufacturer's installation instructions. 

LETTER OF COMPLETION. A document issued by the 
department indicating that permitted work has been completed, 
including satisfactory final inspection in accordance with this 
code. A letter of completion is issued only in circumstances 
where a certificate of occupancy is not required upon comple- 
tion of the permitted work. 

LIMITED PLUMBING ALTERATIONS. An alteration to a 
plumbing system where the total cost of the proposed work in 
the building does not exceed twenty five thousand dollars in 
any 12 month period and the proposed work is limited to the 
following: 

1. The installation of new plumbing or gas piping, or the 
rerouting of existing plumbing or gas piping; 

2. The addition of not more than two plumbing fixtures or 
fixture connections; 

3. The mounting of new plumbing fixtures on existing 
roughings, other than the mere replacement of existing 
fixtures constituting a minor alteration or ordinary repair 
under this code; and 

4. The installation or replacement of backflow preventers. 

LIMITED SPRINKLER ALTERATIONS. An alteration to 
an existing sprinkler system where the total cost of the pro- 
posed work in the building does not exceed twenty five thou- 
sand dollars in any 12-month period and the proposed work is 
limited to the following: 

1. Replacement of parts required for the operation of a 
sprinkler system; 

2. Replacement of sprinkler heads, provided that orifice 
sizes, type and deflector positions remain the same; 

3. Changes that do not alter the type of sprinkler system; 

4. Relocation of piping that does not affect the operation of 
the sprinkler system; and 

5. Rearrangement of not more than 20 sprinkler heads in 
areas presently sprinklered in light hazard occupancy, as 
such term is defined in reference standards, which will 
remain in such occupancy, provided that the addition of 
sprinkler heads in existing systems shall be limited to 
light hazard occupancies in rooms or spaces not exceed- 
ing 800 square feet (74.3 m 2 ) requiring only one head 
with the maximum spacing allowed by the code, and pro- 
vided that the number of new heads does not exceed a 
total of five. 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



A-3 



ADMINISTRATION 



LIMITED STANDPIPE ALTERATIONS. An alteration to 
an existing standpipe system where the total cost of the pro- 
posed work in the building does not exceed twenty five thou- 
sand dollars in any 12-month period and the proposed work is 
limited to the following: 

1. Replacement of parts required for the operation of a 
combined standpipe system; and 

2. Relocation of combined standpipe auxiliary hose 
sources and cabinets within 10 feet (3048 mm) of their 
original location, provided that the existing covered area 
is not affected and provided that such relocation com- 
plies with this code for a new installation. 

MAIN USE OR DOMINANT OCCUPANCY (OF A 
BUILDING). Refers to a single occupancy classification 
assigned to a structure by the department according to such 
structure's main use or dominant occupancy. 

MANUFACTURER'S DESIGNATION. Identification 
applied to material by the manufacturer indicating that the 
material complies with a specified standard or set of rules. 

MARK. Identification applied to a product by the manufac- 
turer indicating the name of the manufacturer and the function 
of a product or material. 

MATERIALS. Materials, assemblies, appliances, equipment, 
devices, systems, products and methods of construction regu- 
lated in their use by this code or regulated in their use by the 
1968 building code. 

OCCUPANCY. The purpose or activity for which a building 
or space is used or is designed, arranged or intended to be used. 

OWNER. Any person, agent, firm, partnership, corporation or 
other legal entity having a legal or equitable interest in, or con- 
trol of the premises. 

PARTY WALL. A fire division on an interior lot line common 
to two adjoining buildings. 

PERMIT. An official document or certificate issued by the 
commissioner that authorizes performance of specified work 
or activity. 

PERSON. An individual, partnership, corporation, or other 
legal entity. 

PREMISES. Land, improvements thereon, or any part 
thereof. 

PROFESSIONAL CERTIFICATION. A personal verifica- 
tion of a registered design professional made under such pro- 
fessional's signature and seal that accompanies construction 
documents and other submittal documents filed with the 
department and that attests that such documents do not contain 
false information and are in compliance with all applicable pro- 
visions of law. 

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. An architect 
or engineer. 

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL OF 
RECORD. The registered design professional who prepared 
or supervised the preparation of applicable construction docu- 
ments filed with the department. 



REQUIRED. Shall mean required by the provisions of this 
code. 

RETAINING WALL. A wall designed to prevent the lateral 
displacement of soil or other materials. $ 

SERVICE EQUIPMENT. Equipment or systems, and all 
components thereof, that provide sanitation, power, light, heat, 
ventilation, air conditioning, refuse disposal, fire-fighting, 
transportation or other facilities for buildings. 

SIGN-OFF. The issuance by the department of a letter of com- 
pletion or certificate of occupancy for permitted work indicat- 
ing the satisfactory completion of all required inspections and 
receipt by the department of all required submittal documents. 

SINGLE ROOM OCCUPANCY MULTIPLE DWELL- 
ING. See section 28-107.2. 

SPECIAL INSPECTION. Inspection of selected materials, 
equipment, installation, fabrication, erection or placement of 
components and connections, to ensure compliance with 
approved construction documents and referenced standards as 
required by chapter 17 of the New York city building code or 
elsewhere in this code or its referenced standards. 

SPECIAL INSPECTOR. An individual having required 
qualifications and authorized by the department to perform or 
witness particular special inspections required by this code or 
by the rules of the department, including but not limited to a 
qualified registered design professional so authorized. 

SUPERINTENDENT OF CONSTRUCTION (CON- 
STRUCTION SUPERINTENDENT). An individual, when 
authorized pursuant to department rules as qualified to superin- 
tend permitted construction work on behalf of the owner. 

STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed, including 
among others: buildings, stadia, tents, reviewing stands, plat- 
forms, stagings, observation towers, radio towers, tanks, tres- 
tles, open sheds, shelters, fences, and display signs. 

SUBMITTAL DOCUMENTS. Completed application 
forms, construction documents, reports and any other required 
documents submitted in compliance with this code or other 
applicable laws and rules including but not limited to special 
inspection reports, certifications or approvals from other gov- 
ernmental agencies and other data required by this code or by 
the department. 

USE (USED). The purpose for which a building, structure, or 
space is occupied or utilized, unless otherwise indicated by the 
text. Use (used) shall be construed as if followed by the words 
"or is intended, arranged, or designed to be used." 

UTILITY COMPANY OR PUBLIC UTILITY COM- 
PANY. The term shall be construed to have the same meaning 
as that contained in section two of the New York state public 
service law. 

UTILITY CORPORATION OR PUBLIC UTILITY COR- 
PORATION. The term shall be construed to have the same 
meaning as that contained in section two of the New York state 
public service law. 

WORK NOT CONSTITUTING MINOR ALTERATIONS 
OR ORDINARY REPAIRS. See section 28-105.4.2.1. 



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ADMINISTRATION 



WRITING (WRITTEN). The term shall be construed to 
include handwriting, typewriting, printing, photo-offset, or 
any other form of reproduction in legible symbols or charac- 
ters, including, in the discretion of the commissioner, elec- 
tronic media. 

WRITTEN NOTICE. A notification in writing delivered by 
hand to the person or parties intended, or delivered at or sent by 
mail or in the discretion of the commissioner by electronic 
media to the last address known to the party giving such notice. 

ZONING RESOLUTION. The zoning resolution of the city 
of New York, adopted December fifteenth, nineteen hundred 
sixty-one, including all amendments thereto. 



ARTICLE 102 
APPLICABILITY 

§28-102.1 General. Where, in any specific case, different sec- 
tions of this code specify different materials, methods of con- 
struction or other requirements, the most restrictive shall 
govern. Where a general requirement conflicts with a specific 
requirement, the specific requirement shall govern. Where 
British and metric units of measurement conflict, the British 
units shall govern. 

§28-102.2 Other laws. The provisions of this code do not pre- 
sumptively provide for matters that are contained in the charter, 
the labor law, the multiple dwelling law, the zoning resolution, 
or the general city law. Where there is conflict or inconsistency 
between the requirements of this code and other applicable 
laws and rules, unless otherwise required, such conflict shall be 
resolved in favor of the more restrictive requirement. 

§28-102.3 Separability. If any clause, sentence, paragraph, 
section or part of this code shall be adjudged to be invalid, such 
judgment shall not affect, impair or invalidate the remainder 
thereof, but shall be confined in its operation to the clause, sen- 
tence, paragraph, or part thereof directly involved in the contro- 
versy in which such judgment shall have been rendered. 

§28-102.4 Existing buildings. The lawful use or occupancy of 
any existing building or structure, including the use of any ser- 
vice equipment therein, may be continued unless a retroactive 
change is specifically required by the provisions of this code or 
other applicable laws or rules. The continuation of the unlawful 
use or occupancy of a building or structure after the effective 
date of this code contrary to the provisions of this code or other 
applicable law or rule shall be a violation of this code. 

§28-102.4.1 Existing buildings must comply with the 
applicable retroactive requirements of the 1968 building 
code* Existing buildings must comply with the applicable 
retroactive requirements of the 1968 building code includ- 
ing those requiring the installation of fire safety and build- 
ing safety systems and the filing of verifying reports with 
the department of such installations by the dates specified in 
section 27-228.5 of the administrative code or in other 
applicable provisions of such 1968 building code. A viola- 
tion of such provisions shall be a violation of this code. 

§28-102.4.2 Change in use or occupancy. Except as other- 
wise provided in sections 28-101.4.1, 28-101.4.2, 



28-101.4.3 or 28-101.4.4 changes in the use or occupancy 
of any building or structure made after the effective date of 
this code shall comply with the provisions of this code. Any 
changes made in the use or occupancy of a building or struc- 
ture not in compliance with this code shall be prohibited and 
shall be a violation of this code. After a change in use or 
occupancy has been made in a building, the re-establish- 
ment of a prior use or occupancy that would not be lawful in 
a new building of the same construction class shall be pro- 
hibited unless and until all the applicable provisions of this 
code and other applicable laws and rules for such reestab- 
lished use or occupancy shall have been complied with. A 
change from a use prohibited by the provisions of this code, 
but which was permitted prior to the effective date of this 
code, to another use prohibited by the provisions of this 
code shall be deemed a violation of this code. 

§28-102.4.3 Alteration of existing structures. Except as 
otherwise provided in sections 28-101.4.1, 28-101.4.2, 
28-101 .4.3 and 28-101.4.4, existing structures altered after 
the effective date of this code shall comply with the provi- 
sions of this code. In accordance with subdivision eleven of 
section three of the multiple dwelling law and article 4 of 
subchapter 1 of the 1 968 building code, at the option of the 
owner, multiple dwellings erected prior to December 6, 
1969 may be altered and buildings erected prior to Decem- 
ber 6, 1969 may be converted to multiple dwellings in 
accordance with applicable provisions of the multiple 
dwelling law and the building laws and regulations in effect 
prior to December 6, 1968, provided the general safety and 
public welfare are not thereby endangered. 

§28-102.4.4 Occupancy classifications. With regard to 
existing buildings, references to occupancy classifications 
in this code shall be deemed to refer to the equivalent occu- 
pancy classification under the 1968 building code. 

§28-102.5 Grading of lots. The regulation of lots, in confor- 
mity with the street on which they are situated, shall be calcu- 
lated at curb level. Where a lot has more than one street 
frontage, and is so situated that the street frontages intersect, 
the curb of the longest street frontage shall be used. When the 
street frontages do not intersect, the curb along each frontage 
shall be used to one-half the depth of the lot between street 
frontages. A lot as referred to in this section 28-102.5 shall 
mean a parcel of land twenty-five feet by one hundred feet, or 
less, in one ownership whether adjacent land be in the same or 
other ownership; but, for this purpose, no land in the same own- 
ership may be divided into lots smaller than twenty-five feet by 
one hundred feet. 

§28-102.6 Appendices. All enacted appendices are a part of 
the provisions of this code. 

§28-102.7 References in other laws. References to provisions 
of the building code of the city of New York or to chapter 1 of 
title 27 of the administrative code in other laws shall be deemed 
to refer to equivalent provisions of the 1 968 building code or 
the New York city construction codes as the context in which 
such references appear may require. 



NEW YORK CSTY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



A-5 



ADMINISTRATION 



ARTICLE 103 

DUTIES AND POWERS OF COMMISSIONER OF 

BUILDINGS 

§28-103.1 Jurisdiction. This code shall be enforced by the 
commissioner of buildings, pursuant to the provisions of sec- 
tion six hundred forty-three of the New York city charter. How- 
ever, the commissioner of small business services may also 
enforce all of the provisions of this code with respect to build- 
ings under the jurisdiction of the department of small business 
services and the fire commissioner may also enforce all the 
provisions of this code relating to: 

.1 . The approved number of persons in places of assembly 
(overcrowding); 

2. Obstruction of aisles, corridors, and exits; 

3. The posting and availability for inspection of certificates 
of occupancy or other authorization of lawful occu- 
pancy, certificates of compliance and place of assembly 
certificates of operation; 

4. The maintenance of fire, smoke and carbon monoxide 
detection and alarm systems, fire extinguishing systems, 
refrigerating systems, storage tanks and auxiliary stor- 
age tanks for oil burning equipment, exit signs and path 
markings, and any fire or life safety system, equipment 
or device intended for use by fire fighting personnel or 
whose use or operation is subject to the New York city 
fire code or other law or rule enforced by the New York 
city fire department, and any related installation and 
signage; and 

5. The installation and testing of fire alarm systems, 
smoke-detecting and carbon monoxide detecting 
devices that are interconnected with a fire alarm system 
or monitored by a central station, and fire extinguishing 
systems for commercial cooking appliances. 

6. Fire fighting equipment, access to and within premises 
upon or in which construction and demolition work is 
being conducted, and the conduct of all construction or 
demolition work affecting fire prevention and fire fight- 
ing. 

§28-103.1.1 Installation of equipment required by the 
New York city fire code. Where the installation of exit 
signs, emergency means of egress illumination, special 
mechanical ventilation and sprinkler and fire alarm systems 
is required by the New York city fire code, the fire commis- 
sioner shall require such installations to be in accordance 
with this code. 

§28-103.1.2 Enforcement of New York city construction 
codes on property within the jurisdiction of the depart- 
ment of small business services. This code and the 1968 
building code shall apply to property within the jurisdiction 
of the department of small business services pursuant to the 
New York city charter including, but not limited to, struc- 
tures on waterfront property used in conjunction with and in 
furtherance of waterfront commerce and/or navigation. It 
shall be administered and enforced by the department of 
small business services in the same manner as property 
within the jurisdiction of the department. 



§28-103.2 Interpretation. This code shall be liberally inter- 
preted to secure the beneficial purposes thereof. 

§28-103.3 Variations. The requirements and standards pre- 
scribed in this code shall be subject to variation in specific 
cases by the commissioner, or by the board of standards and 
appeals, under and pursuant to the provisions of paragraph two 
of subdivision (b) of section six hundred forty-five and section 
six hundred sixty-six of the New York city charter, as amended. 

§28-103.4 Appeals. An appeal from any decision or interpreta- 
tion of the commissioner may be taken to the board of stan- 
dards and appeals pursuant to the procedures of the board, 
except as provided in section 25-204 of the administrative code 
or as otherwise provided in this code. 

§28-103.5 Seal; judicial notice. The commissioner may 
design and adopt a seal for the department for use in the authen- 
tication of the orders and proceedings of the department, and 
for such other purposes as the commissioner may prescribe. 
The courts shall take judicial notice of such seal, and of the sig- 
nature of the commissioner, the deputy commissioners, and the 
borough superintendents of the department. 

§28-103.6 Proofs, affidavits and oaths. Proofs, affidavits and 
examinations as to any matter arising in connection with the 
performance of any of the duties of the department may be 
taken by or before the commissioner, or a deputy commis- 
sioner, or such other person as the commissioner may desig- 
nate; and such commissioner, deputy or other person may 
administer oaths in connection therewith. 

§28-103.7 Cooperation of other departments. Upon request 
of the commissioner, it shall be the duty of all departments to 
cooperate with the department of buildings at all times, and to 
furnish to such department such information, reports and assis- 
tance as the commissioner may require. 

§28-103.8 Matters not provided for. Any matter or require- 
ment essential for fire or structural safety or essential for the 
safety or health of the occupants or users of a structure or the 
public, and which is not covered by the provisions of this code 
or other applicable laws and rules, shall be subject to determi- 
nation and requirements by the commissioner in specific cases. 

§28-103.9 Additional tests. Whenever there is insufficient 
evidence of compliance with the provisions of this code, or evi- 
dence that a material or method of construction does not con- 
form to the requirements of this code, or in order to substantiate 
claims for alternative materials or methods, the commissioner 
shall have the authority to require tests as evidence of compli- 
ance to be made at no expense to the city. Test methods shall be 
as specified in this code, or by other recognized test standards 
approved by the commissioner. In the absence of recognized 
and accepted test methods, the commissioner shall approve the 
testing procedures. Tests shall be performed as directed by the 
commissioner. Reports of such tests shall be retained by the 
department for the period required for retention of public 
records. 

§28-103.10 Supporting documentation for materials. 
Whenever this code or the rules of the department permits the 
use of material regulated in its use by this code or the 1968 
building code without the prior approval of the commissioner, 
the commissioner may, in the interest of public safety, require 



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ADMINISTRATION 



the submittal of supporting documentation that any material 
used or proposed to be used complies with the applicable code 
standard for such use. Such supporting documentation may 
consist of but shall not be limited to certification documents of 
an approved agency, test reports, analysis, computations or 
other evidence of such compliance. 

§28-103.11 Applications and permits. The department shall 
receive and review applications, construction documents, and 
other submittal documents and shall issue permits, in accor- 
dance with the provisions of this code. 

§28-103.12 Identification. Department personnel shall carry 
metal badges with suitable inscriptions thereon or other pre- 
scribed identification when inspecting structures or premises 
or otherwise in the performance of their duties under this code. 

§28-103.13 Right of entry. The commissioner or his or her 
authorized representatives, in the discharge of their duties, 
shall have the right to enter upon and inspect, at all reasonable 
times, any buildings, enclosure, premises, or any part thereof, 
or any signs or service equipment contained therein or attached 
thereto for the purpose of determining compliance with the 
provisions of this code and other applicable building laws and 
rules. Officers and employees of the department shall identify 
themselves by exhibiting the official badge or other identifica- 
tion prescribed by the department; and other authorized repre- 
sentatives of the commissioner shall identify themselves by 
producing and exhibiting their authority in writing signed by 
the commissioner. If access is not obtained, the commissioner 
shall have recourse to remedies provided by law to secure entry. 

§28-103.14 Department records. The department shall keep 
official records of applications received, permits and certifi- 
cates issued, fees collected, reports of inspections, and notices 
and orders issued. Such records shall be retained in the official 
records for the period required for retention of public records. 

§28-103.14.1 List of permits for cellular antenna. The 
commissioner shall maintain a separate list of alteration per- 
mits issued for the erection or placement of antennae used to 
provide cellular telephone or similar service or any structure 
related to such service which shall, at a minimum, set forth 
the name, business address and business telephone number 
of the applicant, the date of the application, the date the per- 
mit was issued, the location for which the permit was issued, 
including the premises address and the zoning district, 
whether residential, commercial, or manufacturing, and the 
number of permits issued for such purpose at the same loca- 
tion. Such list shall be made available to the public upon 
request between regular business hours and shall be avail- 
able to the public in electronic format on a 24-hour basis on 
the department's website. 

§28-103.15 Insurance. The commissioner may require appli- 
cants for permits to obtain and furnish proof of workers' com- 
pensation, disability and general liability insurance in such 
amounts and in accordance with such specifications as shall be 
set forth in the rules of the department or as otherwise required 
by law. 

§28-103.16 Inspections of completed buildings, structures, 
signs, service equipment and construction machinery and 
equipment. In addition to other required inspections, the com- 



missioner may make or require inspections of completed build- 
ings, structures, signs, service equipment installations and con- 
struction machinery and equipment to ascertain compliance 
with the provisions of this code and other laws that are enforced 
by the department. Such inspections may be made on behalf of 
the department by officers and employees of the department 
and other city departments and governmental agencies; and by 
approved agencies, special inspectors or other persons when 
the commissioner is satisfied as to their qualifications and reli- 
ability. The commissioner may accept inspection and test 
reports from persons authorized by this code or by the commis- 
sioner to perform such inspections. Such reports shall be filed 
with the department. 

§28-103.17 Certain outside work, employment and finan- 
cial interests of department employees prohibited. It shall 
be unlawful for any officer or employee of the department to be 
engaged in conducting or carrying on business as an architect, 
engineer, carpenter, plumber, iron worker, mason or builder, or 
any other profession or business concerned with the construc- 
tion, alteration, sale, rental, development, or equipment of 
buildings. It shall also be unlawful for such employees to be 
engaged in the manufacture or sale of automatic sprinklers, fire 
extinguishing apparatus, fire protection devices, fire preven- 
tion devices, devices relating to the means or adequacy of exit 
from buildings, or articles entering into the construction or 
alteration of buildings, or to act as agent for any person 
engaged in the manufacture or sale of such articles, or own 
stock in any corporation engaged in the manufacture or sale of 
such articles. 

§28-103.18 Investigation of complaints. The commissioner 
shall cause all complaints to be investigated. For purposes of 
investigating complaints of violations of law enforced by the 
department, the commissioner may by rule establish a program 
to classify structures based on their enforcement history and 
may create criteria for such classification and assign enforce- 
ment resources accordingly. 

§28-103.18.1 Complaint records. The department shall 
keep records of complaints made by any person in reference 
to any building or other matter under the jurisdiction of the 
department. Recorded complaints shall include the name 
and residence of the complainant, the name of the person 
complained of, the date of the entry of the complaint and any 
suggested remedies. Except for entries of names and resi- 
dences of the complainants, such records shall be made 
available for public examination. 

§28-103.19 Addition, modification, and deletion of refer- 
enced standards. The standards referenced in this code may 
be added to, deleted or modified pursuant to local law or by rule 
of the department. Every such rule adding, deleting or modify- 
ing a referenced standard shall indicate the promulgating 
agency of the standard, the standard identification, the effective 
date and title and the section or sections of this code to which 
such standard applies. The commissioner shall act in consulta- 
tion with the fire commissioner on matters relating to fire 
safety. 

Exception: Referenced standards in the New York city 
plumbing code, other than referenced national standards 



NEW YORK CSTY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



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ADMINISTRATION 



contained in chapter 1 3 of such code, shall not be added to, 
deleted, or modified by rule. 

§28-103.20 Existing rules continued. Rules promulgated by 
the department in accordance with the law in effect prior to the 
effective date of this code shall remain in effect for the matters 
covered to the extent that such rules are not inconsistent with 
this code unless and until such rules are amended or repealed 
by the department. 



ARTICLE 104 
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS 

§28-104.1 General. The department shall not issue a permit 
pursuant to this code, or a place of assembly operation certifi- 
cate pursuant to this code unless and until it approves all 
required construction documents for such work. The depart- 
ment shall not issue an electrical work permit pursuant to the 
New York city electrical code for fire and emergency alarm 
systems, solar panels and wind turbines unless and until it 
approves all required construction documents for such work. 
Such construction documents shall be prepared by or under the 
supervision of a registered design professional as required by 
this code. An application for an associated work permit shall 
not be submitted to the department until all required construc- 
tion documents have been approved. 

§28-104.1.1 Construction documents subject to the New 
York city fire code. Except as the New York city fire code 
may otherwise provide, the construction documents for 
facilities and systems for which the fire code provides 
design and installation requirements, including but not lim- 
ited to fire alarm systems, flammable and combustible liq- 
uids, compressed gases, explosives and other hazardous 
materials; flammable spraying systems and facilities; auto- 
matic water sprinkler systems for hazardous material and 
combustible material storage, and non- water fire extin- 
guishing systems, shall be subject to the review and 
approval of the fire commissioner in accordance with the 
New York city fire code. Approval by the department of 
construction documents for new or existing buildings con- 
taining such facilities and systems shall not be construed as 
approval of such systems and facilities. 

§28-104.2 Application for approval of construction docu- 
ments. The department shall assign a job number to and docket 
all applications for approval of construction documents and 
any amendments thereto filed with it The department shall 
examine the construction documents promptly after their sub- 
mission. The examination shall be made under the direction of 
the commissioner for compliance with the provisions of this 
code and other applicable laws and rules. The personnel 
employed for the examination of construction documents shall 
be qualified registered design professionals, experienced in 
building construction and design. 

§28-104.2.1 Less than full examination of construction 
documents. The commissioner may, in the commissioner's 
discretion, establish a program whereby construction docu- 
ments may be accepted with less than full examination by 
the department based on the professional certification of an 
applicant who is a registered design professional. 



§28-104.2.1.1 Effect of acceptance. Except as other- 
wise specified in this code or in the rules of the depart- 
ment, for the purposes of this code, the acceptance of 
construction documents in accordance with such pro- 
gram shall have the same force and effect as the approval 
of construction documents after full examination by the 
department. Except as otherwise specified in this code or 
in the rules of the department, references in this code to 
approved construction documents or to the approval of 
construction documents shall also be deemed to refer to 
accepted construction documents or to the acceptance of 
construction documents, as applicable. 

§28-104.2.1.2 Program requirements. The commis- 
sioner may establish qualifications and requirements for 
registered design professionals to participate in such pro- 
gram and may exclude, suspend or otherwise sanction 
participants for cause. 

§28-104.2.1.3 Mandatory program requirements. 
Registered design professionals participating in such 
program shall be subject to sections 28-104.2.1.3.1 
through 28-104.2.1.3.2. 

§28-104.2.1.3.1 Probation. A registered design pro- 
fessional shall not be eligible to participate in the pro- 
gram during any period of probation imposed as a 
sanction by the board of regents pursuant to section 
651 1 of the education law. 

§28-104.2.1.3.2 Mandatory sanctions. The com- 
missioner shall, after the opportunity for a hearing 
before the office of administrative trials and hearings 
in accordance with department rules, exclude, sus- 
pend or otherwise condition the participation of a reg- 
istered design professional who (i) knowingly or 
negligently submits a professional certification of an 
application and/or construction documents that con- 
tains false information or is not in compliance with all 
applicable provisions of law, or (ii) submits two pro- 
fessionally certified applications for construction 
document approval within any 12-month period con- 
taining errors that result in revocation of an associated 
permit or that otherwise demonstrate incompetence 
or a lack of knowledge of applicable laws. The term 
"otherwise condition" shall mean limitations on such 
professional's participation in the program, such as, 
but not limited to, audits and monitoring of the regis- 
tered design professional's applications and other 
submissions. 

§28-104.2.1.3.2.1 Reinstatement. A registered 
design professional who is excluded from the pro- 
gram in accordance with section 28-1 04.2. 1 .3 may 
apply for reinstatement one year or more after such 
exclusion. An applicant who the commissioner 
finds is qualified to resume participation in the 
program shall be on probation for a period of not 
less than 6 months after reinstatement and during 
that time shall as a condition of such reinstatement 
attend one or more training or continuing educa- 
tion courses, approved by the department, related 
to compliance with the building code and related 



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NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



ADMINISTRATION 



laws and rules and the zoning resolution. The pro- 
fessional shall submit satisfactory proof of the suc- 
cessful completion of such training or continuing 
education courses to the department. 

§28404.2.1.3.2.2 Mandatory permanent revo- 
cation. The commissioner shall permanently 
revoke, without the opportunity of restoration, the 
professional certification privileges of an engineer 
or architect who, while on probation, profession- 
ally certifies an application, plans, construction 
documents or other document that contains false 
information or is not in compliance with all appli- 
cable provisions of law or who otherwise demon- 
strates incompetence or a lack of knowledge of 
applicable laws. 

§28-104.2.1.3.2.3 Construction. Nothing herein 
shall be construed to limit the commissioner's 
power, consistent with state and local law, to adopt 
rules that include additional grounds to limit the 
filing privileges of or otherwise sanction registered 
design professionals, after the opportunity for a 
hearing, who it determines, knowingly or negli- 
gently submit applications or other documents to 
the department that contain false information or 
are not in compliance with all applicable provi- 
sions of law or that otherwise demonstrate incom- 
petence or a lack of knowledge of applicable law or 
standards. 

§28-104.2.1.4 Database. The department shall create 
and maintain a database of all registered design profes- 
sionals who have been excluded, suspended or otherwise 
sanctioned by the department. Within 7 business days of 
the date a sanction is imposed, the department shall post 
on its website and shall make available upon request, the 
name of the registered design professional, a description 
of the sanction, the initial date of the sanction, the rein- 
statement date, if applicable, the address of the premises 
for which the application associated with the sanction 
was submitted, and whether the sanction was imposed 
after a hearing or a settlement. The department shall pro- 
vide requested information concerning the exclusion, 
suspension or other sanction of a specific registered 
design professional within 30 days of such request. 

§28-104.2.1.5 Applicant requirement. The program 
shall include a condition that the applicant remain with 
the job until it is signed-off by the department and that if 
the applicant withdraws from the job before the issuance 
of a letter of completion or certificate of occupancy, as 
applicable, all work shall stop and no permit, letter of 
completion or certificate of occupancy shall be issued 
until a successor registered design professional is desig- 
nated as applicant and such person submits (i) a profes- 
sional certification indicating his or her concurrence 
with the construction documents as accepted by the 
department or (ii) new construction documents are 
approved or accepted by the department. 

§28-104.2.2 Approval or acceptance to be indicated on 
construction documents. All construction documents, 



when approved, shall be stamped or endorsed "approved" 
under the official method of the department, followed by a 
notation of the date except that construction documents 
accepted with less than full examination by the department 
shall be stamped or endorsed "accepted" instead of 
"approved". One set of "approved" or "accepted" construc- 
tion documents shall be retained by the department and 
another set shall be maintained at the job site until the work 
authorized by the permit is completed and signed-off by the 
department. 

§28-104.2.3 Time limitation of application. An applica- 
tion for approval of construction documents shall be 
deemed to have been abandoned 1 2 months after the date of 
its submission, unless such application has been diligently 
prosecuted after rejection in whole or in part, or unless a per- 
mit shall have been issued pursuant to this code, except that 
the commissioner may upon application, for reasonable 
cause, grant extensions of time for additional 12-month 
periods. 

§28-104.2.4 Conditions of approval. All construction doc- 
uments approved by the commissioner shall be conditioned 
upon and subject to compliance with the requirements of 
this code and other applicable laws and rules in effect at the 
time of issuance of the associated work permit or place of 
assembly certificate of operation. 

§28-104.2.5 Phased or partial approval. In the case of 
construction documents for the construction of new build- 
ings or the alteration of buildings, the commissioner may 
grant partial approval of construction documents for the 
issuance of foundation and earthwork permits before the 
construction documents for the entire building or structure 
have been submitted. The approval of such partial applica- 
tions will be subject to the submittal and approval of con- 
struction documents, filed together or separately, 
comprising: 

1. The lot diagram showing the exact location of the lot 
and dimensions to the nearest corner; 

2. A complete zoning analysis showing compliance of 
the proposed work with the zoning resolution; 

3. The foundation plans, as provided for in this code; 
and 

4. The floor and roof plans showing compliance with 
exit requirements, as provided for in this code. 

The issuance of such foundation and earthwork permit is 
subject to submission of required submittal documents. The 
owner and the holder of such foundation and earthwork per- 
mit shall proceed at their own risk with the construction 
operation and without assurance that a permit for the entire 
structure will be granted. 

§28-104.2.6 Deferred submittal. With the prior approval 
of the department, the applicant may defer submittal of por- 
tions of the design until a specified period of time after the 
issuance of a permit. The applicant shall list the deferred 
submittal items on the initial application for construction 
document approval. The deferred submittal items shall not 
be constructed or installed until the design and submittal 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



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ADMINISTRATION 



documents for the item have been approved by the depart- 
ment. 

§28-104.2,7 Time period for review. Completed construc- 
tion documents complying with the provisions of this code 
and other applicable laws and rules shall be approved by the 
commissioner and written notice of approval shall be given 
the applicant promptly and no later than 40 calendar days 
after the submission of a complete application. 

Exceptions: 

1. On or before the fortieth day, the commissioner 
may, for good cause shown and upon notification 
to the applicant, extend such time for an additional 
20 calendar days. 

2. Such time period for review shall commence in 
accordance with article 107 for single room occu- 
pancy multiple dwellings. 

§28-104.2.8 Notification of rejection. Applications failing 
to comply with the provisions of this code and other applica- 
ble laws and rules shall be rejected and written notice of 
rejection, stating the grounds of rejection, shall be given the 
applicant promptly and not later than the date required in 
section 28-104.2.7. 

§28-104.2.9 Resubmission. Whenever an application has 
been rejected and is thereafter revised and resubmitted to 
meet the stated grounds of rejection, the revised application 
and construction documents shall be approved if they meet 
the stated grounds of rejection and otherwise comply with 
the provisions of this code and other applicable laws and 
rules or shall be rejected if they fail to meet the stated 
grounds of rejection or otherwise fail to so comply. Written 
notice of approval or written notice of rejection, stating the 
grounds of rejection, shall be given the applicant promptly 
and not later than 20 calendar days after the resubmission of 
such documents. 

§28-104.2.10 Revocation of approval. The commissioner 
may, on notice to the applicant, revoke the approval of con- 
struction documents for failure to comply with the provi- 
sions of this code or other applicable laws or rules; or 
whenever there has been any false statement or any misrep- 
resentation as to a material fact in the submittal documents 
upon the basis of which such approval was issued; or when- 
ever an approval has been issued in error and conditions are 
such that approval should not have been issued. Such notice 
shall inform the applicant of the reasons for the proposed 
revocation and that the applicant has the right to present to 
the commissioner or his or her representative within 10 
business days of personal service or 15 calendar days of the 
posting of service by mail, information as to why the 
approval should not be revoked. 

§28-104.2.10.1 Effect on work permit. The effect of 
revocation of approval of construction documents is the 
automatic revocation of all associated work permits that 
may have been issued. 

§28-104.3 Amended construction documents. Subject to the 
time limitations set forth in this code, amendments to approved 
construction documents shall be submitted, reviewed and 
approved before the final inspection of the work or equipment 



is completed; and such amendments when approved shall be 
deemed part of the original construction documents. The 
department may allow minor revisions of construction docu- 
ments to be made and submitted to the department after the 
completion of work but prior to sign-off of the work in accor- 
dance with department rules. 

§28-104.4 Place of filing. Except as otherwise provided by 
rule, applications for construction document approval shall be 
filed in the department office in the borough in which the work 
or equipment is located or at the discretion of the commissioner 
shall be submitted electronically. 

§28-104.5 Fees. Filing fees shall be paid as required by article 
112. 

§28-104.6 Applicant. The applicant for approval of construc- 
tion documents shall be the registered design professional who 
prepared or supervised the preparation of the construction doc- 
uments on behalf of the owner. 

Exception: The applicant may be other than a registered 
design professional for: 

1 . Limited plumbing alterations, limited sprinkler alter- 
ations, and limited standpipe alterations, where the 
applicant is licensed to perform such work pursuant to 
this code; 

2. Demolition applications other than those specified in 
section 3306.5 of the New York city building code, 
where the applicant is the demolition contractor per- 
forming such demolition. In such cases, the commis- 
sioner may require structural plans designed by a 
registered design professional to address any critical 
structural, sequencing or site safety items; 

3. Elevator applications; 

4. Other categories of work consistent with rules pro- 
mulgated by the commissioner. 

§28-104.6.1 Verification of professional qualification 
required. The department shall not accept construction 
documents or other documents submitted in connection 
with applications for construction document approval or 
work permits under this code by any person representing 
that he or she is an architect or engineer without verifying, 
by means of lists compiled and made available by the New 
York state department of education pursuant to paragraph 
e-1 of subdivision four of section sixty-five hundred seven 
of the education law, that such person meets the qualifica- 
tions established by law to practice as an architect or engi- 
neer in New York state. 

§28-104.7 Submittal of construction documents. All con- 
struction documents submitted to the department shall contain 
such information and shall be in such form as shall be set forth 
in this section 28-104.7 and the rules of the department. Con- 
struction documents shall also conform to standards as may be 
prescribed in the applicable sections of the construction codes. 

§28-104.7.1 Scope. Construction documents shall be com- 
plete and of sufficient clarity to indicate the location and 
entire nature and extent of the work proposed, and shall 
show in detail that they conform to the provisions of this 
code and other applicable laws and rules; if there exist prac- 



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NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



ADMINISTRATION 



tical difficulties in the way of carrying out the strict letter of 
the code, laws or rules, the applicant shall set forth the 
nature of such difficulties. 

§28-104.7.2 Forms. The applicant shall submit construc- 
tion documents on or accompanied by forms provided by 
the department. 

§28-104.7.3 Media. Construction documents shall be 
printed upon suitable material, or presented as electronic 
media documents as determined by the commissioner. Plans 
shall be drawn to suitable scale. 

§28-104.7.4 Quantities. The applicant shall submit the 
number of copies of construction documents as the commis- 
sioner shall require. 

§28-104.7.5 Citations to code sections required. In no 
case shall terms such as "code compliant", "approved", 
"legal" or similar terms be used in the construction docu- 
ments as a substitute for specific reference to a particular 
code section, approval or standard in order to show compli- 
ance with code requirements or other applicable laws and 
rules. 

§28-104.7.6 City datum. All elevations noted in the con- 
struction documents shall be referred to and clearly identi- 
fied as the United States coast and geodetic survey mean sea 
level datum of 1929 (national geodetic vertical datum, 
"NGVD"), which is hereby established as the city datum. 
By way of examples, tables 104.7.6.1 through 104.7.6.5 
shall be used to convert borough elevations to their corre- 
sponding equivalent NGVD elevations. 

TABLE 104.7.6.1 





TABLE 104.7.6.5 




+ STATEN ISLAND 
+ ELEVATIONS 


TO OBTAIN 
EQUIVALENCY: 


NGVD ELEVATIONS 


10.000 


-^ add 3.192 -> 


13.192 


6.808 


-> add 3.192 -> 


10.000 



BRONX ELEVATIONS 


TO OBTAIN 
EQUIVALENCY: 


NGVD ELEVATIONS 


10.000 


-> add 2.608 -> 


12.608 


7.392 


-> add 2.608 -^ 


10.000 


TABLE 104.7.6.2 


BROOKLYN 
ELEVATIONS 


TO OBTAIN 
EQUIVALENCY: 


NGVD ELEVATIONS 


10.000 


-» add 2.547 -» 


12.547 


7.453 


-» add 2.547 -» 


10.000 


TABLE 104.7.6.3 


MANHATTAN 
ELEVATIONS 


TO OBTAIN 
EQUIVALENCY: 


NGVD ELEVATIONS 


10.000 


-> add 2.752 -> 


12.752 


7.248 


-> add 2.752 -» 


10.000 


TABLE 104.7.6.4 


QUEENS ELEVATIONS 


TO OBTAIN 
EQUIVALENCY: 


NGVD ELEVATIONS 


10.000 


-> add 2.725 -^ 


12.725 


7.275 


-> add 2.725 -> 


10.000 



§28-104.7.7 Identification of special inspections. When- 
ever materials are subject to special inspection, as provided 
in this code, such materials shall be listed on the title sheet of 
the construction documents, or the sheet immediately fol- 
lowing, as subject to special inspection. 

§28-104.7.8 Identification of materials. Construction 
documents shall identify all materials proposed to be used, 
including identification of the test standard to which they 
conform, and where applicable, supporting information or 
test data from the manufacturer attesting to such confor- 
mance. 

§28-104.7.9 Energy conservation construction code. The 
application shall contain all information required to demon- 
strate compliance with the energy conservation construc- 
tion code of New York state. 

§28-104.7.10 Preparer. Each plan or drawing shall contain 
the license number, seal, signature (or equivalent as 
approved by the commissioner) and address of the regis- 
tered design professional who prepared or supervised the 
preparation of the plans. 

§28-104.7.11 Additional information. In addition to the 
data and information specified in this code and the rules of 
the department, the commissioner is authorized to require 
the submission of additional plans, surveys, computations, 
analyses, test reports, photographs, special inspection and 
such other data and information as may be necessary to 
determine compliance with this code and other applicable 
laws and rules. 

§28-104.7.12 Waiver of certain documents. The commis- 
sioner is authorized to waive the submission of any of the 
required construction documents and other data if review of 
such documents is not necessary to ascertain compliance 
with this code or not required for the phase of work for 
which a permit is sought. 

§28-104.8 Applications. All applications shall comply with 
sections 28-104.8.1 through 28-104.8.4. 

§28-104.8.1 Applicant statements. The application shall 
contain the following signed and sealed statements by the 
applicant: 

1 . A statement certifying that the applicant is authorized 
by the owner to make the application and certifying 
that, to the best of the applicant's knowledge and 
belief, the construction documents comply with the 
provisions of this code or the 1 968 building code, if 
applicable, and other applicable laws and rules; if 
there exist practical difficulties in the way of carrying 
out the strict letter of the code, laws or rules, the appli- 
cant shall set forth the nature of such difficulties in 
such signed statement; and 



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ADMINISTRATION 



2. A statement certifying (i) that the site of the building 
to be altered or demolished, or the site of the new 
building to be constructed, contains no occupied 
housing accommodations subject to rent control or 
rent stabilization under chapters 3 and 4 of title 26 of 
the administrative code, or (ii) that the owner has noti- 
fied the New York state division of housing and com- 
munity renewal of the owner's intention to file such 
plans and has complied with all requirements 
imposed by the regulations of such agency as precon- 
ditions for such filing; or (hi) that the owner has not 
notified such agency of the owner's intention to file 
because the nature and scope of the work proposed, 
pursuant to such regulations, does not require notifi- 
cation. 

3. A professional certification. 

4. A statement certifying compliance with the energy 
conservation construction code of New York state. 

§28-104.8,2 Owner statement. The application shall con- 
tain a signed statement by the owner, cooperative owners' 
corporation, or condominium owners' association stating 
that the applicant is authorized to make the application and, 
if applicable, acknowledging that construction documents 
will be accepted with less than full examination by the 
department based on the professional certification of the 
applicant. Such statement shall list the owner's full name 
and address, as well as the names of the principal officers, 
partners or other principals if a corporation, partnership or 
other entity. Principal officers of a corporation shall be 
deemed to include the president, vice presidents, secretary 
and treasurer. 

§28-104.8.3 Information of applicant, filing representa- 
tive, and owner. The application shall set forth the full 
names, addresses, telephone numbers, and where available, 
e-mail addresses of the following persons and where any of 
such persons are corporations, partnerships or other busi- 
ness entities, the names and addresses of the principal offi- 
cers, partners or other principals of such entity: 

1. The applicant; 

2. The filing representative; 

3. The owner, cooperative owners' corporation, or con- 
dominium owners' association; and 

4. Where a person other than the owner has engaged the 
applicant, such cooperative unit shareholder, condo- 
minium unit owner, lessee, or mortgagee. 

§28-104.8.4 Tenant protection plan. Construction docu- 
ments for alterations of buildings in which any dwelling unit 
will be occupied during construction shall include a tenant 
protection plan. Such plan shall contain a statement that the 
building contains dwelling units that will be occupied dur- 
ing construction and shall indicate in sufficient detail the 
specific units that are or may be occupied during construc- 
tion, the means and methods to be employed to safeguard 
the safety and health of the occupants, including, where 
applicable, details such as temporary fire-rated assemblies, 
opening protectives, or dust containment procedures. The 



elements of the tenant protection plan may vary depending 
on the nature and scope of the work but at a minimum shall 
make detailed and specific provisions for: 

1 . Egress. At all times in the course of construction pro- 
vision shall be made for adequate egress as required 
by this code and the tenant protection plan shall iden- 
tify the egress that will be provided. Required egress 
shall not be obstructed at any time except where 
approved by the commissioner. 

2. Fire safety. All necessary laws and controls, includ- 
ing those with respect to occupied dwellings, as well 
as additional safety measures necessitated by the con- 
struction shall be strictly observed. 

3. Health requirements. Specification of methods to 
be used for control of dust, disposal of construction 
debris, pest control and maintenance of sanitary facil- 
ities, and limitation of noise to acceptable levels shall 
be included. 

3.1. There shall be included a statement of compli- 
ance with applicable provisions of law relat- 
ing to lead and asbestos. 

4. Compliance with housing standards. The require- 
ments of the New York city housing maintenance 
code, and, where applicable, the New York state mul- 
tiple dwelling law shall be strictly observed. 

5. Structural safety. No structural work shall be done 
that may endanger the occupants. 

6. Noise restrictions. Where hours of the day or the 
days of the week in which construction work may be 
undertaken are limited pursuant to the New York city 
noise control code, such limitations shall be stated. 



ARTICLE 105 
PERMITS 

§28-105.1 General. It shall be unlawful to construct, enlarge, 
alter, repair, move, demolish, remove or change the use or 
occupancy of any building or structure in the city, or to erect, 
install, alter, repair, or use or operate any sign or service equip- 
ment in or in connection therewith, or to erect, install, alter, 
repair, remove, convert or replace any gas, mechanical, plumb- 
ing or fire suppression system in or in connection therewith or 
to cause any such work to be done unless and until a written 
permit therefore shall have been issued by the commissioner in 
accordance with the requirements of this code, subject to such 
exceptions and exemptions as may be provided in section 
28-105.4. 

§28-105.1.1 Notification to fire department. The com- 
missioner, in consultation with the fire commissioner, shall 
establish a procedure for notifying the fire department of the 
issuance of any permit that will result in the issuance of a 
new or amended certificate of occupancy or other change in 
the use or occupancy of the premises. In no instance shall 
the required notice be given to the fire department more than 
one business day after the date of the issuance of the permit. 



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ADMINISTRATION 



§28-105.2 Classification of work permits. For the purposes 
of this code, work permits shall be classified as follows: 

1. New building permits: for the construction of new 
buildings. 

2. Alteration permits: for the alteration of buildings or 
structures, including partial demolition in conjunction 
therewith. 

3. Foundation and earthwork permits: for the con- 
struction or alteration of foundations, including earth- 
work, excavation, and fill. 

4. Full demolition permits: for the full demolition of 
buildings or structures. 

5. Plumbing permits: for the installation or alteration of 
plumbing and plumbing systems, including gas piping. 
Such permits shall include permits for limited plumb- 
ing alterations. 

6. Sign permits: for the erection or alteration of signs and 
sign structures. 

7. Service equipment permits: for the installation or 
alteration of service equipment, including but not lim- 
ited to air conditioning and ventilating systems, boilers, 
elevators, escalators, moving walkways and dumb- 
waiters. 

8. Temporary construction equipment permits: for the 
erection, installation and use of temporary structures to 
facilitate construction and/or for public or worker 
safety during construction, including but not limited to 
temporary fences, railings, catch platforms, 
over-the-sidewalk chutes, footbridges, sidewalk sheds, 
and scaffolds. 

9. Fire suppression system permits: for the installation 
and alteration of fire suppression systems, including 
but not limited to sprinkler systems, standpipe systems, 
and non-water systems. Such permits shall include per- 
mits for limited sprinkler alterations and limited 
standpipe alterations. 

10. Crane and derrick permits: for the use of power 
operated cranes and derricks during construction. 

§28-105.3 Separate permits required. Separate work permits 
shall be required, as provided above, except that separate per- 
mits for foundations and earthwork, or for the installation or 
alteration of air conditioning systems, ventilation systems, and 
heating systems shall not be required whenever such work is 
included in and forms a part of the construction documents 
filed for the construction of a new building or the alteration of a 
building or structure. 

§28-105.4 Work exempt from permit. Exemptions from per- 
mit requirements of this code shall not be deemed to grant 
authorization for any work to be done in any manner in viola- 
tion of the provisions of this code, the zoning resolution or any 
other law or rules enforced by the department. Such exemp- 
tions shall not relieve any owner of the obligation to comply 
with the requirements of or file with other city agencies. Unless 



otherwise indicated, permits shall not be required for the fol- 
lowing: 

1. Emergency work, as set forth in section 28-105.4.1. 

2. Minor alterations and ordinary repairs, as described in 
section 28-105.4.2. 

3. Certain work performed by a public utility company or 
public utility corporation, as set forth in section 
28-105.4.3. 

4. Ordinary plumbing work, as set forth in section 
28-105.4.4. 

5. Permits for the installation of certain signs, as set forth in 
section 28-105.4.5. 

6. Other categories of work as described in department 
rules, consistent with public safety. 

§28-105.4.1 Emergency work. Work that would otherwise 
require a permit may be performed without a permit to the 
extent necessary to relieve an emergency condition. An 
application for a permit shall be submitted within 2 business 
days after the commencement of the emergency work and 
shall include written description of the emergency condition 
and the measures undertaken to mitigate the hazard. Emer- 
gency work may include but shall not be limited to: 

1. Erection of sidewalk sheds, fences, or other similar 
structures to protect the public from an unsafe condi- 
tion. 

2. Stabilization of unsafe structural conditions. 

3. Repair of gas leaks. 

4. Repair or replacement of heating or hot water equip- 
ment servicing residential occupancies during the 
heating season as established by the New York city 
housing maintenance code. 

5. Replacement of parts required for the operation of a 
combined standpipe or sprinkler system. 

§28-105.4.2 Minor alterations and ordinary repairs. A 
permit shall not be required for minor alterations and ordi- 
nary repairs. 

§28-105.4.2.1 Definitions. The following words and 
terms shall, for the purposes of this section 28-105.4.2 
and as used elsewhere in this code, have the meanings 
shown herein. 

MINOR ALTERATIONS. Minor changes or modifica- 
tions in a building or any part thereof, excluding addi- 
tions thereto, that do not in any way affect health or the 
fire or structural safety of the building or the safe use and 
operation of the service equipment therein. Minor alter- 
ations shall not include any of the work described as 
"work not constituting minor alterations or ordinary 
repairs." 

ORDINARY REPAIRS. Replacements or renewals of 
existing work in a building, or of parts of the service 
equipment therein, with the same or equivalent materials 
or equipment parts, that are made in the ordinary course 
of maintenance and that do not in any way affect health or 



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ADMINISTRATION 



the fire or structural safety of the building or the safe use 
and operation of the service equipment therein. Ordinary 
repairs shall include the repair or replacement of any 
plumbing fixture, piping or faucets from any exposed 
stop valve to the inlet side of a trap. Ordinary repairs shall 
not include any of the work described as "work not con- 
stituting minor alterations or ordinary repairs." 

WORK NOT CONSTITUTING MINOR ALTER- 
ATIONS OR ORDINARY REPAIRS. Minor alter- 
ations or ordinary repairs shall not include: 

1 . The cutting away of any load bearing or required 
fire rated wall floor, or roof construction, or any 
portion thereof. 

2. The removal, cutting, or modification of any 
beams or structural supports; 

3. The removal, change, or closing of any required 
exit; 

4. The addition, rearrangement, relocation, removal 
or replacement of any parts of the building affect- 
ing loading or exit requirements, or light, heat, 
ventilation, or elevator requirements or accessibil- 
ity requirements or any fire suppression system; 

5. Additions to, alterations of, or rearrangement, 
relocation, replacement, repair or removal of any 
portion of a standpipe or sprinkler system, water 
distribution system, house sewer, private sewer, or 
drainage system, including leaders, or any soil, 
waste or vent pipe, or any gas distribution system; 

6. Any plumbing work other than the repair or 
replacement of plumbing fixtures, piping or fau- 
cets from the exposed stop valve to the inlet side of 
a trap; 

7 . The alteration or repair of a sign for which a permit 
is required; or 

8. Any other work affecting health or the fire or struc- 
tural safety of the building or the safe use and oper- 
ation of the service equipment therein. 

§28-105.4.3 Public utility company or public utility cor- 
poration. A permit shall not be required for: 

1. The installation or alteration of gas service piping or 
gas meter piping including meters, valves, regulators, 
and related equipment, when such work is to be per- 
formed and serviced and maintained by utility corpo- 
rations subject to the jurisdiction of the New York 
state public service commission; 

2. The emergency repair of gas distribution piping when 
such work is performed by licensed master plumbers 
or by utility corporations subject to the jurisdiction of 
the New York state public service commission, in 
order to alleviate hazardous conditions, provided that 
a written report describing the details of such repairs 
shall be filed with the commissioner upon completion 
of the work. 

§28-105.4.4 Ordinary plumbing work. The following 
ordinary plumbing work may be performed without a per- 



mit, provided that the licensed plumber performing such 
work: (i) provides a monthly report listing completed work 
and work in progress during the preceding month, including 
the block, lot and address of each job, a description of the 
work performed or in progress at each address, and the loca- 
tion in each building where the work was performed or is in 
progress; (ii) pays the fees for such work in accordance with 
this code; and (Hi) submits to the department a certification 
that the work was performed in accordance with this code 
and all applicable laws and rules. Ordinary plumbing work 
shall include: 

1 . The removal of a domestic plumbing system not con- 
nected to a fire suppression system, or the removal of 
a portion of such system. 

2. The relocation of up to two plumbing fixtures within 
the same room to a maximum of 10 feet (3048 mm) 
distant from the original location, except in health 
care facilities. 

3 . The installation, replacement or repair of a food waste 
grinder (food waste disposal) or back flow preventer 
and the replacement or repair of a sump pump. 

4. The replacement of closet bends. 

5. In buildings in occupancy group R2 occupied by 
fewer than six families or in buildings in occupancy 
group R3, the replacement of a gas water heater or a 
gas fired boiler with a capacity of 350,000 BTU or 
less where the existing appliance gas cock is not 
moved, provided that the plumber has inspected the 
chimney and found it to be in good operational condi- 
tion. 

6. The repair or replacement of any non-gas, non-fire 
suppression piping not longer than 10 feet (3048 mm) 
inside a building, or connected piping previously 
repaired or replaced under this provision. 

7. The repair or replacement of non-fire suppression 
branch piping after the riser shutoff valve, including 
the replacement of fixtures, limited to two bathrooms 
and one kitchen per building per monthly reporting 
period. 

§28-105.4.5 Sign permits. A sign permit shall not be 
required where the sign is: 

1. Painted directly on the exterior wall surface of a 
building or on the surface of a fence; 

2. A wall sign of not more than six square feet (0.56 m 2 ) 
in area; 

3 . Erected by employees of a city agency, including traf- 
fic and other similar signs; 

4. A ground sign advertising the sale or rental of the pre- 
mises on which it is erected, provided the sign does 
not exceed 12 square feet (1.1 m 2 ) in area; 

5. Temporary and erected during construction work and 
related thereto; or 

6. Temporary for special decorative display use for holi- 
days, public demonstrations, or the promotion of 
civic, welfare or charitable purposes, except that 



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ADMINISTRATION 



signs that utilize streets or cross streets shall be sub- 
ject to the requirements of the department of transpor- 
tation. 

7. Temporary signs announcing the sale or rental of real 
property. 

§28-105,5 Application for permit. AH applications for per- 
mits shall be submitted on forms furnished by the department. 
Applications shall include all information required by this 
code, other applicable law or the rules of the department. The 
applicant shall list any portions of the design that have been 
approved for deferred submittal in accordance with section 
28-104.2.6. The application shall set forth an inspection pro- 
gram for the job. An application for a permit shall be submitted 
no later than 12 months after the approval of all required con- 
struction documents (other than those documents approved for 
deferred submittal). 

§28-105.6 Fees. Applications for permits shall be accompa- 
nied by the payment of appropriate fees as provided for in arti- 
cle 112.. 

§28-105.7 Time limitation of applications. An application 
for a permit shall be deemed to have been abandoned 12 
months after the date of its submission, unless such application 
has been diligently prosecuted after rejection in whole or in 
part, or a permit shall have been issued except that the commis- 
sioner may, for reasonable cause, and upon payment of all rein- 
statement fees as provided for in this code, grant extensions of 
time for additional 12-month periods. 

§28-105.8 Validity of permit. The issuance or granting of a 
permit shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an approval 
of, any violation of any of the provisions of this code or of any 
other law or rule. Permits presuming to give authority to violate 
or cancel the provisions of this code or other law or rule shall 
not be valid. The issuance of a permit based on construction 
documents and other data shall not prevent the commissioner 
from requiring the correction of errors in the construction doc- 
uments and other data. The commissioner is authorized to pre- 
vent any occupancy, use or work in violation of this code, the 
zoning resolution or other law or rule enforced by the depart- 
ment. 

§28-105.8.1 Duration of permit. Permits may be issued for 
a period of up to two years unless otherwise limited by law. 

§28-105.8.2 Signature of commissioner on permit. Every 
permit issued by the commissioner shall have his or her sig- 
nature affixed thereto; but the commissioner may authorize 
any subordinate to affix such signature, including by the use 
of electronic means. 

§28-105.9 Expiration. All permits issued by the commis- 
sioner shall expire by limitation and become invalid if the per- 
mitted work or use is not commenced within 12 months from 
the date of issuance of the permit or, if commenced, is sus- 
pended or abandoned for a period of 12 months thereafter. All 
permits for work in an area of special flood hazard pursuant to 
Appendix G of the New York city building code shall expire if 
the actual start of permanent construction has not occurred 
within 180 days from the date on which such permit is issued. 
The commissioner may, however, upon good cause shown, 
reinstate a work permit at any time within a period of two years 



from the date of issuance of the original permit, provided that 
the work shall comply with all the requirements of this code 
and other applicable laws and rules in effect at the time applica- 
tion for reinstatement is made, and provided further that the 
applicant shall pay all reinstatement fees as required by article 
112. The permit shall automatically expire upon the expiration 
of required insurance or if the applicant holds a license issued 
by the department upon the expiration or revocation of such 
license during the term of the permit. 

§28-105.10 Suspension or revocation of permit The com- 
missioner is authorized to suspend or revoke a permit issued 
under the provisions of this code. 

§28-105.10.1 Notice of proposed revocation. The com- 
missioner may, on written notice to the permit holder, 
revoke any permit for failure to comply with the provisions 
of this code or other applicable laws or rules; or whenever 
there has been any false statement or any misrepresentation 
as to a material fact in the application or submittal docu- 
ments upon the basis of which such approval was issued; or 
whenever a permit has been issued in error and conditions 
are such that the permit should not have been issued. Such 
notice shall inform the permit holder of the reasons for the 
proposed revocation and that the applicant has the right to 
present to the commissioner or his or her representative 
within 10 business days of delivery of the notice by hand or 
15 calendar days of the posting of notice by mail, informa- 
tion as to why the permit should not be revoked. 

§28-105.10.2 Immediate suspension in cases of immi- 
nent peril. The commissioner may immediately suspend 
any permit without prior notice to the permit holder when 
the commissioner has determined that an imminent peril to 
life or property exists. The commissioner shall forthwith 
notify the permit holder that the permit has been suspended 
and the reasons therefore, that it is proposed to be revoked, 
and that the permit holder has the right to present to the com- 
missioner or his or her representative within 10 business 
days of delivery of the notice by hand or 1.5 calendar days of 
the posting of notice by mail information as to why the per- 
mit should not be revoked. 

§28-105.11 Posting of permit. The building permit or copy 
shall be posted in a conspicuous place at the work site, visible 
to the public for the duration of the work or the use and opera- 
tion of the equipment, or until the expiration of the permit. No 
such permit shall be posted or displayed at any location other 
than the location of the premises or equipment for which the 
permit was issued. 

§28-105.12 Conditions of permit. Permits shall be subject to 
the following conditions: 

§28-105.12.1 Compliance with code. Permits shall be 
deemed to incorporate the provisions that the applicant, the 
owner, their agents, employees, and contractors shall carry 
out the permitted work in accordance with the provisions of 
this code and other applicable laws or rules, whether speci- 
fied or not, except as variations have been legally permitted 
or authorized. 

§28-105.12.2 Compliance with construction documents. 

All work shall conform to the approved construction docu- 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



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ADMINISTRATION 



ments, and any approved amendments thereto. Changes and 
revisions during the course of construction shall conform to 
the amendment requirements of this code. 

§28-105.123 Adherence to Sot diagram. All work shall be 
strictly located in accordance with the lot diagram approved 
in accordance with this code and no lot or plot shall be 
changed, increased or diminished in area from that shown 
on the approved lot diagram, unless and until a revised dia- 
gram showing such changes, accompanied by the necessary 
statement of the owner or applicant, shall have been submit- 
ted to and approved by the commissioner. 

§28-105.12.4 Compliance with safety requirements. All 
work shall be conducted in accordance with and subject to 
the safety requirements of this code and other applicable 
laws or rules, including any order or requirement of the 
commissioner that the building or structure under construc- 
tion or alteration be vacated, in whole or in part, during the 
progress of the work and until the issuance of a certificate of 
occupancy. Adjoining lots and properties shall be protected 
in accordance with this code. 

§28-105.12.5 Compliance with noise control code 
required. All work shall be performed in compliance with 
the provisions of the New York city noise control code as set 
forth in chapter 2 of title 24 of the administrative code. Fail- 
ure to comply with sections 24-222 and 24-223 of the 
administrative code shall be a violation of this code. 

§28-105.12.6 Deferred submittals. Where permits are 
issued subject to deferred submittal of portions of the design 
as-provided for in section 28-104.2.6, the deferred submittal 
items shall not be installed until the construction and 
submittal documents for such portions have been approved 
by the department and, where applicable, new or amended 
permits have been issued. 

§28-105.12.7 Insurance. Where workers compensation, 
employee disability or liability insurance is required by law 
or department rule, the applicant for the work permit shall 
obtain and include proof of such insurance with the work 
permit application. The permit shall expire by operation of 
law if the insurance upon which the permit was conditioned 
lapses, expires or is cancelled, unless the permit holder files 
proof of alternate insurance before such event. 

§28-105.12.7.1 Insurance coverage for adjacent 
properties. A person who obtains a permit for construc- 
tion or demolition operations shall, at such person's own 
expense, procure and maintain for the duration of the 
operations, insurance of a kind and in an amount speci- 
fied by rule of the department, to insure any and all adja- 
cent property owners and their lawful occupants fully for 
all risks of loss, damage to property or injury to or death 
of persons, arising out of or in connection with the per- 
formance of the proposed work. Such person shall sub- 
mit proof of insurance to the department when applying 
for a permit for construction or demolition work. 

§28-105.12.8 Site safety plan. Where required by this code 
or by the department, applications shall include a site safety 
plan approved in accordance with the New York city build- 
ing code. All work shall adhere to the site safety plan. 



ARTICLE 106 
ASBESTOS INVESTIGATION 

§28-106.1 Asbestos investigation. In addition to the require- 
ments otherwise prescribed, all applications for construction 
document approval for work on buildings constructed on or 
before April 1, 1987 shall include asbestos certifications, 
reports or removal plans as may be required by this article. 

Exception: Types of activities exempted pursuant to rules 
of the commissioner of environmental protection. 

§28-106.2 Demolition and alteration of buildings con- 
structed on or before April 1, 1987. The commissioner shall 
not approve or accept an application for construction document 
approval for the demolition or alteration of a building con- 
structed on or before April 1, 1987, unless the applicant sub- 
mits (i) a certification from an asbestos investigator that the 
work to be performed will not constitute an asbestos project, 
(ii) an asbestos inspection report completed in accordance with 
the provisions of section 24-146.1 of the administrative code, 
or (iii) proof that an asbestos removal plan has been approved 
by the commissioner of the New York city department of envi- 
ronmental protection in accordance with section 24-146.1 of 
the administrative code. 

§28-106.3 Asbestos project. The commissioner shall not 
approve construction documents for work that constitutes an 
asbestos project and for which an asbestos inspection report is 
required unless the applicant at the time of application and 
prior to approval of the construction documents certifies on 
forms prescribed by the commissioner of environmental pro- 
tection that the applicant is familiar with federal, state and local 
laws and regulations applicable to asbestos related work. 

§28-106.4 Definitions. For the purposes of this article, the 
terms "asbestos," "asbestos inspection report," "asbestos 
investigator," "asbestos project" and "asbestos removal plan" 
shall have the meanings as are ascribed in section 24-146.1 of 
the administrative code. 



ARTICLE 107 

ALTERATION OR DEMOLITION OF SINGLE ROOM 

OCCUPANCY MULTIPLE DWELLINGS 

§28-107.1 Genera!. The commissioner shall not approve con- 
struction documents for the alteration or demolition of a single 
room occupancy multiple dwelling except as set forth in this 
article. 

§28-107.2 Definitions. The following words and terms shall, 
for the purposes of this article and elsewhere in the code, have 
the meanings shown herein. 

CLASS A MULTIPLE DWELLING, CLASS B MULTI- 
PLE DWELLING, FURNISHED ROOM HOUSE, 
ROOMING UNIT AND SINGLE ROOM OCCUPANCY. 
Shall have the meanings set forth in section 27-2004 of the New 
York city housing maintenance code. 

SINGLE ROOM OCCUPANCY MULTIPLE DWELL- 
ING. A single room occupancy multiple dwelling means: 

1. A "class A multiple dwelling" used in whole or part as a 
"rooming house" or "furnished room house," or for "sin- 



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NEW YORK CSTY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



ADMINISTRATION 



gle room occupancy " pursuant to section 248 of the New 
York state multiple dwelling law; 

2. A "class A multiple dwelling" containing "rooming 
units"; or 

3. A "class B multiple dwelling." 

Exception: The term single room occupancy multi- 
ple dwelling shall not include: 

1. College or school dormitories; 

2. Clubhouses; 

3. Luxury hotels, as such term is defined by the 
commissioner of housing preservation and 
development; or 

4. Residences whose occupancy is restricted to an 
institutional use such as housing intended for 
use by the employees of a single company or 
institution; 

5. City-owned multiple dwellings; or 

6. Any multiple dwelling containing fewer than 
nine "class B" dwelling units; used for single 
room occupancy unless the total number of 
such units is more than fifty percent of the total 
number of dwelling units in such multiple 
dwelling; or 

7. Any multiple dwelling that: 

7.1. Is the subject of a program approved by 
the commissioner of housing preserva- 
tion and development and related to the 
rehabilitation of a single room occu- 
pancy multiple dwelling or the provi- 
sion of housing for persons of low or 
moderate income, other than a program 
consisting solely of real property tax 
abatement or tax exemption; and 

7.2. Has been exempted from the provisions 
of this article by the commissioner of 
housing preservation and development. 

§28-107.3 Covered categories of work. Applications for the 
approval of construction documents for the following catego- 
ries of work are covered by this article: 

1. Demolition of a single room occupancy multiple dwell- 
ing; 

2. Alteration of a single room occupancy multiple dwelling 
to a class A multiple dwelling to be used in whole or in 
part for other than single room occupancy purposes; 

3. Alteration of a single room occupancy multiple dwelling 
resulting in the removal or addition of kitchen or bath- 
room facilities; and 

4. Such other types of alteration work to a single room 
occupancy multiple dwelling as shall be prescribed by 



rule of the commissioner of housing preservation and 
development, in consultation with the commissioner. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Work solely for the purpose of either (i) making the 
public areas of a multiple dwelling accessible to per- 
sons with disabilities without altering the configura- 
tion of any dwelling unit or rooming unit or (ii) 
making a dwelling unit or a rooming unit accessible to 
persons with disabilities shall not be covered by this 
article. 

2. Repairs, demolition or any other work performed by a 
city agency or by a contractor pursuant to a contract 
with a city agency shall not be covered by this article. 

§28-107.4 Required submittal documents. The commis- 
sioner shall not approve any construction documents for a sin- 
gle room occupancy multiple dwelling for the covered 
categories of work unless the applicant provides: 

1. A sworn affidavit by or on behalf of all the owners, as 
such term is defined in section 27-2004 of the New York 
city housing maintenance code, of such multiple dwell- 
ing that there will be no harassment of the lawful occu- 
pants of such multiple dwelling by or on behalf of such 
owners during the construction period; 

2. A tenant protection plan as provided for in this code; and 

3. One of the following documents from the commissioner 
of housing preservation and development: 

3.1. A certification that there has been no harassment 
of the lawful occupants of such multiple dwelling 
within the 36 month period prior to submission of 
an application for such certification to the depart- 
ment of housing preservation and development, 
provided, however, that such certification shall 
except any portion of such 36 month period dur- 
ing which title was vested in the city; or 

3.2. A waiver of such certification. 

§28-107.5 Filing process. After submitting an application for 
construction document approval to the commissioner and 
obtaining the identifying job number for the same, the appli- 
cant shall forward a copy of such application to the commis- 
sioner of housing preservation and development, together with 
an application for a certification of no harassment pursuant to 
section 27-2093 of the housing maintenance code. 

§28-107.6 Time period for acceptance or rejection. The time 
period in which the commissioner is required to approve or 
reject an application for construction document approval or 
resubmission thereof pursuant to this code shall commence 
from the date that the commissioner receives either the certifi- 
cation or waiver pursuant to this article. 

§28-107.7 Denial of certification. Where the commissioner of 
housing preservation and development denies the certification 
required by this article, the commissioner shall reject the appli- 
cation for construction document approval. 



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ADMINISTRATION 



§28-107.8 Request for stop-work or rescission. The commis- 
sioner shall be empowered to issue a stop-work notice or order 
with respect to an alteration or demolition permit and/or to 
rescind approval of construction documents at the request of 
the commissioner of housing preservation and development 
pursuant to section 27-2093 of the New York city housing 
maintenance code. 

§28-107.9 Effect of denial or rescission. Where the commis- 
sioner rejects or rescinds the approval of construction docu- 
ments pursuant to this article, no further application for the 
covered categories of work shall be considered by the commis- 
sioner for a period of 36 months following the date of the denial 
of the certification of no harassment by the commissioner of 
housing preservation and development or the date of the rescis- 
sion of such certification of no harassment by such commis- 
sioner. 



ARTICLE 108 
PAVEMENT PLAN 

§28-108.1 General. The commissioner shall not issue a permit 
for the erection of a new building or for alterations that will 
require the issuance of a new or amended certificate of occu- 
pancy without a statement that no certificate of occupancy shall 
be issued unless the sidewalk in front of or abutting such build- 
ing, including but not limited to the intersection quadrants for 
corner properties, shall have been paved or repaired by the 
owner, at his or her own cost, in the manner, of the materials, 
and in accordance with the standard specifications prescribed 
by the New York city department of transportation pursuant to 
sections 19-113 and 19-1 15 of the administrative code. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Application for the erection of an accessory building 
appurtenant to an existing one- or two-family dwell- 
ing. 

2. Where the commissioner determines that a sidewalk 
is not required, provided that such determination shall 
not affect the obligations of the owner under subdivi- 
sion a of section 19-152 of the administrative code, 
nor relieve the owner of any such obligations, nor 
impair or diminish the rights of the city or its agencies 
to enforce such obligations. 

3. Where the extent of the change in use or occupancy or 
the cost of the alteration does not exceed a threshold 
established pursuant to rule of the commissioner. 

§28-108.2 Pavement plan required. Construction documents 
shall include a pavement plan processed and approved under 
guidelines established by the department. The pavement plan 
shall include documentation sufficient to show compliance 
with the standards and specifications of the New York city 
department of transportation pursuant to sections 19-113 and 
19-115 of the administrative code. 

Exception: No pavement plan shall be required with 
respect to an alteration application for a building where the 
applicant certifies that there is a sidewalk in existence in 
front of or abutting such building, including but not limited 
to the intersection quadrants for corner properties, comply- 



ing with the specifications of the New York city department 
of transportation, and that the nature of such alteration work 
will neither remove such existing sidewalk nor cause dam- 
age to such existing sidewalk such that the damage could not 
be corrected as minor repairs prior to issuance of the certifi- 
cate of occupancy. 

§28-108.3 Improvement of streets. The commissioner shall 
insure that streets are suitably improved in accordance with the 
standards and specifications of the department of transporta- 
tion as required by subdivision two of section thirty-six of the 
general city law and shall otherwise carry out the provisions of 
such subdivision. 



ARTICLE 109 
FIRE PROTECTION PLAN 

§28-109.1 Fire protection plan required for covered build- 
ings. New building and alteration applications for covered 
buildings as set forth in section 28-109.2 shall include a fire 
protection plan prepared by or under the supervision of a regis- 
tered design professional who shall professionally certify such 
plan. Such plan shall be approved by the department and the 
fire department prior to issuance of a certificate of occupancy, a 
temporary certificate of occupancy or a letter of completion, as 
applicable. 

Exception: No fire protection plan shall be required for an 
alteration that meets all three of the following requirements: 

1. The alteration does not involve a change of use or 
occupancy; 

2. The alteration does not exceed one million dollars; 
and 

3. The alteration does not create an inconsistency with a 
previously approved fire protection plan. 

§28-109.2 Covered buildings. Covered buildings include: 

1 . High-rise buildings as described in section 403 of the 
New York city building code. 

2. Occupancy groups B, E, F, H, M, or S occupying two or 
more stories with over 20,000 gross square feet (1858 
m 2 ) of floor area per floor, or occupying two or more sto- 
ries in a building with a total floor area exceeding 50,000 
gross square feet (4645 m 2 ). 

3. Any building containing an assembly occupancy having 
an occupant load of 300 or more persons. 

4. Occupancy group I or R- 1 occupying two or more stories 
and containing sleeping accommodations for 30 or more 
persons. 

5. Occupancy group R-2 occupancies containing 30 or 
more dwelling units in a building where over 10,000 
gross square feet (929 m 2 ) of floor area is occupied by 
occupancy group A, E, M, or I. 

§28-109.3 Scope. The plan shall include the following infor- 
mation, where applicable: 

1. A description of the building including: address; block 
and lot numbers; number of stories; height in feet; occu- 



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NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



ADMINISTRATION 



pancy group; construction classification; occupancy 
load and department of buildings job number; 

2. All floors, exits, doors, corridors, and partitions serving 
as fire barriers, fire partitions, fire walls; locations and 
ratings of required enclosures and fire areas; stairs with 
pressurization; roof access; exit discharges; and loca- 
tions of any required frontage space; and 

3. In narrative form, a description of safety systems and 
features, including: 

3.1. Communications systems. 

3.2. Alarm systems. 

3.3. Smoke and carbon monoxide detection equip- 
ment. 

3.4. Location of fire command station. 

3.5. Elevator recall. 

3.6. Emergency lighting and power. 

3.7. Standpipes. 

3.8. Sprinklers. 

3.9. Emergency power systems. 

3.10. Mechanical ventilation and air conditioning. 

3.11. Smoke control systems and equipment. 

3.12. Furnishings types and materials. 

3.13. Places of assembly. 

3.14. Fire department access. 

3.15. Photoluminescent pathway markings. 

3.16. Other safety related systems, required and vol- 
untary, to be installed. 



ARTICLE 110 

SITE SAFETY PLAN 

§28-110.1 Site safety plan. Where a site safety plan is required 
by chapter 33 of the New York city building code, such plan 
shall include the following: 

1. Location of all construction fences around work site; 

2. Location of all gates in construction fences; 

3. Location of standard guardrails around excavations, 
when required; 

4. Horizontal and vertical netting program, including 
details of the initial installation, schedule of horizontal 
jumps and vertical installations, and designated crane 
and derrick lifting areas where horizontal netting is 
omitted. The program shall include as an attachment 
any department approval obtained regarding required 
safety netting during construction or demolition opera- 
tions; the revised site safety plan shall be approved; 

5. Location of all sidewalk sheds, including appropriate 
department application numbers and department of 
transportation permit numbers and expiration dates; 



6. Location of all temporary walkways, including appro- 
priate department application numbers and department 
of transportation permit numbers and expiration dates; 

7. Location of foot bridges and motor vehicle ramps, 
including appropriate department application numbers 
and department of transportation permit numbers and 
expiration dates; 

8. Protection of side of excavation, when required, 
including appropriate department application numbers 
and department of transportation permit numbers and 
expiration dates; 

9. Location of all street and sidewalk closing(s), includ- 
ing appropriate department application numbers and 
department of transportation permit numbers and expi- 
ration dates; 

10. Approximate location of material and personnel 
hoist(s) and loading areas, including appropriate 
department application numbers and department of 
transportation permit numbers and expiration dates; 

11. Approximate location of all crane and derrick loading 
areas; 

12. Location of all surrounding buildings, indicating occu- 
pancy, height and type of any required roof protection; 

13. Location of all standpipe system and Siamese hose con- 
nections; 

14. Location of all temporary elevators for fire department 
use when building is above 75 feet (22 860 mm) in 
height; 

15. Location of all exterior contractors' sheds; 

16. All required safety netting and scaffolding; 

17. Widths of all sidewalks and roadways; all traffic infor- 
mation; all exits from job site; 

18. A copy of the proposed site safety manager or site 
safety coordinator's certificate, as applicable, includ- 
ing the certificate for any alternate site safety manager 
or site safety coordinator; and 

19. Such features requiring special sequencing in order to 
maintain safe conditions with a written description of 
those sequences. 

§28-110.2 Phased site safety plans. Multiple layouts of the 
site safety features enumerated in section 28- 1 10. 1 may be sub- 
mitted at any time during construction operations to show 
phased site safety designs consistent with the phase of antici- 
pated work. 



ARTICLE 111 
TEMPORARY STRUCTURES AND USES 

§28-111.1 General. The commissioner is authorized to issue a 
permit for temporary structures and temporary uses. Such per- 
mits shall be limited as to time of service or use, but shall not be 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



A-19 



ADMINISTRATION 



permitted for more than 30 days. The commissioner may grant 
extensions for demonstrated cause. 

Exception: No permit shall be required for: 

1. The erection and use of temporary tents of less than 
400 gross square feet (37 m 2 ) for not more than 30 
days. 

2. The erection and use of temporary platforms, review- 
ing stands, outdoor bandstands and similar miscella- 
neous structures that cover an area less than 120 
square feet (1 1.16 m 2 ), including connecting areas or 
spaces with a common means of egress or entrance, 
for not more than 30 days. 

§28-111.2 Conformance. Temporary structures and uses shall 
conform to the structural strength, fire safety, means of egress, 
accessibility, light, ventilation and sanitary requirements of 
this code as necessary to ensure the public health, safety and 
general welfare. 

§28-1113 Termination of approval. The commissioner is 
authorized to terminate such permit for a temporary structure 
or use and to order the temporary structure or use to be discon- 
tinued. 

§28-111.4 Application processing. Application for such 
structures and uses shall be submitted to the department no 
later than 15 business days prior to the construction of the tem- 
porary structure or the commencement of the temporary use. 

§28-111.5 Fees. Applications for such permits shall be accom- 
panied by the applicable fees in accordance with article 112. 
Fees for subsequent requests for renewals shall be paid upon 
approval of such requests. 



ARTICLE 112 
FEES 

§28-112.1 Payment of fees. A permit, inspection, or other ser- 
vice or privilege as regulated in this code shall not be valid until 
the fees prescribed herein or in rules have been paid, nor shall a 
renewal of a permit or other service or privilege or an amend- 
ment to a permit be released until the fee has been paid. In addi- 
tion, an approval required to be reissued due to a change in 
product name, company name and/or address, contact informa- 
tion or principals, shall not be reissued until a reissuance fee, if 
any, has been paid. The department shall adopt such rules and 
shall prescribe such forms as may be necessary to carry out the 
provisions of this article. 

Exceptions: 

1. A permit, inspection or other service or privilege as 
regulated in this code shall not be subject to this provi- 
sion if the owner of the building or property affected 
is a corporation or association organized and operated 
exclusively for religious, charitable or educational 
purposes, or for one or more such purposes, no part of 
the earnings of which inures to the benefit of any pri- 
vate shareholder or individual, and provided that the 
property affected is to be used exclusively by such 
corporation or association for one or more of such 
purposes. 



2. A permit, inspection or other service or privilege as 
regulated in this code shall not be subject to this provi- 
sion if the work proposed is emergency work per- 
formed by a city agency or by a contractor pursuant to 
a contract with a city agency. 

§28-112.2 Schedule of permit fees. Permits for new buildings, 
structures, mechanical, and plumbing systems or alterations 
requiring a permit shall be accompanied by a fee for each per- 
mit in accordance with the fee schedule of Table 28-112.2. 
Fifty percent of the total fee for the work permit, but not less 
than one hundred dollars, or the total fee for the work permit 
where such fee is less than one hundred dollars, shall be paid 
and shall accompany the first application for the approval of 
construction documents; and the whole or remainder of the 
total fee shall be paid before the work permit may be issued. 
The commissioner may require reasonable substantiation of 
any statement or other form that may be required by the depart- 
ment. 

§28-112.3 Building permit valuations. Where applicable, the 
applicant for a permit shall provide an estimated job construc- 
tion cost at time of application. Cost estimates shall include 
total value of work, including materials and labor, for which the 
permit is being issued, such as installation or alteration of 
building, gas, mechanical, plumbing equipment and perma- 
nent systems. If, in the opinion of the department, the valuation 
is underestimated on the application, the permit shall be 
denied, unless the applicant can show detailed estimates to 
meet the approval of the department. Final building permit val- 
uation shall be set by the department. 

§28-112.4 Work commencing before permit issuance. Any 
person who commences any work before obtaining the neces- 
sary permits shall be subject to a penalty as specified in this 
code that shall be in addition to the required permit fees. 

§28-112.5 Related fees. The payment of the fee for the con- 
struction, alteration, removal or demolition for work done in 
connection or concurrently with the work authorized by a 
building permit shall not relieve the applicant or holder of the 
permit from the payment of other fees that are prescribed by 
law. 

§28-112.6 Refunds and rebates. Upon application to the 
comptroller of the city of New York, and upon verification of 
claim by the commissioner, refunds or rebates of partial or full 
fees shall be provided as set forth in sections 28-112.6.1 
through 28-1 12,6.3. 

§28-112.6.1 Withdrawal of work permit applications. In 
the event that an owner withdraws an application, the owner 
may obtain a refund of all or a portion of the fee paid as fol- 
lows: 

1. If an application for construction document approval 
is withdrawn prior to the commencement of examina- 
tion of the application all but forty dollars of the 
deposit fee paid shall be refunded. 

2. If an application for construction document approval 
is withdrawn during the progress of examination of 
the application, the comptroller shall retain a percent- 
age of the deposit fee paid, which the department shall 
certify is the equivalent percentage of the examina- 



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NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



ADMINISTRATION 



tion completed, but not less than one hundred dollars. 
The remainder of the deposit fee shall be refunded to 
the owner. 

3. If an application for construction document approval 
is withdrawn after examination of construction docu- 
ments and/or construction document approval and 
before issuance of permit, there shall be refunded by 
the comptroller 50 percent of the total computed fee 
for the permit, except that not less than one hundred 
dollars shall be retained by the comptroller. 

§28-112.6.2 Withdrawal of cranes and derricks applica- 
tions. If the applicant withdraws his or her application for a 
certificate of approval for a power-operated crane, derrick 
or cableway, such applicant may obtain a refund of a portion 
of the fees as follows: 

1. If the application is withdrawn prior to the com- 
mencement of examination by the department, the 
entire fee shall be refunded except one hundred dol- 
lars. 

2. If the application is withdrawn after the examination 
has commenced, the comptroller shall retain a per- 
centage of the fee paid, which the department shall 
certify is the equivalent percentage of the examina- 
tion performed, but not less than one hundred dollars. 
The remainder of the fee shall be refunded to the 
applicant. 

3. If the application is withdrawn after the department 
has performed its examination, whether or not the 
application has been approved no part of the fee shall 
be returned to the applicant. 

§28-112.6.3 Incentive rebates. With respect to the rebates 
under this section 28-1 12.6, the commissioner may, at his or 
her discretion, issue a rebate of application fees as follows 
and as established by rule. 

§28-112.6.3.1 Renewable energy rebates. Owners who 
demonstrate the production on a zoning lot of five per- 
cent or more of the annual energy consumption on the 
zoning lot through renewable energy sources may 
receive a fee rebate as established by rule. 

§28-112.6.3.2 Rebate for energy use reduction. Own- 
ers who demonstrate a reduction in energy use from that 
allowed at the time of permit by the New York state 
energy conservation construction code as a result of the 
permitted work may receive a fee rebate as established 
by rule. 

§28-112.6.3.3 Rebate for water conservation systems. 
Owners who demonstrate conservation of water taken 
from the city supply by providing evidence of achieving 
the water-recycling discount authorized by the New York 
city water board may receive a fee rebate as established 
by rule. 

§28-112.6.3.4 Rebate for redevelopment, remediation 
and reuse of contaminated properties known as 
brownfields. Owners who demonstrate that their site 



was contaminated and has been certified as remediated 
by the United States environmental protection agency or 
the New York state department of environmental conser- 
vation, or has received a notice of satisfaction from the 
New York city department of environmental protection, 
may receive a fee rebate as established by rule. 

§28-112.6.3.5 Rebate for recycling construction and 
demolition waste. Owners who demonstrate the recy- 
cling of construction and demolition waste may receive a 
fee rebate as established by rule. 

§28-112.6.3.6 Rebate for bicycle storage facilities. 
Except for R-3 occupancy, owners who demonstrate that 
they have provided secured indoor bicycling facilities 
accessible to all building occupants may be rebated their 
fees as set out in rule. Such facilities shall be identified on 
approved plans and shall be noted on the certificate of 
occupancy with a statement that the bicycling accommo- 
dations dedicated to such facilities were provided in 
accordance with this section. 

§28-112.6.3.7 Rebate for LEED or other environmen- 
tal design certification. Owners who demonstrate cer- 
tification of their project, which was signed off following 
the effective date of this code, by the United States Green 
Building Council based upon the Council's Leadership 
in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) rating sys- 
tem or as otherwise provided by rule, may be rebated 
their fees as set out in rule. 

§28-112.6.3.8 Other rebates. The commissioner is 
authorized to promulgate rules to rebate fees following 
sign-off based upon the installation of energy-conserv- 
ing systems. 

§28-112.7 Inspection fees. Aside from the inspection fees 
covered under permit fees above, the following inspection fees 
shall be paid according to requirements of this code and as pro- 
mulgated in rules. 

§28-112.7.1 Fees for the testing, approval, inspection 
and use of power-operated cranes, derricks and 
cableways. The owner of any crane or derrick shall renew 
the certificate of operation each year. See Table 
28-112.7.14 

§28-112.7.2 Periodic inspection fees. See Table 
28-112.7.24 

§28-112.7.3 Other inspection fees. See Table 28- 1 1 2.7.34 

§28-112.8 Special fees. The department shall be entitled to 
charge the following special fees: 

§28-112.9 Lien on premises for unpaid fee or other charge. 
Any unpaid fee or charge for an inspection, reinspection, 
examination or service performed by the department or other 
unpaid amount owed to the department, and all permits issued 
by the department, pursuant to law shall constitute a lien upon 
the land and buildings upon or in respect to which such inspec- 
tion, reinspection, examination or service was performed or 
permit issued, as hereinafter provided. 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



A-21 



ADMINISTRATION 



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NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



ADMINISTRATION 



§28-112.9.1 Filing of fees. The department shall maintain a 
record of all unpaid fees and other charges. Such records 
shall be kept on a building by building basis and shall be 
accessible to the public during business hours. An entry of 
an unpaid amount on the records of the department shall 
constitute notice to all parties. 

§28-112.9.2 Lien. All such unpaid amounts shall constitute 
a lien upon the land and building upon, or in respect to 
which, such inspection, reinspection, examination or ser- 
vice was performed or permit issued when the amount 
thereof shall have been definitely computed as a statement 
of account by the department and the department shall file 
such statement with the department of finance for entry in 
the records of such department against the premises. Such 
lien shall have a priority over all other liens and encum- 
brances except for the lien of taxes and assessments. How- 
ever, no lien created pursuant to this section 28-1 12.9 shall 
be enforced against a subsequent purchaser in good faith or 
mortgagee in good faith unless the requirements of section 
28-112.9.1 are satisfied. 

§28-112.9.3 Notice. A notice, stating the amount due and 
the nature of the charge, shall be mailed by the department 
of finance, to the last known address of the person whose 
name appears on the records in the office of the department 
of finance as being the owner or agent or as the person desig- 
nated by the owner to receive tax bills or, where no name 
appears, to the premises, addressed to either the owner or 
the agent. 

§28-112.9.4 Interest. If such charge is not paid within 30 
days from the date of entry, it shall be the duty of the depart- 
ment of finance to receive interest thereon at the rate of 15 
percent per annum, to be calculated to the date of payment 
from the date of entry. 

§28-112.9.5 Tax lien. Such charge and the interest thereon 
shall continue to be, until paid, a lien on the premises. Such 
lien shall be deemed a tax lien within the meaning of sec- 
tions 11-319 and 1 1.-401 of the administrative code and may 
be sold, enforced or foreclosed in the manner provided in 
chapter three or four of title eleven of such code or may be 
satisfied in accordance with the provisions of section thir- 
teen hundred fifty-four of the real property actions and pro- 
ceedings law. 

§28-112.9.6 Reference. The notice mailed by the depart- 
ment of finance pursuant to this section 28-1 1 2.9 shall have 
stamped or printed thereon a reference to this section 
28-112.9. 

§28-112.9.7 Validity not subject to challenge in enforce- 
ment proceeding. In any proceedings to enforce or dis- 
charge a lien created pursuant to this section 28-1 12.9 the 
validity of the lien shall not be subject to challenge based on: 

1 . The lawfulness of the inspection, reinspection, exam- 
ination, service or permit; or 

2. The propriety and accuracy of the fee for which a lien 
is claimed, except as provided in this section 
28-112.9. 

§28-112.9.8 Standing to challenge. No such challenge 
may be made except by (i) the owner of the property, or (ii) a 



mortgagee or lienor whose mortgage or lien would, but for 
the provisions of this section 28-1.12.9, have priority over 
the department's lien. 



ARTICLE 113 

MATERIALS 

§28-113.1 General. Materials shall be used, tested and 
approved for use in accordance with the specific provisions of 
this code and department rules, except that the commissioner 
shall have the power to limit or prohibit the use of any material 
to protect public safety. Materials shall be identified or 
described on construction documents and other submittal doc- 
uments. 

§28-113.2 Use of materials. Except as set forth in sections 
28-113.2.1 through 113.2.6 materials specifically prescribed 
by this code or department rules may be used as prescribed 
without the prior approval of the commissioner. 

§28-113.2.1 Approved material. Whenever this code or 
the rules of the department requires the use of an approved 
material, such material shall not be used without the prior 
approval of the commissioner for such use and may be used 
only to the extent set forth in such approval. 

§28-113.2.2 Alternative materials. Except as otherwise 
specifically limited by this code, the provisions of this code 
are not intended to prevent the installation of any material or 
to prohibit any alternative engineered design or method of 
construction not specifically prescribed by this code, pro- 
vided that the use of such alternative material has been pre- 
viously approved by the commissioner and may be used 
only to the extent set forth in such approval. The use of an 
alternative material, design, method of construction or 
equipment shall be approved where the commissioner finds 
that the proposed design is satisfactory and complies with 
the intent of the provisions of this code, and that the mate- 
rial, method or work offered is, for the purpose intended, at 
least the equivalent of that prescribed in this code in quality, 
strength, effectiveness, fire resistance, durability and safety. 

§28-113.2.3 Listed or labeled. Whenever this code or the 
rules of the department requires that material used be listed 
or labeled to a standard, material that is so listed or labeled 
may be used in accordance with such list or label without the 
prior approval of the commissioner. However, the commis- 
sioner reserves the right to require that information be sub- 
mitted with regard to the testing and evaluation of any 
material so listed or labeled including but not limited to 
inspection certificates, test or evaluation reports, analysis, 
computations or other information used to determine that 
the material so listed or labeled complies with the applicable 
standard. 

§28-113.2.4 Material not listed or labeled. Whenever this 
code or the rules of the department requires that material be 
listed or labeled to a standard and material proposed to be 
used is not so listed or labeled, the use of such material shall 
be subject to prior approval by the commissioner and such 
material shall be used only to the extent set forth in such 
approval. 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



A-29 



ADMINISTRATION 



§28-113.2,5 Reuse. The use of used material that meets the 
requirements of this code for new material is permitted 
unless otherwise provided in this code. Used equipment and 
devices shall not be reused without the prior approval of the 
commissioner and may be used only to the extent set forth in 
such approval. 

§28-113.2.6 Previously issued approvals. Materials that 
were previously approved by the board of standards and 
appeals or by the department before the effective date of this 
code may continue to be used, but only to the extent set forth 
in such approval, and only if such approval is not specifi- 
cally amended or repealed by the commissioner. 

§28-113.3 Approval procedure. Approval of materials shall 
be in accordance with the rules of the department. The cost off- 
sets, reports and investigations required under these provisions 
shall be paid by the applicant. 

§28-113.3.1 Performance. Specific information consisting 
of test reports conducted by an approved testing agency in 
accordance with standards referenced in the construction 
codes or other such information as necessary, shall be pro- 
vided for the commissioner to determine whether the mate- 
rial will perform for the use intended. 

§28-113.3.2 Research and Investigation. Sufficient tech- 
nical data shall be submitted to the commissioner to sub- 
stantiate the proposed use of any material. If it is determined 
that the evidence submitted is satisfactory proof of perfor- 
mance for the use intended, the commissioner shall approve 
the use of the material subject to the requirements of this 
code. 

§28-113.3.3 Retesting of materials. All materials tested 
and accepted for use shall be subject to periodic retesting as 
determined by the commissioner; and any material that 
upon retesting is found not to comply with the code require- 
ments or the requirements set forth in the approval of such 
material shall cease to be acceptable for the use intended. 
During the period for such retesting, the commissioner may 
require the use of such material to be restricted or discontin- 
ued if necessary to secure safety. 

§28-113.3.4 New materials. New materials not provided 
for in this code, and any material of questioned suitability 
proposed for use in the construction of a building or struc- 
ture, shall be subjected to the tests prescribed in this code or 
in the rules of the department to determine character, quality 
and limitations of use. 

§28-113.3.5 Research reports. Supporting data, where 
necessary to assist in the approval of materials not specifi- 
cally provided for in this code, shall consist of valid research 
reports from approved sources. 

§28-113.3.6 Conflicting test results. Whenever there is 
evidence of conflicting results in the test of any material, the 
commissioner shall determine the acceptability of the mate- 
rial and/or the acceptable rating for such material. 

§28-113.3,7 Amendment and repeal. The commissioner 
shall have the power to amend or repeal the approval of any 
material, including materials previously approved by the 
board of standards and appeals. 



§28-113.3.8 Maintenance of records of approved mate- 
rial. For any material that has been approved, a record of 
such approval, including the conditions and limitations of 
the approval, shall be kept on file in the department and shall 
be open to public inspection at appropriate times. 

§28-113.3.9 List of approved testing agencies and 
approved materials. A current list of all approved testing 
agencies and a current list of all materials specifically 
approved by the commissioner or previously approved by 
the board of standards and appeals shall be maintained by 
the department and published in written form. 

§28-113.4 Labeling. Materials required to be labeled shall be 
labeled in accordance with the procedures set forth in this code 
or the recognized referenced standards. 

§28-113.4.1 Testing. An approved agency shall test a repre- 
sentative sample of the material being labeled to the relevant 
standard or standards. The approved agency shall maintain a 
record of the tests performed. The record shall provide suffi- 
cient detail to verify compliance with the test standard. 

§28-113.4.2 Inspection and identification. The approved 
agency shall at regular intervals perform an inspection, 
which shall be in-plant if necessary, of the material that is to 
be labeled. The inspection shall verify that the labeled mate- 
rial is representative of the material tested. 

§28-113.4.3 Label information. The label shall contain the 
manufacturer's or distributor's identification, model num- 
ber, serial number or definitive information describing the 
material's performance characteristics and the approved 
agency's identification. 

§28-113.4.4 Shipment and delivery certification of mate- 
rials listed, labeled or approved. In the case of the ship- 
ment or delivery of material listed or labeled to a standard, 
such material shall be appropriately labeled or accompanied 
by the inspection certificate of an approved agency that the 
material is the same as that which was tested and evaluated 
by such agency. In the case of the shipment or delivery of 
material previously approved by the commissioner, the 
material shall be identified by a tag or certificate indicating 
that the material is the same that was approved for its 
intended use by the commissioner or, if applicable, previ- 
ously approved by the board of standards and appeals, and 
containing the applicable approval number or calendar 
number under which the material received such approval. 



ARTICLE 114 
APPROVED AGENCIES 

§28-114.1 General. Approved agencies shall satisfy the provi- 
sions of this article and the rules of the department as to qualifi- 
cations and operations. The commissioner may revoke or 
suspend the commissioner's approval of or otherwise sanction 
an approved agency for cause. 

§28-114.1.1 Independent. An approved agency shall per- 
form its authorized duties objectively and competently. The 
agency shall disclose possible conflicts of interest so that 
objectivity can be confirmed. 



A-30 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



ADMINISTRATION 



§28-114.1.2 Testing equipment An approved agency shall 
have adequate testing equipment to perform required tests. 
The equipment shall be periodically calibrated. 

§28-114.1.3 Personnel. An approved agency shall employ 
experienced personnel qualified to conduct, supervise and 
evaluate the tests or inspections that it undertakes. Special 
inspections may be performed only by employees of such 
agency who are special inspectors qualified pursuant to 
department rules to perform or witness the particular test or 
inspection. The commissioner may require proof of the 
qualifications of employees. 

§28-114.1.4 Background. The commissioner may require 
an approved agency to submit to an investigation of its back- 
ground and of the background of its principals as a condition 
of approval. 

§28-114.1.5 Insurance. An approved agency shall main- 
tain liability insurance as required by department rules. 

§28-114.2 Written evaluation by approved agency. An 
agency's evaluation of material or report of an inspection shall 
be in writing after satisfactory completion of the required 
inspection or test. 

§28-114.3 Records. The approved agency shall maintain 
records of inspection and test reports for at least six years or for 
such period as the commissioner shall determine and shall 
make such records available to the department upon request. 

§28-114.4 Re-authorization of approved agencies. An 
approved agency shall have its approval re- authorized in accor- 
dance with rules of the department. 



ARTICLE 115 
SPECIAL INSPECTORS 

§28-115.1 General. Special inspectors shall satisfy the provi- 
sions of this article and the rules of the department as to qualifi- 
cations in order to perform special inspections required by 
chapter 17 of the New York city building code or elsewhere in 
this code. 

§28-115.2 Disqualification. The commissioner may disqual- 
ify a special inspector from performing special inspections 
pursuant to this code for cause. The special inspector shall be 
given prior notice of the proposed disqualification and the 
opportunity to contest such action. A list of special inspectors 
who have been disqualified from performing special inspection 
shall be maintained and made available to the public upon 
request. 

§28-115.3 Records. A special inspector shall maintain records 
of special inspections on a building by building basis for at least 
6 years or for such period as the commissioner shall determine 
and shall make such records available to the department upon 
request. 



ARTICLE 116 

INSPECTIONS AND SIGN-OFF OF COMPLETED 

WORK 

§28-116.1 General. Construction or work for which a permit is 
required shall be subject to inspection in accordance with this 



code and such construction or work shall remain accessible and 
exposed for inspection purposes until the required inspection is 
completed. A satisfactory inspection by the department or the 
acceptance by the department of a satisfactory report of an 
inspection by an approved agency or special inspector shall not 
be construed to be an approval by the department of a violation 
of the provisions of this code or of any other provision of law. It 
shall be the duty of the permit holder to cause the work to 
remain accessible and exposed for inspection purposes. The 
permit holder shall be liable for any expense entailed in the 
removal or replacement of any material required to allow 
inspection. The inspector shall supply a report of the results of 
each inspection. 

§28-116.2 Types of inspections. The inspections set forth in 
sections 28-116.2.1 through 28-1 16.2.4 are required or autho- 
rized by this code. 

§28-116.2.1 Preliminary inspection. Before approving 
construction documents, the commissioner is authorized to 
examine or cause to be examined structures or premises for 
which an application has been filed. 

§28-116.2.2 Compliance inspections. In addition to the 
inspections specified in this code, the commissioner is 
authorized to make or require other inspections of any con- 
struction work to ascertain compliance with the provisions 
of this code and other laws that are enforced by the depart- 
ment. 

§28-116.2.3 Special inspections and other inspections 
required during the progress of work. After the issuance 
of a work permit, special inspections and other inspections 
required by this code to be made during the progress of the 
work shall be made at such times or at such stages of the 
work and in such manner as shall be provided by this code or 
as otherwise required by the commissioner. The permit 
application shall set forth an inspection program for the job. 
Such inspections may be made by approved agencies or by 
the department as provided in this code or in the rules of the 
department. Special inspections shall be performed only by 
individuals who are special inspectors. The permit holder 
shall notify the relevant special inspectors in writing at least 
72 hours prior to the commencement of any work requiring 
special inspection. The commissioner may accept inspec- 
tion and test reports from approved agencies and special 
inspectors and the work may, unless otherwise specifically 
provided by code provisions or directed by the commis- 
sioner, proceed without any verifying inspection or test by 
the department. The names and business addresses of spe- 
cial inspectors and approved agencies shall be set forth in 
the work permit application. All inspection reports shall be 
in writing and signed by the person or entity performing the 
inspection. A record of all inspections shall be kept by the 
person performing the inspection. The commissioner may 
require inspection reports to be filed with the department. 
Records of inspections made by approved agencies and spe- 
cial inspectors shall be maintained by such persons for a 
period of six years after sign-off of the job or for such other 
period of time as the commissioner may require and shall be 
made available to the department upon request. 



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ADMINISTRATION 



§28-116,2.3.1 Special inspection of fabricated items. 
Where fabrication of regulated products is performed on 
the premises of a fabricator's shop, special inspection of 
the fabricated items is required. The special inspector 
shall verify that the fabricator maintains detailed fabrica- 
tion and quality control procedures that provide a basis 
for inspection control of the workmanship and the fabri- 
cator's ability to conform to approved construction docu- 
ments and referenced standards. The special inspector 
shall review the procedures for completeness and ade- 
quacy relative to the code requirements for the fabrica- 
tor's scope of work. 

Exception: Special inspections shall not be required 
where the fabricator is approved by the commissioner 
in accordance with section 28-116.7. 

§28-116.2.4 Final inspection. There shall be a final inspec- 
tion of all permitted work. Final inspections shall comply 
with sections 28-1 16.2.4.1 through 28-116.2.4.2. 

§28-116.2.4.1 Final inspection prior to certificate of 
occupancy. In all cases where the permitted work 
requires the issuance of a new or amended certificate of 
occupancy, the final inspection shall be performed by the 
department in the presence of the permit holder, the reg- 
istered design professional of record or the superinten- 
dent of construction. Such inspection shall be performed 
after all work authorized by the building permit is com- 
pleted and before the issuance of the certificate of occu- 
pancy. All failures to comply with the provisions of this 
code or approved construction documents shall be noted 
and the owner promptly notified thereof in writing. All 
defects noted in such inspection shall be corrected. 
Reports of such final inspections shall be maintained by 
the department. The final inspection report shall confirm 
that defects noted have been corrected, that the work is in 
substantial compliance with the approved construction 
documents and with this code and with other applicable 
laws and rules and that all required inspections were per- 
formed. 

§28-116.2.4.2 Final inspection prior to letter of com- 
pletion, in all. cases where the permitted work does not 
require the issuance of a certificate of occupancy, the 
final inspection shall be performed by the department or 
at the option of the owner by an approved agency. When- 
ever the department performs a final inspection, the 
department shall charge a fee for such inspection. The 
applicant shall take all reasonable and necessary steps to 
insure that the final inspection is performed within one 
year after the expiration of the last permit. The inspection 
shall be performed after all work authorized by the build- 
ing permit is completed. The person performing the 
inspection shall note all. failures to comply with the pro- 
visions of this code or approved construction documents 
and shall promptly notify the owner in writing. All 
defects noted in. such inspection shall be corrected. The 
final inspection report shall confirm that defects noted 
have been corrected, that the work is in substantial com- 
pliance with the approved construction documents and 
with this code and other applicable laws and rules and 



that all required inspections were performed. Final 
inspection reports shall be filed with and maintained by 
the department. Records of final inspections made by 
approved agencies shall be maintained by such persons 
for a period of six years after sign-off or for such other 
period as the commissioner shall require and shall be 
made available to the department upon request, 

§28-116.3 Inspection requests. It shall be the duty of the per- 
mit holder to notify the department or the person designated to 
perform the inspection when work requiring inspection is 
ready to be inspected. It shall be the duty of the permit holder to 
provide access to and means for inspection of such work for 
any inspections that are required by this code. 

§28-116.4 Sign-off of completed work. Upon submission of a 
satisfactory report of final inspection and all required submittal 
documents, the department shall document the sign-off of the 
project and issue a letter of completion, or, if applicable, a cer- 
tificate of occupancy for the work. The owner shall take all rea- 
sonable and necessary steps for the issuance by the department 
of a letter of completion or certificate of occupancy within 1 
year following the expiration of the last permit. 

§28-116.4.1 Issuance of certificate of compliance. The 
following types of service equipment shall not be operated 
until the department issues a certificate of compliance after 
submission of a satisfactory report of inspection and testing 
of such equipment in accordance with this code and all 
required submittal documents: 

1. Air-conditioning and ventilation systems. 

2. Elevators, escalators, moving walkways and dumb- 
waiters. 

3. Fuel burning and fuel-oil storage equipment. 

4. Refrigeration systems. 

5. Heating systems. 

6. Boilers. 

Exception: A certificate of compliance shall not be 
required in connection with work specifically exempted 
from permit requirements in accordance with this code 
or department rules. 

§28-116.5 Payment of outstanding penalties. The depart- 
ment may refuse to issue a letter of completion or certificate of 
occupancy pending payment of all outstanding fines or civil 
penalties imposed for violations of this code, the 1968 building 
code or other laws enforced by the department at the same 
building. 

§28-116.6 List of approved inspection agencies. A current 
list of all approved inspection agencies shall be maintained by 
the department and published in written form. 

§28-116.7 Fabricator approval. Approval of fabricators by 
the department shall be based upon review of the fabricator's 
written procedural and quality control manuals and periodic 
auditing of fabrication practices by an approved agency. 

§28-116.7.1 Fabricator's certificate of compliance. For 
all fabricated items, the approved fabricator shall submit a 
certificate of compliance to the department stating that the 
work was performed in accordance with the approved con- 



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NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



ADMINISTRATION 



struct! on documents, referenced standards and applicable 
provisions of law. 



ARTICLE 117 
PLACES OF ASSEMBLY 

§28-117.1 Place of assembly certificate of operation. It shall 
be unlawful to use or occupy any building or space as a place of 
assembly without a certificate of operation issued by the com- 
missioner. An application for a certificate of operation shall be 
made to the department in such form and containing such infor- 
mation as the commissioner shall provide. The department 
shall inspect every place of assembly space prior to the issu- 
ance of a certificate of operation. The commissioner shall not 
issue a certificate of operation unless the department deter- 
mines that the space conforms substantially to the approved 
construction documents and to the provisions of this code and 
that the certificate of occupancy authorizes such use. A certifi- 
cate of operation shall not be issued to a place of assembly pro- 
viding seating or other moveable furnishings unless the 
commissioner approves a plan conforming to this code and the 
rules of the department. Seating and other moveable furnish- 
ings shall be maintained at all times during occupancy in accor- 
dance with the approved plan. Any amendment of such plan 
shall be subject to the prior approval of the commissioner. 

§28-117.1.1 Contents of certificate of operation. The cer- 
tificate of operation shall contain the place of assembly cer- 
tificate number, the number of persons who may legally 
occupy the space and any other information that the com- 
missioner may determine. Such certificate of operation 
shall be framed and mounted in a location that is conspicu- 
ously visible to a person entering the space. For the purposes 
of this article a place of assembly permit issued prior to the 
effective date of this code shall be valid until its expiration. 
Prior to the expiration of the term of such place of assembly 
permit, the party responsible for renewal shall apply to the 
department for a certificate of operation in accordance with 
this article, except that the issuance of such certificate shall 
be subject to the same inspection requirement as a renewal 
of a certificate of operation pursuant to this code. 

§28-117.2 Temporary place of assembly certificate of oper- 
ation. At the commissioner's discretion, a temporary certifi- 
cate of operation may be issued for a place of assembly space 
upon request by the applicant in accordance with this code pro- 
vided that public safety is not jeopardized thereby. The appli- 
cant shall notify the fire department when a temporary place of 
assembly certificate of operation is issued. 

§28-117.3 Duration and renewal of certificate. A place of 
assembly certificate of operation shall be issued for a term of 1 
year and may be renewed annually upon payment of proper 
fees and proof of satisfactory inspection by the fire department. 

§28-117.4 Security guards. In the case of a certificate holdert 
that offers for sale food and/or beverages for on-premises con- 
sumption, but not including establishments operated by a 
not-for-profit corporation, and employs or uses the services of 
a security guard, as that term is defined in subdivision six of 
section eighty-nine of the general business law, such certificate 
holder t shall comply with the provisions of article 7- A of the 



general business law, shall obtain proof that such security 
guard is registered pursuant to article 7-A of the general busi- 
ness law, shall maintain such proof in a readily available loca- 
tion, in accordance with rules promulgated by the 
commissioner during all hours in which such place of assembly 
is open to the public, shall maintain a roster of all security 
guards working at any given time when such place of assembly 
is open to the public, and shall require each security guard to 
maintain on his or her person proof of registration at all times 
when on the premises. 

§28-117.4.1 Presumption. For purposes of this section, 
there shall be a rebuttable presumption that a person 
employed or whose services are retained at a place of 
assembly is a security guard if his or her job functions 
include: 

1 . The monitoring or guarding of the entrance or exit of 
such place of assembly to manage ingress and egress 
to such place of assembly for security purposes dur- 
ing the hours of operation of such establishment; 
and/or 

2, Protection of such place of assembly from disorderly 
or other unlawful conduct by patrons of such place of 
assembly. 

§28-117.4.1.1 Presumption not applicable to owner. 
The rebuttable presumption in section 28-117.4.1 shall 
not apply to an individual who is an owner of the estab- 
lishment as described in section 28-1.1.7.4 that has 
received a place of assembly certificate of operation. 

§28-117.4.2 Responsibility for violations. Notwithstand- 
ing any provision of this section, only the holder of a certifi- 
cate of operation shall be liable for violations of this article 
that relate to such holder's obligations regarding security 
guards. 

§28-117.4.3 Enforcement. In addition to employees of the 
department, employees of the police department and the 
department of consumer affairs shall have the authority to 
enforce the provisions of this article regarding security 
guards. 

§28-117.4.4 State liquor authority reporting. The 
enforcement agency shall report any violation of the provi- 
sions of this section relating to security guards to the state 
liquor authority if the holder of the certificate of operation 
holds a license pursuant to the alcoholic beverage control 
law. 



ARTICLE 118 
CERTIFICATES OF OCCUPANCY 

§28-118.1 General provisions. No building or open lot shall 
be used or occupied without a certificate of occupancy issued 
by the commissioner. Issuance of a certificate of occupancy 
shall not be construed as an approval of a violation of the provi- 
sions of this code or of other applicable laws and rules. 

§28-118.2 New buildings or open lots. No building hereafter 
constructed or open lot shall be occupied or used, in whole or in 
part, unless and until a certificate of occupancy shall have been 
issued certifying that such building or open lot conforms sub- 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



A-33 



ADMINISTRATION 



stantially to the approved construction documents and the pro- 
visions of this code and other applicable laws and rules. 

§28-118.3 Completed buildings or open Sots. The provisions 
of sections 28-1 18.3.1 through 28-118.3.4 shall apply to com- 
pleted buildings or open lots. 

§28-118.3.1 Change of occupancy or use. No building, 
open lot or portion thereof hereafter altered so as to change 
from one occupancy group to another, or from one zoning 
use group to another, either in whole or in part, shall be 
occupied or used unless and until the commissioner has 
issued a certificate of occupancy certifying that the alter- 
ation work for which the permit was issued has been com- 
pleted substantially in accordance with the approved 
construction documents and the provisions of this code and 
other applicable laws and rules for the new occupancy or 
use. 

§28-118.3.2 Changes inconsistent with existing certifi- 
cate of occupancy. No change shall be made to a building or 
open lot or portion thereof inconsistent with the last issued 
certificate of occupancy or, where applicable, inconsistent 
with the last issued certificate of completion for such build- 
ing or open lot or which would bring it under some special 
provision of this code or other applicable laws or rules, 
unless and until the commissioner has issued a new certifi- 
cate of occupancy. 

§28-118.3.3 Changes to exits. No building hereafter 
altered so as to cause a major alteration to existing exits shall 
be occupied or used unless and until the commissioner has 
issued a certificate of occupancy certifying that the alter- 
ation work for which the permit was issued has been com- 
pleted substantially in accordance with the approved 
construction documents and the provisions of this code and 
other applicable laws and rules. 

§28-118.3.4 Existing buildings or open lots without cer- 
tificates of occupancy, A building or open lot in existence 
prior to January 1 , 1 938 and heretofore legally used or occu- 
pied without a certificate of occupancy or, if applicable, a 
certificate of completion, and subject to the provisions of 
section 28-102.4 (continuation of lawful existing use), may 
continue to be used or occupied without a certificate of 
occupancy or, if applicable, a certificate of completion, pur- 
suant to the requirements of section six hundred forty five of 
the New York city charter, this code and other applicable 
laws and rules provided there is no change in the existing 
use or occupancy classification of the building, open lot or 
portion thereof. 

§28-118.3.4.1 Application for certificate of occu- 
pancy. Upon application by the owner of such a building 
or open lot in existence prior to January 1 , 1938, the com- 
missioner shall issue a certificate of occupancy for such 
building, provided that at the time of issuing such certifi- 
cate, such existing building is in compliance with all ret- 
roactive requirements of the 1968 building code 
applicable to such building and no notices of violation or 
other notices or orders affecting the building as they 
relate to the provisions of this code or the 1968 building 
code are pending before the department, and provided 
further that it is established to the satisfaction of the com- 



missioner, after inspection and investigation, that the 
alleged use of the building has heretofore legally existed. 

§28-118.3.4.2 Partial certificates of occupancy. Partial 
certificates of occupancy may be issued pursuant to sec- 
tion 28-1 18.16. 

§28-118.4 Applications for certificates of occupancy. AH 
applications for certificates of occupancy shall be submitted on 
forms furnished by the department. Applications for new 
buildings or additions to buildings shall be accompanied by an 
accurate and complete final lot survey made by a land surveyor 
showing such information as prescribed by the commissioner. 
The commissioner may waive the requirement of such survey 
in the case of small sheds, stands, temporary structures, signs, 
and similar small structures. 

§28-118.4.1 Applicant. The application for a certificate of 
occupancy shall be made by or on behalf of the owner of the 
building or open lot; and if made by a person other than the 
owner, the application shall be accompanied by a signed 
statement of the applicant stating that the applicant is autho- 
rized by the owner to make the application. The full names 
and addresses of the owner, and applicant, and of the princi- 
pal officers thereof, if a corporation, shall be stated in the 
application. 

§28-118.4.2 Statement of compliance. When a certificate 
of occupancy for a new or altered building is applied for, the 
application shall be accompanied by a signed statement of 
the registered design professional of record or the superin- 
tendent of construction, as applicable, stating that such per- 
son has examined the approved construction documents and 
specifications of the building for which the certificate of 
occupancy is sought, and that, to the best of his or her 
knowledge and belief, the building has been erected or 
altered in accordance with the approved construction docu- 
ments and specifications and, as erected or altered, complies 
with the provisions of this code and all other applicable laws 
and rules, except insofar as variations or variances there- 
from have been legally permitted or authorized, specifying 
such variations or variances in such required statement. 

§28-118.5 Review of applications for certificates of occu- 
pancy. All applications for certificates of occupancy and 
accompanying submittal documents shall be examined 
promptly after their submission. If the building is entitled to the 
certificate of occupancy applied for, the application shall be 
approved and the certificate of occupancy issued by the com- 
missioner within 10 calendar days after submission of a com- 
plete application. Otherwise, the application shall be rejected 
and written notice of rejection, stating the grounds of rejection, 
shall be given to the applicant within 10 calendar days of the 
submission of the application. Wherever an application has 
been rejected and proof is thereafter submitted establishing 
that the grounds of rejection have been met and that the build- 
ing is entitled to the certificate of occupancy applied for, the 
application shall be approved and the certificate of occupancy 
issued within 1 calendar days after submission of such proof. 

§28-118.6 Issuance of certificate of occupancy. After the 
commissioner inspects the building or open lot and determines 
that the building or open lot conforms substantially to the 
approved construction documents and to the provisions of this 



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NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



ADMINISTRATION 



code and other applicable laws and rules, the commissioner 
shall issue a certificate of occupancy that shall contain infor- 
mation including, but not limited to: 

1 . The building permit number. 

2. The address of the structure. 

3. Block and lot numbers pertaining to the zoning lot as of 
the date of issuance, as defined in section 12-10 of the 
New York city zoning resolution. 

4. The description of the structure for which the certifi- 
cate is issued. 

5. A statement that the described portion of the structure 
has been inspected for compliance with the require- 
ments of this code. 

6. The name and signature of the commissioner. 

7. The code under which the permit was issued. 

8. The use and occupancy, in accordance with this code 
and the zoning resolution. 

9. The type of construction as defined in this code. 

10. The design occupant load of floors and spaces. 

1 1. Types of major fire suppression or alarm systems. 

1 2. Any special stipulations and conditions of the building 
permit. 

13. The maximum permissible live loads on the several 
floors of the building. 

14. The number of parking spaces. 

§28-118.7 Pavement plan. No certificate of occupancy shall 
be issued for any building or open lot requiring a pavement plan 
pursuant to article 108 unless and until an inspection has been 
made to show that all work necessary for compliance with the 
pavement plan has been completed. 

§28-118.7.1 Certification. No certificate of occupancy 
shall be issued for any building or open lot requiring a certif- 
ication pursuant to article 108 unless and until the applicant, 
after completion of construction work, inspects the side- 
walk and certifies that the sidewalk is free from defects. 

Exception: The commissioner may issue a certificate of 
occupancy if in lieu of such certification the owner fur- 
nishes to the department prior to the issuance of the cer- 
tificate of occupancy security satisfactory to the 
department that the sidewalk will be installed and paved 
or repaired within the time specified by the department. 

§28-118.8 Sanitary/storm water drainage. No certificate of 
occupancy shall be issued until the department confirms by 
inspection that all work relating to the installation of the part of 
the sanitary /storm water drainage system which lies outside of 
such property, if and as required by section 24-526 of the 
administrative code, has been satisfactorily completed. 

§28-118.9 Fire protection plan. No certificate of occupancy 
shall be issued until a fire protection plan, if required pursuant 
to article 109, has been filed and accepted. 

§28-118.10 Electrical work. No certificate of occupancy shall 
be issued unless compliance with the New York city electrical 
code is certified by the commissioner. 



§28-118.11 Certificates of compliance. No certificate of 
occupancy shall be issued until certificates of compliance are 
issued for the following types of service equipment: 

1. Air conditioning and ventilation systems. 

2. Elevators, escalators, moving walkways and dumbwait- 
ers. 

3. Fuel burning and fuel oil storage equipment. 

4. Refrigeration systems. 

5. Heating systems. 

6. Boilers. 

§28-118.12 Place of assembly certificate of operation. The 

issuance of a certificate of occupancy shall not authorize the 
use of any space as a place of assembly unless and until the 
commissioner thereafter issues a place of assembly certificate 
of operation. 

§28-118.13 Certificates of occupancy for air-inflated struc- 
tures, air-supported structures, and tents. Certificates of 
occupancy for air-inflated structures, air-supported structures, 
and tents shall be issued for a period not exceeding one year. 
Such certificates may be renewed for one-year periods upon 
demonstration that the structure complies with all laws and 
rules in effect at the time of the request for renewal. 

§28-118.14 Payment of outstanding penalties. The depart- 
ment may refuse to issue a certificate of occupancy for a build- 
ing pending payment of all outstanding fines or civil penalties 
imposed for violations of this code, the 1968 building code or 
other laws enforced by the department at the same building. 

§28-118.15 Temporary certificates of occupancy. Upon 
application, the commissioner is authorized to issue a tempo- 
rary certificate of occupancy before the completion of the 
entire work covered by the permit, provided that the subject 
portion or portions of the building may be occupied and main- 
tained in a manner that will not endanger public safety, health, 
or welfare. The commissioner shall set a time period during 
which the temporary certificate of occupancy is valid. 

§28-118.16 Amended certificate of occupancy. Where a 
building exceeds three stories in height and the change does not 
exceed 20 percent of the total floor area, an amendment to the 
existing certificate of occupancy for such new use shall be 
issued by the commissioner certifying that the proposed new 
occupancy and use conforms to the provisions of the laws gov- 
erning building construction and that the proposed use will not 
be in conflict with any provisions of the labor law, multiple 
dwelling law or the zoning resolution. 

§28-118.16.1 Partial certificate of occupancy. A partial 
certificate of occupancy may be issued to a specific floor or 
floors of an existing building erected prior to January 1, 
1.938 subject to the following conditions: 

1. The building does not have and is not otherwise 
required to have a certificate of occupancy or certifi- 
cate of completion, if applicable. 

2. The floor or floors for which a certificate of occu- 
pancy is issued shall not constitute more than 50 per- 
cent of the gross floor area of the building. 



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ADMINISTRATION 



3. The building is of noncombustible construction and 
protected with an automatic sprinkler system. 

4. Adequate means of egress are provided from all 
floors. 

5. Upon inspection, the building is deemed safe for 
occupancy. 

§28-118.17 Revocation of certificates of occupancy. The 
commissioner is authorized to request, in writing, pursuant to 
section six hundred forty five of the New York city charter that 
the board of standards and appeals or a court of competent 
jurisdiction revoke, vacate, or modify a certificate of occu- 
pancy issued under the provisions of this code whenever the 
certificate is issued in error, or on the basis of incorrect infor- 
mation provided to the department. 

§28-118.18 Record of certificates. A record of all certificates 
of occupancy shall be kept by the department; and copies 
thereof shall be furnished by the department upon request, and 
on the payment of the fee prescribed in article 1. 12 of this chap- 
ter. The certificate of occupancy or a copy thereof shall be 
available for inspection at the building at all reasonable times. 

§28-118.19 Posting of certificates of occupancy. The owner 
shall post a copy of the building's certificate of occupancy in 
accordance with this section 28-1. 18.19, except buildings occu- 
pied entirely by group R3. Buildings that are not required to 
have a certificate of occupancy shall be posted by the owner 
with a sign or placard in a form prescribed by the commis- 
sioner. The certificate of occupancy or sign, as applicable, shall 
be permanently affixed to the structure in a conspicuous loca- 
tion in a public hall, corridor, management office of the build- 
ing or as otherwise prescribed by the commissioner. 

§28-118.19.1 Replacement of posted certificates of occu- 
pancy and signs. All posted certificates of occupancy or 
signs, as applicable, shall not be removed or defaced and, if 
lost, removed or defaced, shall be immediately replaced. 
The commissioner may inspect or cause to be inspected 
periodically all buildings for compliance with the provi- 
sions of this code in regard to posting; and the inspection 
reports shall specify any violation thereof. 



gas meter piping or gas distribution piping require the 
shut-off of gas flow to a building, the utility company shall 
be notified by the owner or his or her authorized representa- 
tive. 

§28-119.2 Temporary connection. The commissioner shall 
have the authority to authorize the temporary connection of the 
building or system to the gas service utility. 

§28-119.3 Authority to disconnect utility service. The com- 
missioner may authorize disconnection of gas service to the 
building, structure or system regulated by this code and the 
codes referenced in case of emergency where necessary to 
eliminate an immediate hazard to life or property. The depart- 
ment shall notify the local gas utility company, and wherever 
possible the owner and occupant of the building, structure or 
service system of the decision to disconnect prior to taking 
such action. 



ARTICLE 119 
SERVICE UTILITIES 

§28-119.1 Connection of service utilities. It shall be unlawful 
for any utility company or utility corporation to supply gas to a 
building, place or premises in which new meters other than 
replacement are required until a certificate of approval of gas 
installation from the department is filed with such utility com- 
pany or utility corporation. When new gas service piping has 
been installed it shall be locked-off by the utility company or 
utility corporation either by locking the gas service line valve 
or by installing a locking device on the outside gas service line 
valve. The lock shall not be removed until the gas meter piping 
(other than utility owned) and gas distribution piping have been 
inspected and certified as required by the department of build- 
ings as being ready for service. 

§28-119.1,1 Gas shut-off for alterations to gas piping 
systems. When alterations, extensions or repairs to existing 



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NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



CHAPTER 2 

ENFORCEMENT 



ARTICLE 201 
GENERAL 

§28-201.1 Unlawful acts. It shall be unlawful to erect, con- 
struct, alter, extend, repair, fail to maintain, move, remove, 
demolish, occupy, use or operate any building, structure, pre- 
mises, or equipment, or to conduct any subject matter regulated 
by this code or by the zoning resolution, or to cause same to be 
done, in conflict with or in violation of any of the provisions of 
this code, the zoning resolution, or the rules of the department 
or, with regard to existing buildings, any applicable provision 
of the 1 968 building code or any other law or rule enforced by 
the department. It shall be unlawful to fail to comply with an 
order of the commissioner or to violate any order of the com- 
missioner issued pursuant to this code, the 1 968 building code, 
the zoning resolution or any law or rule enforced by the depart- 
ment. 

§28-201.2 Classification of violations. The commissioner 
shall promulgate rules classifying all violations of this code, 
the zoning resolution or, with regard to existing buildings, the 
1968 building code or other laws or rules enforced by the 
department as immediately hazardous violations, major viola- 
tions or lesser violations unless the classification of such viola- 
tions is specifically directed by this code. Such classification 
shall be based on the effect of the violation on life, health, 
safety or the public interest or the necessity for economic disin- 
centive. 

§28-201.2.1 Specified immediately hazardous viola- 
tions. The commissioner shall classify the following viola- 
tions as immediately hazardous: 

1. A violation of section 28-210.1 in which a building 
legally approved for occupancy as a one-family or 
two-family dwelling (as set forth in the certificate of 
occupancy or if no certificate of occupancy is 
required, as evidenced by official records) is ille- 
gally converted to or maintained as a dwelling for 
occupancy by four or more families; 

2. Any violation of section 28-21 1.1 false statement; 

3. Any violation of a stop work order or of a cease use 
order; 

4. Any violation of a vacate order or order to seal, 
secure and close, or closure order; 

5. Unlawful demolition; 

6. Falsely impersonating an employee or authorized 
representative of the department; 

7. Occupancy without a required certificate of occu- 
pancy; 

8. Intentional disobedience or violation of any provi- 
sion of a closure order; 

9. Submittal of a materially false or misleading profes- 
sional certification. 



10. A violation of section 28-212. 1 1 . 

1 1 . A violation of section 28-307. 1 . 

12. A violation by a licensed rigger or person perform- 
ing the functions and duties of a licensed rigger of 
the provisions of sections 28-404.1 or 28-401.9 of 
this code or such person's failure to ensure that 
workers have certificates of fitness required pursu- 
ant to this code or applicable rule or any person's 
violation of the provisions of section 3314.10 of the 
New York city building code. 

13. A violation of any provision of chapter 4 of this title 
for engaging in any business or occupation without 
a required license or other authorization. 

§28-201.2.2 Specified major violations. The commis- 
sioner shall classify the following violations as major viola- 
tions: 

1. A violation of section 28-2 10.1 or 28-210.2 other than 
a violation that is directed to be classified as immedi- 
ately hazardous. 

2. Failure to perform required facade, elevator and 
boiler inspections and to file required reports within 
the applicable time period. 

3. Failure to provide the notice required by section 
3314.1.1 of the New York city building code. 

§28-201.3 Methods of enforcement. The commissioner may 
use any of the methods set forth in this code to enforce compli- 
ance with this code, the 1968 building code, the zoning resolu- 
tion, other laws or rules enforced by the department and orders 
of the commissioner issued pursuant thereto including but not 
limited to: 

1 . Proceedings for the recovery of civil penalties for imme- 
diately hazardous, major and lesser violations before the 
environmental control board or other administrative tri- 
bunal. 

2. Civil judicial proceedings for the recovery of civil penal- 
ties or injunctive relief or both for immediately hazard- 
ous, major and lesser violations. 

3. Criminal judicial proceedings for the imposition of crim- 
inal fines or imprisonment or both for immediately haz- 
ardous, major and lesser violations. 

4. The issuance and enforcement of peremptory orders for 
immediately hazardous, major and lesser violations. 

5. The issuance of a commissioner's request for correction 
of an unlawful use or condition or order to correct an 
unlawful use or condition. 

6. Other special remedies as set forth in this code, the zon- 
ing resolution or other law or rule. 

§28-201.3.1 Issuance. Officers and employees of the 
department and of other city agencies designated by the 



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commissioner shall have the power to issue summonses, 
appearance tickets and notices of violation for violations of 
this code, the 1968 building code, the zoning resolution or 
other laws or rules enforced by the department, orders, and 
requests for corrective action. 

§28-201.4 Aggravating and mitigating factors. Civil penal- 
ties and criminal fines and imprisonment shall be imposed 
within the ranges set forth in this code or as otherwise specified 
in this code or other law, with due regard for mitigating and 
aggravating factors. 



ARTICLE 202 
CIVSL PENALTIES 

§28-202.1 Civil penalties. Except as otherwise specified in 
this code or other law, violations of this code, the 1968 building 
code, the zoning resolution or other laws or rules enforced by 
the department shall be punishable by civil penalties within the 
ranges set forth below: 

1. For immediately hazardous violations, a civil penalty of 
not less than one thousand dollars nor more than 
twenty-five thousand dollars may be imposed for each 
violation. In addition to such civil penalty, a separate 
additional penalty may be imposed of not more than one 
thousand dollars for each day that the violation is not cor- 
rected. The commissioner may by rule establish speci- 
fied daily penalties within the limit set forth above for 
particular immediately hazardous violations. 

2. For major violations, a civil penalty of not more than ten 
thousand dollars may be imposed for each violation. In 
addition to such civil penalty, a separate additional pen- 
alty may be imposed of not more than two hundred fifty 
dollars for each month that the violation is not corrected. 
The commissioner may by rule establish specified 
monthly penalties within the limit set forth above for par- 
ticular major violations. 

3. For lesser violations, a civil penalty of not more than five 
hundred dollars may be imposed for each violation. 

§28-202.2 Continuing violations. Notwithstanding the 
assessment of daily penalties, each day that a violation contin- 
ues shall be a separate and distinct offense. 



ARTICLE 203 
CRIMINAL PENALTIES 

§28-203.1 Criminal fines and imprisonment. Except as oth- 
erwise specified in this code or other law, violations of this 
code, the 1968 building code, the zoning resolution or other 
laws or rules enforced by the department shall be punishable by 
criminal fines and imprisonment within the ranges set forth 
below: 

1. Every person convicted of violating a provision of this 
code, the 1968 building code, the zoning resolution or 
other law or rule enforced by the department or an order 
of the commissioner issued pursuant thereto that is clas- 
sified by the commissioner or the code as an immediately 
hazardous violation shall be guilty of a misdemeanor 



punishable by a fine of not more than twenty-five thou- 
sand dollars or by imprisonment of not more than one 
year or by both such fine and imprisonment. 

2. Every person convicted of violating a provision of this 
code, the 1968 building code, the zoning resolution or 
other law or rule enforced by the department or an order 
of the commissioner issued pursuant thereto that is clas- 
sified by the commissioner or the code as a major viola- 
tion shall be guilty of a violation punishable by a fine of 
not more than ten thousand dollars or imprisonment for 
not more than 15 days or both such fine and imprison- 
ment. 

3. Every person convicted of violating a provision of this 
code, the zoning resolution or other law or rule enforced 
by the department or an order of the commissioner issued 
pursuant thereto that is classified by the commissioner or 
the code as a lesser violation shall be guilty of a violation 
punishable by a fine of not more than five hundred dol- 
lars. 

§28-203.2 Continuing violations. In the case of continuing 
violations each day's continuance shall be a separate and dis- 
tinct offense. 



ARTICLE 204 

ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL BOARD 

§28-204.1 General. Any person who shall violate or fail to 
comply with any of the provisions of this code, the 1968 build- 
ing code, the zoning resolution or other laws or rules enforced 
by the department or with any order issued pursuant thereto 
shall be liable for a civil penalty that may be recovered in a pro- 
ceeding before the environmental control board. Such proceed- 
ing shall be commenced by the service of a notice of violation 
returnable before the board. Such notice of violation may be 
issued by employees of the department or of other city agencies 
designated by the commissioner and may be served by such 
employees or by a licensed process server. 

§28-204.2 Order to certify correction. Each such notice of 
violation shall contain an order of the commissioner directing 
the respondent to correct the condition constituting the viola- 
tion and to file a certification with the department that the con- 
dition has been corrected. Unless otherwise provided by rule, 
such order shall require that violations classified as major or 
lesser be corrected within 30 days from the date of the order 
and that violations classified as immediately hazardous be cor- 
rected forthwith. Such order shall also require that certification 
of the correction of the violation shall be filed with the depart- 
ment in a manner and form and within such additional period of 
time as shall be established by rule of the department. In any 
proceeding before the environmental control board, no civil 
penalty shall be imposed for a lesser violation if the respondent 
complies with the commissioner's order to correct and to cer- 
tify correction of the violation within the applicable time 
period. However, such violation may serve as a predicate for 
purposes of assessing aggravating factors attributable to multi- 
ple offenses. 

§28-204.3 Failure of proof. In any proceeding before the envi- 
ronmental control board, if the board finds that the commis- 



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ENFORCEMENT 



sioner has failed to prove the violation charged, the order 
requiring the respondent to correct the condition constituting 
the violation shall be deemed dismissed. 

§28-204,4 Failure to certify the correction of a violation. 
Failure to comply with an order of the commissioner issued 
pursuant to section 28-204.2 to correct and to certify correction 
of a violation within the applicable time period shall be a viola- 
tion of this code for which penalties may be imposed in addi- 
tion to the penalties that may be or have been imposed for the 
violation referred to in such order. Upon application, for good 
cause, the commissioner may extend the time for filing the cer- 
tification of correction of a violation, but not for more than 30 
days for each extension. 

§28-204.5 False statements in certification of correction. 
For the purposes of this section 28-204.5, if the environmental 
control board finds that a certification of correction filed pursu- 
ant to section 28-204.2 contained material false statements 
relating to the correction of a violation, such certification of 
correction shall be null and void and the penalties set forth in 
this code for the violation may be imposed as if such false cer- 
tification had not been filed with and accepted by the depart- 
ment. It shall be an affirmative defense that the respondent 
neither knew nor should have known that such statements were 
false. 

§28-204.6 Tax lien. Enforcement of environmental control 
board judgments against owners for certain building code vio- 
lations. Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, 
an environmental control board judgment against an owner for 
a building code violation with respect to a private dwelling, a 
wooden-framed single room occupancy multiple dwelling, or a 
dwelling with a legal occupancy of three or fewer dwelling 
units shall constitute a tax lien on the property named in the 
violation with respect to which such judgment was rendered, as 
hereinafter provided. Such liens shall be entered and enforced 
as provided in this section 28-204.6. 

§28-204.6.1 Record of unpaid judgments. There shall be 
filed in the office of the department a record of all such 
unpaid judgments. Such records shall be kept by tax lot and 
block number and shall be accessible to the public during 
business hours. An entry of a judgment on the records of the 
department shall constitute notice to all parties. 

§28-204.6.2 Lien. All such unpaid judgments shall consti- 
tute a lien upon the property named in the violation with 
respect to which such judgment was rendered when the 
amount shall have been definitely computed as a statement 
of account by the department, and the department shall file 
such statement with the department of finance for entry 
against the property. Such lien shall have a priority over all 
other liens and encumbrances except for the lien of taxes 
and assessments. However, no lien created pursuant to this 
section 28-204.6 shall be enforced against a subsequent pur- 
chaser in good faith or mortgagee in good faith unless the 
requirements of section 28-204.6.1 are satisfied. 

§28-204.6.3 Notice. A notice, stating the amount due and 
the nature of the charge, shall be mailed by the department 
of finance to the last known address of the person whose 
name appears on the records of the department as being the 
owner or agent of the property or as the person designated 



by the owner to receive tax bills or, where no name appears, 
to the property, addressed to either the "owner" or the 
"agent." 

§28-204.6.4 Mailing. Such notice mailed by the department 
of finance pursuant to this section 28-204.6.4 shall have 
stamped or printed thereon a reference to section 204.6. 

§28-204.6.5 Failure to pay charge. If such charge is not 
paid within 30 days from the date of entry, it shall be the duty 
of the department of finance to receive interest thereon at the 
same rate as unpaid real property taxes, to be calculated to 
the date of payment from the date of entry. 

§28-204.6.6 Enforcement of lien. Such charge and the 
interest thereon shall continue to be, until paid, a lien on the 
property. Any remedy or procedure available for the 
enforcement of tax liens against such property, including, 
but not limited to, any sale of a tax lien or any foreclosure of 
a tax lien, shall be available with respect to such tax lien. In 
addition, such tax lien may be satisfied in accordance with 
the provisions of section 1354 of the real property actions 
and proceedings law. 

§28-204.6.7 Validity of lien. In any proceeding to enforce 
or discharge a lien created pursuant to this section 28-204.6, 
the validity of the lien shall not be subject to challenge based 
on the lawfulness of the judgment, except as provided in this 
section 28-204.6. 

§28-204.6.8 Challenge. No such challenge may be made 
except by the owner of the property or a mortgagee or lienor 
whose mortgage or lien would, but for the provisions of this 
section 28-204.6, have priority over the department's lien. 

§28-204.6.9 Notice to mortgagees and lienors. Notwith- 
standing the foregoing provisions, no such judgment shall 
be entered and enforced as a tax lien against any property 
unless at the time of the issuance of the notice of violation a 
copy of such notice was also served on all mortgagees and 
lienors of record of such property by mail addressed to the 
recorded addresses of such mortgagees and lienors. 

§28-204.6.10 Non-exclusive remedy. The procedures pro- 
vided in this section 28-204.6 for the enforcement of envi- 
ronmental control board judgments against owners shall be 
in addition to any other methods provided under any other 
provision of law for the enforcement of such judgments. 



ARTICLE 205 
CIVIL JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS 

§28-205.1 Civil judicial enforcement. The owner, lessee, per- 
son in charge, or occupant of any building, structure, premises, 
equipment or part thereof, where a violation of this code, the 
1968 building code, the zoning resolution or of other laws or 
rules enforced by the department or any order issued by the 
commissioner shall exist or the agent, architect, builder, con- 
tractor, engineer, or any other person who commits or assists in 
any such violation or who maintains any building, structure, 
premises, equipment or part thereof where any such violation 
shall exist shall be subject to an action or proceeding to restrain, 
correct or abate such violation, or to compel compliance with 
such order. Upon request of the commissioner, the corporation 



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counsel may institute judicial actions or proceedings seeking 
such relief. In addition to any other remedies, in any such 
action or proceeding the defendant or respondent shall be sub- 
ject to the payment of civil penalties as provided in this code. 

§28-205.11 Corporation counsel. Such actions and pro- 
ceedings may be instituted by the corporation counsel in the 
name of the city in any court of competent jurisdiction in the 
city and shall be given preference over pending causes 
therein. In such actions or proceedings, the city may apply 
for restraining orders, preliminary injunctions or other pro- 
visional remedies, with or without notice; and no undertak- 
ings shall be required as a condition to the granting or 
issuing of any such order, injunction or remedy, or by reason 
thereof. No court shall lose jurisdiction of any action or pro- 
ceeding hereunder by reason of a plea that the title to real 
estate is involved if the object of the action is to recover a 
penalty for the violation of any of the provisions of this 
code, 

§28-205.1.1.1 Naming the building as a defendant. 
The corporation counsel shall name as defendants the 
building, structure, or premises where the violation shall 
exist by describing it by block, lot number, and street 
address and at least one of the owners of some part of or 
interest in the building, structure, or premises. 

§28-205.1.1.2 In rem jurisdiction over the building. In 
rem jurisdiction over the building, structure, or premises 
where the violation shall exist shall be complete by affix- 
ing the summons to the door of the building, structure, or 
premises and by mailing the summons by certified or 
registered mail, return receipt requested, to one of the 
owners of some part of or interest in the building, struc- 
ture, or premises. Proof of service shall be filed within 
two days thereafter with the clerk of the court designated 
in the summons. Service shall be complete upon such fil- 
ing. 

§28-205.1.1.3 Service on other defendants. Defen- 
dants, other than the building, structure, or premises 
where the violation shall exist, shall be served with the 
summons as provided in the civil practice law and rules. 

§28-205.1.2 Presumptive evidence. In any action or pro- 
ceeding founded upon a claim by the commissioner that any 
law or rule enforceable by the department has been violated, 
or that a lawful order issued by such commissioner has not 
been complied with, the following presumptions shall 
apply: 

§28-205.1.2.1 Presumption of commissioner certifi- 
cate. A certificate in writing by the commissioner, or his 
or her authorized representative, shall be presumptive 
evidence of any matter stated therein. 

§28-205.1.2.2 Presumption of ownership. The person 
in whose name the real estate affected by the action is 
recorded in the office of the city register or the county 
clerk, as applicable, shall be presumed to be the owner 
thereof. 



§28-205.1,2.3 Presumption of employment or agency. 
Whenever there is evidence that a person was the man- 
ager, operator, or supervisor or, in any other way, in 
charge of the premises, at the time the violation occurred, 
such evidence shall be presumptive that he or she was an 
agent or employee of the owner or lessee of the building, 
structure, or premises. 

§28-205.1.3 Costs. In no case shall the department, or any 
officer or employee thereof, be liable for costs in any such 
action or proceeding; and officers and employees of the 
department, acting in good faith and without malice, shall 
be free from liability for acts done in any such action or pro- 
ceeding. 

§28-205.1.4 Lien. Any judgment rendered in any such 
action or proceeding shall be and become a lien upon the 
premises named in the complaint in such action or proceed- 
ing, if any, the lien to date from the time of filing a notice of 
pendency in the office of the clerk of the county in which the 
premises is located, and to have priority before any mort- 
gage or other lien existing prior to such filing, except tax and 
assessment liens. 

§28-205.1.5 Notice of pendency. The notice of pendency 
referred to in this section 28-205.1.5 may be filed at the 
commencement of judicial proceedings; provided the com- 
missioner may deem such action to be necessary. Any notice 
of pendency filed pursuant to the provisions of this code 
may be vacated and cancelled of record upon an order of a 
justice of the court in which such action or proceeding was 
instituted or is pending, or upon the consent in writing of the 
corporation counsel. The clerk of the county where the 
notice is filed is hereby directed and required to mark any 
such notice of pendency, and any record or docket thereof, 
as vacated and cancelled of record upon the presentation 
and filing of a certified copy of such order or consent. 



ARTICLE 206 
CRIMINAL JUDICIAL PROCEEDINGS 

§28-206.1 Criminal judicial enforcement. The owner, lessee, 
person in charge, or occupant of any building, structure, pre- 
mises, equipment or part thereof, where a violation of this 
code, the 1968 building code, the zoning resolution or of other 
laws or rules enforced by the department or any order issued by 
the commissioner shall exist or the agent, architect, builder, 
contractor, engineer, or any other person who commits or 
knowingly assists in any such violation or who maintains any 
building, structure, premises, equipment or part thereof where 
any such violation shall exist shall be guilty of a criminal 
offense punishable by a fine or imprisonment or both a fine and 
imprisonment in accordance with this code. 

§28-206.1.1 Other penalties. The criminal penalties pro- 
vided by this code shall be in addition to or alternative to any 
civil sanctions authorized to be imposed for an unlawful use 
or condition cited in this code. 



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ENFORCEMENT 



ARTICLE 207 

PEREMPTORY ORDERS 

§28-207.1 Contents and service. Peremptory orders issued by 
the commissioner shall contain a description of the building, 
structure, premises, equipment or subject matter affected, and 
shall be designated by address where applicable. Such orders 
may be served personally or by posting at the premises fol- 
lowed by regular mail, by any officer or employee of the 
department, or by any person authorized by the commissioner. 

§28-207.2 Stop work orders. Whenever the commissioner 
finds that any building work is being executed in violation of 
the provisions of this code, the 1968 building code, the zoning 
resolution or of any laws or rules enforced by the department, 
or in a dangerous or unsafe manner, the commissioner or his or 
her authorized representative may issue a stop work order. 

§28-207.2.1 Issuance. Upon issuance of a stop work order 
by the commissioner, all work shall immediately stop unless 
otherwise specified. Such order may require all persons to 
forthwith vacate the premises pursuant to the provisions of 
section 28-207.4 and may also require such work to be done 
as, in the opinion of the commissioner, may be necessary to 
remove any danger therefrom. The police department or 
other law enforcement agency or officer shall, upon the 
request of the commissioner, assist the department in the 
enforcement of this section 28-207.2. The stop work order 
may be given verbally or in writing to the owner, lessee or 
occupant of the property involved, or to the agent of any of 
them, or to the person or persons executing the work. A ver- 
bal order shall be followed promptly by a written order and 
shall include the reason for the issuance of the stop work 
order. 

§28-207.2.2 Unlawful continuance. No person shall with 
knowledge or notice of a stop work order allow, authorize, 
promote, continue or cause to be continued any work cov- 
ered by the stop work order, except such work that may be 
required by order of the commissioner. 

§28-207.2.3 Rescission. Upon application, the commis- 
sioner shall rescind the stop work order when the condition 
that gave rise to its issuance has been corrected and either all 
civil penalties or criminal fines assessed for any violation of 
such order have been paid or, where a violation is pending, 
security for the payment of such penalties or fines has been 
posted in accordance with department rules, or where the 
stop work order was issued in error or conditions are such 
that it should not have been issued. The commissioner may 
by rule require the payment of a fee in the amount of the 
expense of additional inspection and administrative 
expense related to such stop work order. 

§ 28-207.2.4 Mandatory stop work orders. The commis- 
sioner shall issue stop work orders in the circumstances set 
forth below. Upon issuance of such stop work order, the 
work shall immediately stop and shall not resume until the 
stop work order is rescinded by the department. The stop 
work order shall not be rescinded less than two business 
days after the date of issuance of such order. Nothing in the 
following sections shall be construed to limit the commis- 
sioner's power to issue stop work orders in other circum- 
stances. 



§ 28-207.2.4.1 Scaffold safety. A stop work order shall 
be issued if a permit holder or person directly in charge of 
any suspended scaffold supported by c-hooks or outrig- 
ger beams fails to notify the department prior to the 
installation or use of such equipment as required by sec- 
tion 3314.1.1 of the New York city Building code and 
either: 

1 . The rigger does not hold a license required by this 
code, or 

2. The workers lack certificates of fitness as required 
by this code or applicable rule, or 

3. The rigger failed to file with the department satis- 
factory evidence of insurance required by this 
code. 

§28-2073 Public nuisance. Whenever any building, structure, 
place or premises is or may be perilous to life or property by 
reason of the nature or condition of its contents, its use, the 
overcrowding of persons therein, defects in its construction, or 
deficiencies in fire alarm, fire extinguishing equipment or fire 
escape equipment, or by reason of any condition in violation of 
law or order of the commissioner, the commissioner may 
declare that the same, to the extent that the commissioner may 
specify, is a public nuisance and may order the same to be 
removed, sealed, abated, repaired, altered or otherwise 
improved. 

§28-207.3.1 Rescission. Upon application, the commis- 
sioner shall rescind such order when the condition that gave 
rise to its issuance has been corrected or where the declara- 
tion was issued in error or conditions are such that it should 
not have been issued. The commissioner may by rule 
require the payment of a fee in the amount of the expense of 
additional inspection and administrative expense related to 
such order. 

§28-207.4 Vacate order. In case any order to remedy a condi- 
tion that is or may be imminently perilous, dangerous or detri- 
mental to life, public safety or property, issued by the 
commissioner is not complied with, or the commissioner deter- 
mines that an emergency exists requiring such action, the com- 
missioner may order and immediately cause any building, 
structure, place or premises to be vacated. The vacate order 
may be given verbally or in writing to the owner, lessee or occu- 
pant of the property involved, or to the agent of any of them, or 
to the person or persons executing the work. A verbal order 
shall be followed promptly by a written order and shall include 
the reason for the issuance of the vacate order. 

§28-207.4.1 Basis for vacate. Conditions for which the 
commissioner may issue a vacate order shall include but 
shall not be limited to the following conditions that create a 
hazard to life, public safety, or property: 

1 . Danger of structural failure; 

2. Danger of facade failure; 

3. Inadequate fire protection, detection, or suppression; 

4. Inadequate egress; or 

5. Improper storage of hazardous materials, combusti- 
ble or toxic. 



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§28-207.4.2 Enforcement of vacate order. All orders 
issued pursuant to this section 28-207.4 shall be posted 
upon the premises and made available to the public. Imme- 
diately upon the posting of an order upon the premises, offi- 
cers and employees of the police department, the 
department, and other authorized officers and employees of 
the city shall immediately act upon and enforce such order. 
The police department shall provide all reasonable assis- 
tance to the department and other authorized officers and 
employees necessary to carry out the provisions of this sec- 
tion 28-207.4. A copy of the vacate order shall be filed with 
the county clerk of the county in which the premises is 
located. Such filing shall be notice of the vacate order to any 
subsequent owner and such owner shall be subject to such 
order. 

§28-207.4.3 Rescission. Upon application, the commis- 
sioner shall rescind the vacate order when the condition that 
gave rise to its issuance has been corrected and either all 
civil penalties or criminal fines assessed for any violation of 
such order have been paid or, where a violation is pending, 
security for the payment of such penalties or fines has been 
posted in accordance with department rules, or where the 
vacate order was issued in error or conditions are such that it 
should not have been issued. The commissioner may by rule 
require the payment of a fee in the amount of the expense of 
additional inspection and administrative expense related to 
such vacate order. 

§28-207.5 Cease use orders for service equipment. When- 
ever the commissioner determines that the operation of any ser- 
vice equipment is or may be dangerous to life, health or safety, 
the commissioner may issue a cease use order requiring such 
equipment to be shut down or sealed or otherwise made inoper- 
able. Upon the issuance of such order a tag or notice shall be 
affixed to the device warning that the equipment is unsafe for 
operation. It shall be unlawful to operate such equipment or to 
remove or deface such tag unless and until the cease use order is 
rescinded by the commissioner. 

§28-207.5.1 Rescission of cease use order. Upon applica- 
tion, the commissioner shall rescind the cease use order 
when the condition that gave rise to its issuance has been 
corrected and either all civil penalties or criminal fines 
assessed for any violation of such order have been paid or, 
where a violation is pending, security for the payment of 
such penalties or fines has been posted in accordance with 
department rules or where the cease use order was issued in 
error or conditions are such that it should not have been 
issued. The commissioner may by rule require the payment 
of a fee in the amount of the expense of additional inspection 
and administrative expense related to such cease use order. 



ARTICLE 208 

COMMISSIONER'S REQUEST FOR 

CORRECTIVE ACTION 

§28-208.1 Commissioner's request for corrective action. As 

an alternative to the issuance of an order or notice of violation, 
the commissioner may issue a request for corrective action to 
any person responsible for any claimed unlawful use or condi- 
tion in any premises. Each request for corrective action shall 



have the commissioner's signature affixed thereto; but the 
commissioner may authorize any subordinate to affix such sig- 
nature, including an electronic signature. 

§28-208.1.1 Contents and delivery. The request for cor- 
rective action shall contain a description of the building, 
structure, premises, equipment or subject matter affected, 
shall be designated by address, where applicable, shall be 
sent by regular mail or upon consent by electronic means to 
the owner, lessee, person in charge, or occupant of the build- 
ing, structure, premises, equipment or to any person respon- 
sible for the unlawful use or condition at the last known 
address for such person. Requests for corrective action may 
be sent to a managing agent or other person specifically des- 
ignated by the owner to attend to such requests on behalf of 
the owner. Each such request shall describe the unlawful use 
or condition, call upon the person addressed to correct it and 
to inform the department of the action taken. A time for cor- 
rection or response shall be specified. A request for correc- 
tive action may be given orally, followed within a 
reasonable time by a writing as described in this section 
28-208.1.1. A request for corrective action shall provide 
notice that failure to respond to such a request may result in 
the imposition of a fee for any subsequent inspection that 
results in the issuance of a notice of violation for the condi- 
tion. 

§28-208.1.2 Public record. The department shall keep a 
record, available to the public, of requests for corrective 
action issued pursuant to this article. The record of a request 
for corrective action shall be reflected as withdrawn upon 
submission to the department of a statement in a form pre- 
scribed by rule indicating that the use or condition has been 
corrected or did not exist or following an inspection by the 
department that confirms correction. A request for correc- 
tive action may be issued in response to a complaint or 
inspection. 

§28-208.1.3 Other remedies not precluded. Nothing in 
this article shall be construed to limit the power of the com- 
missioner to take any other action authorized by this code 
with respect to any unlawful use or condition including, but 
not limited to, the commencement of an action or proceed- 
ing in a court or before the environmental control board or 
other administrative tribunal or the issuance of a peremptory 
order or to require that the commissioner issue a request for 
corrective action as a prerequisite to any other enforcement 
action. 



ARTICLE 209 

COMMISSIONER'S ORDER TO CORRECT 

UNLAWFUL USE OR CONDITION 

§28-209.1 General. The commissioner may issue an order to 
the persons responsible for any unlawful use or condition in 
any premises directing such person to correct the unlawful use 
or condition. Each such order shall have the commissioner's 
signature affixed thereto; but the commissioner may authorize 
any subordinate to affix such signature, including an electronic 
signature. 



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§28-209.2 Contents and service of order. All orders issued by 
the commissioner shall contain a description of the building, 
structure, premises, equipment or subject matter affected, and 
shall be designated by address where applicable. All such 
orders shall be served by regular mail or, upon consent, elec- 
tronically. Such orders may be served by any officer or 
employee of the department, or by any person authorized by 
the commissioner. An order may be given orally, followed 
within a reasonable time by a written order as described in this 
section 28-209.2. Failure to comply with a commissioner's 
order within the stated time period shall be a violation of this 
code punishable by civil penalties or criminal fines and impris- 
onment as set forth in this code. Proof of compliance with a 
commissioner's order shall consist of certification as pre- 
scribed by the rules of the department. 



ARTICLE 210 
ILLEGAL CONVERSIONS 

§28-210.1 Illegal residential conversions. It shall be unlaw- 
ful, except in accordance with all requirements of this code, to 
convert any dwelling for occupancy by more than the legally 
authorized number of families or to assist, take part in, main- 
tain or permit the maintenance of such conversion. Upon the 
finding of such violation and the imposition of punishment for 
such violation as set forth in this code the department or if 
applicable the environmental control board shall forward to the 
internal revenue service, the New York state department of tax- 
ation and finance and the New York city department of finance 
the name and address of the respondent or defendant, the 
address of the building or structure with respect to which the 
violation occurred and the time period during which the viola- 
tion was found to have existed. 

§28-210.2 Illegal industrial or manufacturing conversions. 
Except as otherwise provided by section 42-03 of the zoning 
resolution and the multiple dwelling law, it shall be unlawful, 
except in accordance with all requirements of this code, to con- 
vert to residential use any space legally authorized for occu- 
pancy for industrial or manufacturing use or to assist, take part 
in, maintain or permit the maintenance of such conversion. 
Upon the finding of such violation and the imposition of pun- 
ishment for such violation as set forth in this code the depart- 
ment, or, if applicable, the environmental control board shall 
forward to the internal revenue service, the New York state 
department of taxation and finance and the New York city 
department of finance the name and address of the respondent 
or defendant, the address of the building or structure with 
respect to which the violation occurred and the time period dur- 
ing which the violation was found to have existed. 



ARTICLE 211 
FALSE STATEMENTS 

§28-211.1 False statements in certificates, forms, written 
statements, applications, reports or certificates of correc- 
tion. It shall be unlawful for any person to make a material false 
statement in any certificate, professional certification, form, 
signed statement, application, report or certification of the cor- 
rection of a violation required under the provisions of this code 



or any rule of any agency promulgated thereunder that such 
person knew or should have known to be false. 

§28-211.1.1 Rebuttable presumption. In any proceeding 
that relates to a false statement in a certification of correc- 
tion of a violation filed in compliance with section 28-204.2 
if an inspection made within six months after the filing of 
the certification finds a condition constituting a violation 
that is the same as the condition described in the notice of 
violation with respect to which such certification was filed, 
there shall be a rebuttable presumption that the condition 
described in such notice of violation continued and is the 
same condition found in the inspection. 

§28-211.1.2 Additional penalty for false statements. In 
addition to any other penalty provided by law, the commis- 
sioner may refuse to accept an application or other docu- 
ment submitted pursuant to or in satisfaction of a 
requirement of this code or of a rule of any agency promul- 
gated thereunder that bears the signature of a person who 
has been found, after a hearing at the office of administrative 
trials and hearings pursuant to the department's rules, to 
have knowingly or negligently made a false statement or to 
have knowingly or negligently falsified or allowed to be fal- 
sified any certificate, form, signed statement, application, 
report or certification of the correction of a violation 
required under the provisions of this code or of a rule of any 
agency promulgated thereunder. 

§28-211.2 Falsely impersonating an officer. It shall be 
unlawful for any person to falsely represent himself or herself 
as an officer, inspector or employee of the department, or as 
acting under the authority of the department, or without author- 
ity to use, wear or display a shield or other insignia or emblem 
such as is worn by such officer, inspector or employee. 



ARTICLE 212 

ABATEMENT OF PUBLIC NUISANCE CAUSED BY 

CERTAIN ILLEGAL OCCUPANCIES 

§28-212.1 Abatement of public nuisances caused by illegal 
commercial or manufacturing occupancy in residence dis- 
tricts and certain other zoning districts. Any building or part 
thereof or vacant land that is located in a residence zoning dis- 
trict and that is occupied for a use not permitted in such district 
in violation of the zoning resolution, without a certificate of 
occupancy authorizing such use, is hereby declared to be a pub- 
lic nuisance. Any building or part thereof or vacant land that is 
located in a C-l or C-2 commercial zoning district and that is 
occupied for a commercial or manufacturing use indicated 
under use group 16, 17, or 18 as described in sections 32-25, 
42-14, and 42-15 of the zoning resolution, in violation of the 
zoning resolution, without a certificate of occupancy authoriz- 
ing such use is hereby declared to be a public nuisance. 

§28-212.2 Order of closure. If a building or part thereof or 
vacant land in which such a nuisance occurs is not occupied 
primarily as a residence, the commissioner may, in addition to 
or as an alternative to any other remedy under any other provi- 
sion of law, after notice and the opportunity for a hearing in 
accordance with this article, order the closing of such building 



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or part thereof or such vacant land to the extent necessary to 
abate the nuisance. 

§28-212.3 Notice of hearing. A notice of hearing with respect 
to an order of closure shall be served on the owner and mort- 
gagee of record of such building or part thereof or such vacant 
land and on any person alleged to be occupying such building 
or part thereof or such vacant land at which the nuisance is 
located. 

§28-212.4 Service of notice of hearing. Service may be made 
on the owner by delivering such notice to the owner or to an 
agent of the owner or to a person of suitable age and discretion 
at the residence or place of business of the owner or, if upon 
reasonable application such delivery cannot be completed, by 
affixing such notice in a conspicuous place at the owner's place 
of business or residence or by placing it under the entrance door 
at either of such locations or by delivering such notice to a per- 
son employed by the owner to work at or to manage or maintain 
the premises at which the nuisance is located and, in all 
instances except personal delivery upon such owner by mailing 
the notice of hearing as follows: 

§28-212.4.1 Mailing to owner's registered address. To 
the person registered with the department of housing preser- 
vation and development as the owner or agent of the pre- 
mises, at the address filed with such department in 
compliance with article two of subchapter four of chapter 
two of title twenty-seven of the administrative code; 

§28-212.4.2 Mailing to billing address. To the person des- 
ignated as owner of the building or designated to receive real 
property tax or water bills for the building at the address for 
such person contained in one of the files compiled by the 
department of finance for the purpose of the assessment or 
collection of real property taxes and water charges or in the 
file compiled by the department of finance from real prop- 
erty transfer forms filed with the city register upon the sale 
or transfer of real property; or 

§28-212.4.3 Mailing to recorded address. To the person in 
whose name the real estate affected by the order of the com- 
missioner is recorded in the office of the city register or the 
county clerk as the case may be at the address set forth on the 
recorded instrument. 

§28-212.4.4 Service on corporate owner. Service may be 
made on an owner that is a corporation pursuant to section 
306 of the business corporation law; however, service upon 
a corporation shall be deemed to have been completed 45 
days following service upon the secretary of state. 

§28-212.4.5 Service on mortgagees. Service may be made 
upon mortgagees of record by mailing such notice to the 
mortgagees at the address set forth on the recorded instru- 
ment. 

§28-212.4.6 Service on occupants. Service may be made 
upon an occupant by delivering such notice to the occupant 
or to a person employed by the occupant to work at or to 
manage or maintain the premises at which the nuisance is 
located; or by affixing such notice to the premises at which 
the nuisance is located in a conspicuous place or by placing 
a copy under the entrance door of such premises and mailing 
a copy of such notice to the occupant at such premises; and 



in all instances except personal delivery upon such occu- 
pant, by mailing the notice of hearing to the occupant at the 
premises at which the nuisance is located. 

§28-212.4.7 Proof of service. Proof of service pursuant to 
section 28-212.4.1 through 28-212.4.6 shall be filed with 
the commissioner. 

§28-212.5 Conduct of hearing by office of administrative 
trials and hearings. The hearing shall be conducted by the 
office of administrative trials and hearings. The administrative 
law judge assigned to hear the matter shall submit his or her 
proposed findings of fact and recommended decision to the 
commissioner. If based on such recommended decision, pro- 
posed findings of fact, and the record of the hearing the com- 
missioner determines that the building or part thereof or vacant 
land is a public nuisance, pursuant to this article, the commis- 
sioner may issue an order of closure. Such order shall not bar 
legally required ingress or egress for residential occupancy of 
parts of the building that are not subject to the order of closure. 

§28-212.6 Lack of knowledge not a defense. At such hearing 
it shall not be a defense that the owner, occupant, lessor, lessee, 
mortgagee, or other person having an interest in the property 
lacked knowledge of or did not acquiesce or participate in the 
creation or continuation of the public nuisance. 

§28-212.7 Closure not an act of possession. A closure 
ordered by the commissioner pursuant to this article shall not 
constitute an act of possession, ownership, or control by the 
city over the closed premises. 

§28-212.8 Posting of order of closure. An order of closure 
shall be posted at the building or part thereof or vacant land that 
is the subject of such order, and shall be mailed to the record 
owner of such premises, and any record mortgagee at the 
address for such person set forth in the recorded instrument, 
and to the person designated as owner or agent of the building 
or designated to receive real property tax or water bills for the 
building at the address for such person contained in one of the 
files compiled by the department of finance for the purpose of 
the assessment or collection of real property taxes and water 
charges or in the file compiled by the department of finance 
from real property transfer forms filed with the city register 
upon the sale or transfer of real property. A copy shall also be 
filed with county clerk or register of the county in which such 
premises are located. Such filing shall be notice of the order to 
any subsequent owner and such owner shall be subject to such 
order. 

§28-212.9 Enforcement of order of closure. On the tenth 
business day after the posting of such order and upon the writ- 
ten directive of the commissioner, police officers and autho- 
rized employees of the department shall act upon and enforce 
such order by sealing, padlocking, or otherwise preventing 
access to the premises in a manner that will not bar legally 
required ingress or egress for residential occupancy of parts of 
the building that are not subject to the closure order. 

§28-212.10 Rescission of order of closure. If at any time after 
the issuance of such order, the owner, mortgagee, or other per- 
son having an interest in the property provides assurance, in a 
form satisfactory to the commissioner, that the illegal commer- 
cial or manufacturing use of the premises has been discontin- 



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ued and will not reoccur, or such owner, mortgagee, or other 
person establishes that the premises may be lawfully occupied 
for such use, the commissioner shall rescind the closure order. 
If such order is rescinded, the commissioner shall, upon 
request of such owner, mortgagee, or other person, provide a 
copy of such rescission, which may be filed with the county 
clerk or register of the county in which such premises are 
located. No such re-occupancy shall be permitted without a 
certificate of occupancy authorizing such use. 

§28-212.11 Violation of closure order. It shall be unlawful for 
any person to use or occupy or to permit any other person to use 
or occupy any building or part thereof or vacant land that has 
been sealed, padlocked, or otherwise closed pursuant to an 
order of the commissioner. It shall be unlawful to mutilate or 
remove a posted order of the commissioner. Intentional disobe- 
dience or violation of any provision of a closure order shall be 
punishable as an immediately hazardous violation. 



ARTICLE 213 
PENALTY FOR WORK WITHOUT A PERMIT 

§28-213.1 Department penalty for work without a permit 
In addition to any penalties otherwise authorized by law pursu- 
ant to article 202 and the rules of the department, whenever any 
work for which a permit is required pursuant to this code has 
been performed without a permit, a penalty shall be imposed by 
the department as provided in this article. 

§28-213.1.1 Penalty for work without permit on one or 
two-family dwelling. Where work has been performed 
without a permit on a one- family or two- family dwelling the 
penalty shall equal four times the amount of the fee payable 
for the permit. Where only part of the work has been per- 
formed without a permit, the penalty shall be reduced pro- 
portionately according to the amount of work still to be 
performed at the time a permit is issued. Notwithstanding 
the foregoing, no such penalty shall be less than five hun- 
dred dollars. 

§28-213.1.2 Penalty for work without permit on other 
than one or two-family dwelling. The penalty for work 
without a permit on buildings other than one or two-family 
dwellings shall be fourteen times the amount of the fee pay- 
able for such permit. Where only part of the work has been 
performed without a permit, the penalty shall be reduced 
proportionately according to the amount of work still to be 
performed at the time a permit is issued. Notwithstanding 
the foregoing, no such penalty shall be less than five thou- 
sand dollars. 

§28-213.2 Waiver. Such penalty and the permit fee shall be 
payable by the owner of the building on which the unpermitted 
work was performed. A waiver or reduction of such penalty 
shall be available to a subsequent bona fide purchaser of the 
premises pursuant to department rules. 

§28-213.3 Payment of penalty required before issuance of 
permit. No permit shall be issued for work described in this 
article until the penalty assessed by the department pursuant to 
this article has been paid. 



§28-213.4 Procedure. The department shall adopt a rule set- 
ting forth a procedure for assessment of penalties pursuant to 
this article. 



ARTICLE 214 
ORDER TO SEAL, SECURE AND CLOSE 

§28-214.1 Order to seal, secure and close. If the commis- 
sioner determines such action is necessary to the preservation 
of life and safety the commissioner may order a building sub- 
ject to a vacate order to be sealed, secured and closed, except 
that the commissioner shall not order sealed, secured and 
closed any dwelling unit or other space lawfully used for resi- 
dential purposes unless such dwelling unit or other space is 
sealed pursuant to the provisions of article 216. 

§28-214.1.1 Definition. For the purpose of this article, 
"sealed" and "sealed, secured and closed" shall mean the 
use of any means available to render the building, structure 
or part thereof inaccessible, including but not limited to the 
use of a padlock or cinder blocks. 

§28-214.1.2 Hearing. Such order to seal, secure and close 
shall contain notice of the opportunity for a hearing with 
respect to such order to determine if the order was properly 
issued in accordance with the provisions of this article. Such 
hearing shall be conducted by the commissioner, or in the 
commissioner's discretion, by the office of administrative 
trials and hearings or the environmental control board. If the 
matter is referred to such office or board, the hearing officer 
shall submit his or her findings of fact and a recommended 
decision to the commissioner. The hearing shall be held 
within three business days after the receipt of the written 
request of an owner, lessor, lessee, or mortgagee for such 
hearing. The commissioner shall render a decision within 
three business days after such hearing is concluded or find- 
ings of fact and a recommendation are submitted. 

§28-214.1.3 Service of seal, secure and close order. Such 
order issued pursuant to this article shall be served as fol- 
lows: It shall be mailed to the record owner of such pre- 
mises; any record mortgagee of such premises at the address 
for such person as set forth in the recorded instrument; and if 
reasonably ascertainable, the person designated as owner's 
agent of the building or designated to receive real property 
tax or water bills for the building at the address for such per- 
son contained in one of the files compiled by the department 
of finance for the purpose of the assessment or collection of 
real property taxes and water charges or in the file compiled 
by the department of finance from real property transfer 
forms filed with the city register upon the sale or transfer of 
real property. A copy shall also be filed with the county clerk 
of the county in which such premises is located. Such filing 
shall be notice of the order to any subsequent owner and 
such owner shall be subject to such order. 

§28-214.1.4 Rescission of seal, secure and close order. An 
order issued pursuant to this article shall not be rescinded 
unless the owner, lessor, lessee or mortgagee seeking such 
rescission provides assurance, in a form satisfactory to the 
commissioner, that the conditions that caused the issuance 
of such order have been corrected and will not reoccur. If 



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such order is rescinded, upon the request of the owner, les- 
sor, lessee or mortgagee, the commissioner shall provide a 
certified copy of such rescission, which may be filed with 
the county clerk of the county in which such premises is 
located. 

§28-214.1.5 Expenses of enforcing seal, secure and close 
orders. The expenses attending the execution of any and all 
orders duly made by the department shall respectively be a 
several and joint personal charge against each of the owners 
or part owners, and each of the lessees and occupants of the 
building, structure, enclosure, place or premises to which 
such order relates, and in respect to which such expenses 
were incurred; and also against every person or body who 
was by law or contract bound to do that in regard to such 
building, structure, enclosure, place or premises which such 
order requires. Such expenses shall also be a lien on all rent 
and compensation due, or to become due, for the use of any 
building, structure, place or premises, or any part thereof, to 
which such order relates, and in respect to which such 
expenses were incurred. 

§28-214.1.6 Notice of seal, secure and close order to com- 
munity. The commissioner shall give written notice of the 
closing of any building, structure, enclosure, place or pre- 
mises pursuant to this article, and any subsequent actions 
taken with respect thereto, as soon as practicable, to the bor- 
ough president of the borough within which the closing has 
occurred; the council member representing the district 
within which the closing has occurred; and the local com- 
munity board. On January first of each year, the commis- 
sioner shall submit a report to the council, setting forth the 
number of closings made in the previous year, the locations 
of such closings, and the nature and use of the premises 
closed. The commissioner shall, in addition, as soon as 
practicable after a building, structure, enclosure, place or 
premises has been closed, make and publish a report of said 
closing in a manner calculated to quickly notify the local 
community in which such closing occurred. The commis- 
sioner shall also make and publish a report of any premises 
reopened pursuant to his or her permission under this arti- 
cle. Failure to comply with this section 28-214.1.6 shall not 
invalidate any action taken by the commissioner pursuant to 
this article. 

§28-214.2 Access to sealed premises. The commissioner shall 
allow access to the premises sealed, secured and closed pursu- 
ant to this article to an owner, or a lessor, lessee or mortgagee 
upon the following conditions: 

1 . The submission of a written affirmation, satisfactory to 
the commissioner, that such person or persons will com- 
mence or cause to be commenced without delay all work 
necessary to correct the conditions stated in the vacate 
order or otherwise to make the premises meet all applica- 
ble laws and rules and will complete such work within a 
period of time and in a manner to be approved by the 
commissioner; 

2. The submission of a written affirmation or other proof 
satisfactory to the commissioner describing the steps that 
have been taken and will be taken in the future to ensure 



that the premises will be used or operated in a lawful 
manner and specifying such lawful use; 

3, If a license, permit, certificate of operation or certificate 
of occupancy is necessary for such lawful use, the sub- 
mission of a written affirmation or other proof, satisfac- 
tory to the commissioner, describing the steps that have 
been taken and will be taken in the future to ensure that 
such premises will be used or operated in compliance 
with any law requiring such license, permit, certificate of 
operation or certificate of occupancy; and 

4. If the premises are leased and the person making the 
affirmations described above in items 1 , 2 and 3 is not 
such lessee, the commissioner may also require any 
authorized person seeking access to submit a written 
affirmation or other proof that proceedings to enable 
such person to take actions necessary to ensure compli- 
ance with the affirmations submitted by such authorized 
person pursuant to items 1, 2 and 3 have been com- 
menced. 

§28-214.3 Additional penalties for harm or injury from vio- 
lation of order to seal, secure and close. Notwithstanding any 
other law, rule, or regulation, any person, corporation, partner- 
ship, association or any other legal entity who permits a build- 
ing, structure, enclosure, place or premises, or any part thereof, 
to be unlawfully occupied or used in contravention of an order 
of the commissioner pursuant to this article, or who negligently 
fails to prevent or prohibit such unlawful occupancy or use, 
shall be liable for a civil penalty of not more than one million 
dollars, if any other person suffers serious physical injury, as 
defined in section ten of the penal law, or death in the building, 
structure, place or premises or any part thereof subject to such 
order as a result of such unlawful occupancy or use. If more 
than one person suffers serious physical injury or death, such 
penalty shall be recoverable for each person suffering serious 
physical injury or death. Such penalty shall be recovered in a 
civil action brought by the corporation counsel in the name of 
the city in any court of competent jurisdiction. In determining 
the amount of the civil penalty to be imposed the court shall 
consider: 

1 . The extent and severity of injury to persons and property 
caused by the violation; 

2. The history of violations by the defendant at such pre- 
mises, or any other premises, of laws or rules enforced by 
the department; 

3. The degree of willfulness, recklessness, or negligence 
displayed by the defendant in committing the subject 
violation; 

4. The defendant's financial resources; and 

5. The defendant's good faith efforts to cure the subject 
violation, including efforts to obtain entry to or posses- 
sion of the premises in order to do so. 

§28-214.3.1 Payment by city. In the event that the family of 
any person seriously injured or who has died as the result of 
any unlawful occupancy or use described in this section 
28-214.3 is unable to collect a judgment recovered in a civil 
action for personal injury or wrongful death against a defen- 
dant who has violated this section 28-214.3 because of the 



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insolvency of such defendant, the city may, in its discretion, 
pay to such injured person or the family of such deceased 
person an amount, as hereinafter provided, collected from 
such defendant in an action relating to the same injury or 
death commenced by the corporation counsel against such 
defendant pursuant to this section 28-214.3.1. 

§28-214.3.2 Limitations. Payments pursuant to section 
28-2 1 4.3. 1 shall be made as a matter of grace and shall be in 
such amounts and in accordance with such standards and 
procedures as shall be established by the mayor, provided, 
however, that any payment made pursuant to section 
28-214.3.1 shall be in an amount not exceeding 
out-of-pocket expenses, including indebtedness reasonably 
incurred for medical or other services necessary as a result 
of the injury upon which such action is based; loss of earn- 
ings or support resulting from such injury; burial expenses 
not exceeding two thousand five hundred dollars of a person 
who died as a result of such unlawful occupancy or use 
described in this section 28-214.3; and the unreimbursed 
cost of repair or replacement of articles of essential personal 
property lost, damaged or destroyed as a direct result of such 
unlawful occupancy or use. In no event shall the payment 
made to any person exceed the amount of such person's 
uncollected judgment for personal injury or wrongful death 
and in no event shall the total amount paid to any number of 
persons with such uncollected judgments against a single 
defendant exceed the actual amount collected by the city 
from such defendant in an action under this subdivision. 



ARTICLE 215 
EMERGENCY POWERS OF THE COMMISSIONER 

§28-215.1 Emergency work. Notwithstanding any other pro- 
visions of law, if the commissioner determines that a structure 
or any part thereof is in imminent danger of collapse and the 
exigency of the situation is such that any delay may cause fur- 
ther danger to the public safety, then the commissioner may 
direct the commissioner of housing preservation and develop- 
ment or the department of city wide administrative services, or 
other city agency to perform or arrange the performance of the 
emergency demolition of such structure or part thereof or such 
other work as deemed by the commissioner to make it safe. 

§28-215.1.1 Lien for emergency work. The expenses of 
the city in performing emergency work on any structure or 
part of such structure pursuant to this article shall constitute 
a debt recoverable from the owner and a lien upon the land 
and any part of such structure that was not demolished. 
Every such lien shall have priority over all other liens and 
encumbrances on the premises except for the lien of taxes 
and assessments. Except as otherwise provided by rule of 
the affected agency, the agency incurring such expense shall 
be governed by the procedures set forth in article eight of 
subchapter five of the housing maintenance code with 
respect to the enforcement of such debt and lien against all 
types of structures, including those authorized to be occu- 
pied or otherwise occupied for residential, commercial, and 
manufacturing purposes. 

§28-215.2 Stopping work and securing structures. See sec- 
tion 28-207.2. 



§28-215*3 Vacating structures. See section 28-207.4. 

§28-215.4 Violations of protective measures during con- 
struction or demolition. During the construction or demoli- 
tion of a structure, the commissioner shall notify the owner of 
the structure affected of any failure to comply with any of the 
provisions of this code that concern the protection of the public 
and workers during construction or demolition. Unless the 
owner so notified proceeds immediately to comply with the 
orders of the commissioner, the commissioner shall have full 
power to correct the violation. All expenses incurred therefore 
shall become a lien on the property pursuant to section 
28-112.9. 

§28-215.5 Investigation of accidents or other emergency 
conditions. When necessary to conduct an investigation of any 
occurrence affecting building or construction safety, the com- 
missioner may seize or impound equipment, building material, 
and portions of the affected building or premises for examina- 
tion and testing. The police department or other authorized law 
enforcement agency shall cooperate with the commissioner 
upon request and shall provide a suitable place for the deposit 
of such items. 

§28-215.6 Closing streets temporarily. The commissioner 
may, when necessary for the public safety, temporarily close 
the sidewalks, streets, structures or places adjacent to a struc- 
ture or part thereof, and the police commissioner, or any of his 
or her subordinates shall enforce all orders or requirements 
made by the commissioner, when so requested by the commis- 
sioner. 

§28-215.7 Recovery of bodies from wrecked structures. 

Where any persons are known or believed to be buried under 
the ruins of any fallen structure or part thereof in the city, the 
commissioner shall cause an examination of the premises to be 
made for the recovery of the injured and bodies of the dead. 
Whenever, in making such examination, it shall be necessary to 
remove any debris from the premises, other city agencies shall 
cooperate with the commissioner in carrying out the purposes 
of this section 28-215.7, and shall provide suitable and conve- 
nient places for the deposit of such debris. 

§28-215.8 Non-compliance with orders; execution of work 
by department. Upon the failure to comply with any order of 
the commissioner within the time limited thereby, and subject 
to the provisions of article 216, any work required to be exe- 
cuted by such order may be executed by the commissioner 
through the officers, agents or contractors of the department; 
and the city shall be reimbursed promptly for all costs and 
expenses of such work. Such costs and expenses shall become a 
lien upon the premises involved and named in the commis- 
sioner's order, which may be enforced in accordance with the 
provisions of section 28-1 12.9 of this code. 



ARTICLE 216 
UNSAFE BUILDINGS 

§28-216.1 Conditions constituting an unsafe building or 
structure. Any building, structure or part thereof described in 
this article shall be deemed an unsafe building and shall be 
demolished or removed or made safe and secure as provided 
herein. 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



A-47 



ENFORCEMENT 



§28-216.1.1 Compromised structures. Any structure or 
premises or part of a structure or premises that from any 
cause may at any time become dangerous or unsafe, struc- 
turally or as a fire hazard, or dangerous or detrimental to 
human life, health or safety, shall be demolished and 
removed or made safe and secure. 

§28-216,1.2 Vacant buildings. Any vacant building not 
continuously guarded or not sealed and kept secure against 
unauthorized entry shall have all openings sealed in a man- 
ner approved by the commissioner, and it shall be the duty of 
the owner thereof promptly to make any repairs that may be 
necessary for the purpose of keeping such building sealed 
and secure. 

§28-216.2 Record and notice of unsafe building, structure 
or premises. The department shall cause a report to be filed on 
an unsafe building, structure or premises. The report shall 
describe the nature of the occupancy of the structure and the 
nature of the unsafe condition and be made a record of the 
department. 

§28-216.3 Notice and order. The owner, executor, administra- 
tor, mortgagee, lessee or any other person who may have a 
recorded vested or recorded contingent interest in the unsafe 
building, structure or premises, shall be served with a notice 
containing a description of the unsafe building, structure or 
premises and an order requiring such building be vacated pur- 
suant to 28-207.4, if necessary, and sealed, secured, repaired, 
shored, or demolished and removed as may be deemed neces- 
sary by the department, 

§28-216.3.1 Content. Such notice shall require the person 
thus served immediately to certify to the department his or 
her acceptance or rejection of the order. The notice shall fur- 
ther notify said person (s) that upon his or her refusal or 
neglect to comply with any of the requirements of this provi- 
sion, a survey of the building or premises named in such 
notice will be made at a time and place therein named. The 
notice shall also state that if, pursuant to the survey, it is 
found that the building, structure, or premises referred to 
therein is unsafe or dangerous by the surveyors, their report 
of survey will be placed before the supreme court for trial at 
a time and place named in such notice. 

§28-216.4 Method of service. The notice and order shall be 
served in accordance with the civil practice law and rules of the 
state of New York. 

§28-216.5 Owner abatement of unsafe or dangerous condi- 
tions. If the person served with a notice and order pursuant to 
section 28-21 6.4 shall immediately certify his or her assent to 
the securing or removal of such unsafe building, structure or 
premises condition, such person shall be allowed a period of 
time as determined by the commissioner, or his or her designee, 
within which to commence and complete the abatement of the 
unsafe or dangerous condition. Such person shall employ suffi- 
cient labor and assistance to secure or remove such conditions 
as expeditiously as possible. 



§28-216.6 Survey. A survey of the building or premises shall 
be conducted as follows: 

§28-216.6.1 Identity of surveyors. The survey shall be 
made by three competent persons, of whom one shall be the 
commissioner or his or her designee; another shall be a reg- 
istered design professional appointed by a recognized pro- 
fessional organization; and the third shall be a registered 
design professional appointed by the person served with a 
notice pursuant to section 28-216.4. If the person served 
with such notice shall neglect or refuse to appoint such sur- 
veyor, the other two surveyors shall make the survey. In case 
they disagree, they shall appoint a third person to take part in 
such survey, who shall be a registered design professional of 
at least 10 years' practice, whose decision shall be final. 

§28-216.6.2 Posting report of survey. A copy of the report 
of the survey shall be posted on the structure that is the sub- 
ject thereof by the persons holding the survey, immediately 
on their issuing such report. 

§28-216.6.3 Compensation of surveyors. The registered 
design professional appointed by the respective profes- 
sional organization, as hereinbefore provided, who may act 
on any survey called in accordance with the provisions of 
this section 28-216.6, and the third surveyor who may have 
been called in the case of disagreement provided for in this 
section 28-216.6, shall each be paid a sum to be determined 
by rule to be promulgated by the department. 

§28-216.6.4 Cost of survey. Any costs incurred by the city 
in connection with the survey shall become money due and 
owing to the city as part of the return of precept and judg- 
ment provided for in section 28-21 6.9 and 28-216.10 of this 
code or pursuant to lien provided for in section 28-1 12.9 of 
this code. 

§28-216.7 Court proceeding. Whenever the report of survey 
shall recite that the building, structure or premises surveyed is 
unsafe or dangerous, the corporation counsel or his or her 
designee shall, at the time specified in the notice, place such 
notice and report before a justice of the court named in the 
notice. The report of survey shall be in writing and constitute 
the issues to be placed before the court for trial. The purpose of 
the trial shall be to determine whether the unsafe building, 
structure, or premises shall be vacated and sealed, secured, 
shored, or demolished and removed. 

§28-216.7.1 Precedence of proceeding. The unsafe build- 
ing proceeding shall have precedence over every other busi- 
ness of such supreme court. The trial on the issues in the 
unsafe building proceeding shall be held without delay, at 
the time specified in the notice, and shall be held by a justice 
of the court or by a referee, whose decision or report in the 
matter shall be final. 

§28-216.7.2 Precept to abate. If the justice or referee deter- 
mines the building, structure or premises that is the subject 
of the report of survey is unsafe or dangerous, such justice or 
referee trying the case shall immediately issue a precept 
directed to the commissioner authorizing the commissioner 



A-48 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



ENFORCEMENT 



forthwith to vacate pursuant to section 28-207.4, if neces- 
sary, and to seal, secure, shore, or demolish and remove the 
unsafe building, structure or premises named in such report. 
The precept shall be effective for a period of three years 
from the date of issuance. 

§28-216.7.3 Notice of pendency. A notice of pendency 
shall be filed in accordance with the following procedure: 

1 . The notice of pendency shall consist of a copy of the 
notice described in section 28-21 6.3 and shall be filed 
in the office of the clerk of the county where the prop- 
erty affected by such action, suit or proceeding is 
located. Such notice of pendency may be filed at any 
ti me after the service of the notice described in section 
28-216.3. 

2. Any notice of pendency filed pursuant to the provi- 
sions of this section 28-216.7.3 that has not expired 
may be vacated and cancelled of record upon an order 
of a justice of the court in which such suit or proceed- 
ing was instituted or is pending, or upon the consent in 
writing of the corporation counsel. The clerk of the 
county where the notice is filed is hereby directed and 
required to mark any such notice of pendency, and 
any record or docket thereof, as vacated and cancelled 
of record upon the presentation and filing of a certi- 
fied copy of such order or consent. 

§28-216.8 Execution of precept. A precept issued pursuant to 
section 28-216.7.2 shall be executed in accordance with the 
procedure set forth in sections 28-216.8.1 through 28-21 6.8.3. 

§28-216.8.1 Work by the department. Upon receiving a 
precept under the provisions of section 28-2 1 6.7.2, the com- 
missioner shall execute such precept, as therein directed, 
and may employ such labor and assistance and furnish such 
materials as may be necessary for that purpose. The com- 
missioner or his or her designee shall direct the commis- 
sioner of city wide administrative services or the department 
of housing preservation and development or other autho- 
rized agency to perform work in accordance with the pre- 
cept. Such work shall be performed by or under the 
direction of citywide administrative services in accordance 
with the provisions of section 4-204 of the administrative 
code, or the department of housing preservation and devel- 
opment, or such other authorized agency. 

§28-216.8.2 Owner application to perform work. The 
owner of such unsafe building, structure, or premises, or any 
party interested therein, if such person applies to the com- 
missioner immediately upon the issuing of such precept, 
shall be allowed to perform the requirements of such pre- 
cept at his or her own cost and expense, if the performance 
shall be done immediately and in accordance with the 
requirements of such precept and other applicable laws and 
rules and such other requirements as the commissioner shall 
impose. 

§28-216.8.3 Modification of precept. The commissioner 
or his or her designee shall have authority to modify the 
requirements of any precept when such commissioner or 
designee shall be satisfied that such change will secure the 
safety of such structure or premises equally well 



§28-216.8.3.1 Upon application. The commissioner 
shall also have authority to modify the requirements of 
any precept upon application to such commissioner in 
writing by the owner of the unsafe building, structure, or 
premises, or such owner's authorized representative. In 
addition, upon application to modify the requirements of 
any precept to seal or shore the structure by the commis- 
sioner of housing preservation and development, city- 
wide administrative services or such other authorized 
agency, the commissioner or designee shall have author- 
ity to modify such precept accordingly when the com- 
missioner shall be satisfied that such change will secure 
the safety of such structure or premises equally well. 

§28-216.8.3.2 Notice. After a determination to modify 
the precept is made by the commissioner, written notice 
of such determination shall be sent by regular mail to the 
owner and applicant for the modification if other than the 
owner, at his or her last known address. 

§28-216.8.3.3 Failure of owner to perform work. If no 
action in accordance with the modified precept is under- 
taken by the owner or applicant for modification within 
the time period provided in the modification following 
the granting of such application, the commissioner may 
direct the department of housing preservation and devel- 
opment or the department of city wide administrative ser- 
vices or such other authorized agency to execute the 
original precept, provided however that prior to such 
execution, notice shall be provided by regular mail to the 
owner of the unsafe building, structure or premises and 
applicant for the modification if other than the owner, at 
his or her last known address. The owner shall continue 
to have the right to request the commissioner to modify 
the requirements of the precept prior to the execution 
thereof. 

§28-216.8.4 Interference prohibited. It shall be unlawful 
for any person to interfere, obstruct or hinder the commis- 
sioner or the commissioner of citywide administrative ser- 
vices, housing preservation and development, or other 
authorized agency, or any person who, acting under the 
authority conferred on such person by such commissioner, 
in performing the work authorized by a precept issued out of 
any court or modified in accordance with §28-216.8.3, or 
the work ordered by the commissioner in accordance with 
such precept under the provisions of section 28-216.8.3.3. 

§28-216.8.5 Enforcement. The police commissioner shall 
enforce such orders or requirements when requested by the 
commissioner and shall likewise enforce same at the request 
of the commissioner of citywide administrative services, 
housing preservation and development, or other authorized 
agency, with respect to work performed by or under the 
direction of such commissioner pursuant to the provisions 
of section 28-216.8.3.3. 

§28-216.9 Return of precept and reimbursement of city. 
Upon compliance with any precept issued to the commissioner 
in a proceeding under this article, the commissioner may make 
return thereof, with an endorsement of the action thereunder 
and the costs and expenses thereby incurred, to the justice of 
the court from which such precept issued. Such justice shall 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



A-49 



ENFORCEMENT 



then tax and adjust the amount endorsed upon such precept, 
and shall adjust and allow the disbursements of the proceeding, 
including but not limited to the preliminary expenses of 
searches, service of the notice of survey and summons on inter- 
ested parties, surveys thereof, and costs of executing the pre- 
cept, which shall be inserted in the judgment in such 
proceeding. Such justice shall then render judgment for such 
amount and for the sale of the premises named in such notice, 
together with all the right, title and interest that the person 
named in such notice had in the lot, ground or land upon which 
such structure was placed, at the time of the filing of a notice of 
pendency in such proceedings, or at the time of the entry of 
judgment therein, to satisfy such judgment in foreclosure of 
mortgages. Nothing in this article shall preclude the city from 
recovering such costs and expenses in any other lawful manner, 
including pursuant to section 28-1 12.9 of this code. 

§28-216.10 Judgment Sien. Any judgment rendered in an 
action or proceeding instituted under this article shall be and 
become a lien upon the premises named in such action or pro- 
ceeding, such lien to date from the time of filing a notice of pen- 
dency in the office of the clerk of the county wherein the 
property affected by such action or proceeding, is located. 
Every such lien shall have priority before any mortgage or 
other lien as may exist prior to such filing except tax and assess- 
ment liens. 

§28-216.11 Tax lien. Any costs and expenses incurred by any 
agency of the city pursuant to this article, including but not lim- 
ited to the preliminary expenses of searches, service of the 
notice of survey and summons on interested parties, surveys 
thereof, and costs of executing the precept, shall be a debt 
recoverable from the owner of the premises and a lien upon the 
land and buildings upon or in respect to which such costs and 
expenses were incurred. Every such lien shall have priority 
over all other liens and encumbrances on the premises except 
for the lien of taxes and assessments. Except as otherwise pro- 
vided by rule of the affected agency, the agency incurring such 
expense shall be governed by the procedures set forth in article 
eight of subchapter five of the housing maintenance code with 
respect to the enforcement of such debt and lien. 



A-50 NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



CHAPTER 3 

MAINTENANCE OF BUILDINGS 



ARTICLE 301 
GENERAL 

§28-301.1 Owner's responsibilities. All buildings and all 
parts thereof and all other structures shall be maintained in a 
safe condition. All service equipment, means of egress, materi- 
als, devices, and safeguards that are required in a building by 
the provisions of this code, the 1968 building code or other 
applicable laws or rules, or that were required by law when the 
building was erected, altered, or repaired, shall be maintained 
in good working condition. Whenever persons engaged in 
building operations have reason to believe in the course of such 
operations that any building or other structure is dangerous or 
unsafe, such person shall forthwith report such belief in writing 
to the department. The owner shall be responsible at all times to 
maintain the building and its facilities and all other structures 
regulated by this code in a safe and code-compliant manner and 
shall comply with the inspection and maintenance require- 
ments of this chapter. 



ARTICLE 302 
MAINTENANCE OF EXTERIOR WALLS 

§28-302.1 General. A building's exterior walls and appurte- 
nances thereof shall be maintained in a safe condition. All 
buildings greater than six stories shall comply with the mainte- 
nance requirement of this article. 

Exception: The requirements imposed by this article shall 
not apply to any part of an exterior wall that is less than 12 
inches (305 mm) from the exterior wall of an adjacent build- 
ing. 

§28-302.2 Inspection requirements. A critical examination 
of a building's exterior walls and appurtenances thereof shall 
be conducted at periodic intervals as set forth by rule of the 
commissioner, but such examination shall be conducted at least 
once every five years. No later than January 1, 2009 the com- 
missioner shall by rule establish staggered inspection cycles 
for buildings required to comply with this section. The initial 
examination for a new building shall be conducted in the fifth 
year following the erection or installation of any exterior wall 
and/or appurtenances as evidenced by the issuance date of a 
temporary or final certificate of occupancy or as otherwise pre- 
scribed by rule. 

1. Such examination shall be conducted on behalf of the 
building owner by or under the direct supervision of a 
registered design professional with appropriate qualifi- 
cations as prescribed by the department. 

2. Such examination shall include a complete review of the 
most recently prepared report and an inspection. 

3. Such examination shall be conducted in accordance with 
rules promulgated by the commissioner. 

§28-302.3 Immediate notice of unsafe condition. Whenever 
a registered design professional learns of an unsafe condition 



through a critical examination of a building's exterior walls and 
appurtenances thereof, such person shall notify the owner and 
the department immediately in writing of such condition. 

§28-302.4 Report of critical examination. The registered 
design professional shall submit a written report to the com- 
missioner within 60 days of completing the critical examina- 
tion, but not more than five years following submission of the 
preceding report of critical examination, certifying the results 
of such critical examination as either safe, unsafe or safe with a 
repair and maintenance program. The report shall clearly docu- 
ment the condition of the exterior walls and appurtenances 
thereof and shall include a record of all significant deteriora- 
tion, unsafe conditions and movement observed as well as a 
statement concerning the watertightness of the exterior sur- 
faces. Such report must be professionally certified by such reg- 
istered design professional. 

§28-302.5 Repair of exterior walls, unsafe condition. Upon 
the notification to the department of an unsafe condition, the 
owner, the owner's agent or the person in charge shall immedi- 
ately commence such repairs, reinforcements or other mea- 
sures as may be required to secure public safety and to make the 
building's exterior walls or appurtenances thereof conform to 
the provisions of this code. 

1. All unsafe conditions shall be corrected within 30 days 
of filing the critical examination report. 

2. The registered design professional shall reinspect the 
premises and file an amended report within two weeks 
after the repairs have been completed certifying that the 
unsafe conditions of the building have been corrected. 

3. The commissioner may grant an extension of time of up 
to 90 days to complete the repairs required to correct an 
unsafe condition upon receipt and review of an initial 
extension application submitted by the registered design 
professional together with such additional documenta- 
tion as may be prescribed by rule. 

4. The commissioner may grant further extensions of time 
to complete the repairs required to remove an unsafe 
condition upon receipt and review of an application for a 
further extension submitted by the registered design pro- 
fessional together with such further documentation as 
may be prescribed by rule. 

§28-302.6 Safe condition with a repair and maintenance 

program. The registered design professional shall not file a 
report of a safe condition with a repair and maintenance pro- 
gram for the same building for two consecutive filing periods 
unless the second such report is accompanied by his or her pro- 
fessional certification attesting to the correction of all condi- 
tions identified in the prior report as requiring repair. 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



A-51 



MAINTENANCE OF BUiLDINGS 



ARTICLE 303 
PERIODIC BOILER INSPECTIONS 

§28-303.1 General. Periodic boiler inspections shall be per- 
formed in accordance with this article. 

§28-303.2 Annua! inspection. Except as otherwise provided 
in this article, all boilers as defined in section 204 of the New 
York state labor law, excepting those boilers listed in subdivi- 
sion five of such section of such labor law, shall be inspected at 
least once a year by a qualified department boiler inspector or 
an approved agency. Such inspections shall also include the 
chimney connectors. All. individuals who perform periodic 
inspections pursuant to this article shall be qualified under sec- 
tion 204 of the New York state labor law and the rules promul- 
gated by the commissioner of labor or the commissioner of 
buildings. 

§28-303.2.1 Internal inspection required. When the con- 
struction of the boiler allows, an internal inspection shall 
also be performed. 

§28-303.3 Inspection of high-pressure boilers. Each owner 
of a high-pressure boiler, as defined in this code, may choose to 
have the annual boiler inspection conducted by the department 
or by a qualified boiler inspector in the employ of a duly autho- 
rized insurance company. 

§28-303.4 Staggered inspection cycles. The commissioner 
may by rule establish staggered inspection cycles for buildings 
required to comply with this article. 

§28-303.5 Repair of defects. The owner of each boiler that is 
subject to periodic inspection shall correct any defects identi- 
fied in the annual boiler inspection. 

§28-303.6 Owner's annual statement. The owner of each 
boiler that is subject to periodic inspection shall file an annual 
written statement with the commissioner including: 

1. The location of each boiler. 

2. Whether the owner, agent, or lessee has had the boiler 
inspected by a qualified boiler inspector in the employ of 
a duly authorized insurance company or other qualified 
inspector in accordance with the requirements of this 
article, setting forth the name and address of the insur- 
ance company or other qualified inspector, the date of 
inspection, and the policy number covering the boiler. 

§28-303.7 Report of inspection. A signed copy of the report 
of each boiler inspection shall be filed with the owner's annual 
statement, on such forms and in such manner as required by the 
commissioner. The report shall include a certification that 
identified defects have been corrected. The statement shall be 
filed within 30 days after installation of a boiler. Thereafter, it 
shall be filed as set forth in this article and in rules. 

§28-303.8 Removal or discontinuance notice. The owner of a 
boiler that is removed or discontinued from use shall file a writ- 
ten notice of such removal or discontinuance with the commis- 
sioner within 30 days of the date of removal or discontinuance. 

§28-303.9 Additional inspections. In addition to the inspec- 
tions required by this article, the commissioner may make such 
additional inspections as required to enforce the provisions of 
this code. 



§28-303.10 Fees. Every owner of a boiler in use and inspected 
by a qualified boiler inspector in the employ of a duly autho- 
rized insurance company shall pay to the department an annual 
fee for each boiler in the amount prescribed by this code to 
cover the city's administrative and supervisory costs. The fee 
shall be payable at the time of the filing of the owner's annual 
statement. No fee shall be charged for additional inspections 
made by the department pursuant to section 28-303.9. 



ARTICLE 304 
PERIODIC INSPECTION OF ELEVATORS 

§28-304.1 General. Every new and existing elevator or con- 
veying system shall be inspected and tested in accordance with 
the schedule set forth in this article. 

§28-304.2 Elevators, escalators, moving walkways, mate- 
rial lifts, vertical reciprocating conveyors (VRC) and 
dumbwaiters. Elevators, escalators, moving walkways, mate- 
rial lifts, VRC's and dumbwaiters shall be inspected and tested 
in accordance with the schedule set forth in Table Nl of AS ME 
17.1 as referenced in chapter 35 and as may be modified in 
chapter 30 and appendix K of the New York city building code. 

Exception: Elevators located in owner-occupied one-fam- 
ily, two-family or multiple-family dwellings that service 
only the owner-occupied dwelling unit and that are not 
occupied by boarders, roomers or lodgers, and elevators 
located within convents and rectories that are not open to 
non-occupants on a regular basis are not subject to periodic 
inspection requirement of such reference standard, 

§28-304.3 Chair lifts and stairway chair lifts. Chair lifts and 
stairway chair lifts shall be inspected and tested at intervals not 
exceeding one year. 

§28-304.4 Amusement devices. Amusement devices shall be 
inspected and tested at intervals not exceeding six months 
except that for seasonally operated amusement devices, the 
commissioner may extend the periodic inspection and test for 
an additional two months. 

§28-304.5 Frequency of inspection and testing. Elevators 
and other conveying systems may be subject to more frequent 
inspection and testing as the commissioner finds necessary to 
protect public safety. 

§28-304.6 Inspection and testing process. All devices shall 
be inspected and tested in accordance with sections 28-304.6. 1 
through 28-304.6.6 

§28-304.6.1 Inspection and testing entities. The required 
periodic inspections shall be made by the department, 
except that one inspection and test for elevators and escala- 
tors shall be made between January first and December 
thirty-first of each year on behalf of the owner by an 
approved agency in accordance with this code and with 
rules promulgated by the commissioner. Required inspec- 
tions and tests performed on behalf of the owner shall be 
performed by an approved agency in accordance with rules 
of the department and witnessed by an approved agency not 
affiliated with the one performing the test. The department 
shall be notified at least 10 days prior to the owner's periodic 
inspection and testing pursuant to rule of the department. 



A-52 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



MAINTENANCE OF BUILDINGS 



§28-304.6.2 Scope. During periodic inspection and testing, 
in addition to any other requirements prescribed by this 
code, all parts of the equipment shall be inspected to deter- 
mine that they are in safe operating condition and that parts 
subject to wear have not worn to such an extent as to affect 
the safe and reliable operation of the installation. 

§28-304.6.3 Reporting an unsafe or hazardous condi- 
tion. If an inspection reveals that any elevator or other con- 
veying system is unsafe or hazardous to life and safety, the 
device is to be taken out of service immediately by the 
agency performing the inspection and the building owner 
notified immediately. The department shall be notified by 
telephone or fax within 24 hours. 

§28-304.6.4 Notation of inspection or test. After each 
inspection or test, the inspector shall affix the inspection 
date and his or her signature over a stamp identifying his or 
her approved agency and his or her approval number on the 
inspection certificate issued by the department. 

§28-304.6.5 Inspection and test reports submission. 
Inspection and test reports shall be submitted on such forms 
and in such manner as required by the commissioner. Cop- 
ies of each report (each copy originally signed by the 
inspector performing the inspection and test and by the 
inspector witnessing the inspection and test, the agency 
director, and the building owner) listing all violations of any 
of the provisions of this code for each device inspected 
and/or tested, shall be delivered to the owner within 30 cal- 
endar days of the inspection or test and filed with the depart- 
ment within 45 calendar days of the inspection or test. 

§28-304.6.6 Repair. All defects as found and reported in 
such inspection and test reports shall be corrected within 45 
days of the filing of the report, except all hazardous condi- 
tions shall be corrected immediately. 

§28-304.7 Required contract. The owner of all new and exist- 
ing passenger elevators shall have a contract with an approved 
agency to perform elevator repair work and maintenance as 
defined by ASME 17.1. The name, address and telephone num- 
ber of such agency shall be maintained at each premises, on the 
mainline disconnect switch and in a location readily accessible 
to employees of the department and to maintenance and custo- 
dial staff at the premises. 

§28-304.8 Fees. Every owner of elevators and other devices 
shall pay to the department an inspection fee and a report filing 
fee for each elevator or device in the amount prescribed by this 
code. 

§28-304.9 Additional inspections. The commissioner may 
make such additional inspections as required to enforce the 
provisions of this code. No fee shall be charged for such addi- 
tional inspections. 



ARTICLE 305 
RETAINING WALLS 

§28-305.1 Retaining walls, partition fences and other site 
structures, in addition to the requirements set forth in chapter 
33 of the New York city building code, the responsibility for 
maintaining and repairing retaining walls, partition fences and 



other site structures shall be in accordance with sections 
28-305.1.1 and 305.1.2. 

§28-305.1.1 Structures located on the Sot line of adjacent 
properties and partially on both properties. The owners 
of adjacent properties shall be responsible jointly for the 
proper maintenance and repair of retaining walls, partition 
fences and other site structures, or portions thereof, that are 
located along the common lot line and on both their proper- 
ties; and each such owner shall be responsible for one-half 
of the costs of maintaining and repairing such fences, retain- 
ing walls and other site structures, or such portions thereof. 
Where an owner elects to remove temporarily a retaining 
wall or partition fence that is required to support a grade dif- 
ferential between the two properties, or for any other reason 
is required by this code, such owner shall protect the adja- 
cent property, shall not impair its safe use, and shall replace 
the retaining wall or partition fence at his or her own cost. 

§28-305.1.2 Structures located entirely on one property. 
Where such retaining walls, partition fences or other site 
structures, or portions thereof, are located entirely on one 
property, the owner of such property shall be wholly respon- 
sible for the proper maintenance and repair of the retaining 
wall, partition fence or other site structure. If, however, the 
proper maintenance and/or repair of such retaining wall, 
partition fence or other site structures requires access to the 
adjoining property, the owner of such adjoining property 
shall allow such access. 

§28-305.2 Retaining walls required. Hereafter, when an 
owner elects to set his or her grade either higher or lower than 
the grade of an adjoining property at the property line, such 
owner shall erect, maintain and repair a retaining wall, of suffi- 
cient height, structure and foundation to support such grade 
differential, and with proper drainage, in accordance with this 
code, such that the adjacent property is not impacted, and shall 
do so at the sole expense of such owner and entirely on the 
property of such owner without access to the adjoining prop- 
erty. 

§28-305.3 Special agreement. Nothing in this article shall be 
construed to prevent the owners of adjacent properties from 
making or enforcing by private action special agreements with 
respect to maintenance or repair of retaining walls, partition 
fences and other site structures or access to adjoining property 
for such purpose. 



ARTICLE 306 
PARTY WALLS 

§28-306.1 Responsibility for party walls. Repair and mainte- 
nance of the construction, design and fire-resistance rating of 
party walls shall be the joint responsibility of the owners of the 
adjoining properties, and any change by either owner must 
maintain the weather protection, structural, vertical fire divi- 
sion and other requirements of this code for party walls. 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



A-53 



MAINTENANCE OF BUILDINGS 



ARTICLE 307 
WORKPLACE EXITS 

§28-307.1 Obstruction of workplace exits prohibited. 
Except for the exemptions specified in subdivision j of section 
27-371 of the administrative code or chapter 10 of the New 
York city building code, as applicable, it shall be unlawful for 
an employer or the agent of an employer to lock the doors of a 
workplace or otherwise obstruct or prohibit exit from a work- 
place when such act may endanger the health or safety of any 
employee, independent contractor or other individual in such 
workplace in the event of a fire or other hazardous condition or 
event. The commissioner shall classify a violation of this sec- 
tion as an immediately hazardous violation. Notwithstanding 
any other provision of this code, upon criminal conviction or 
civil adjudication of liability for a violation of this section an 
additional fine or civil penalty of not less than five thousand 
dollars nor more than twenty thousand dollars shall be imposed 
for each employee, independent contractor or other individual 
endangered by a violation of this section. 

§28-307.1.1 Notice. A sign shall be posted conspicuously at 
the workplace of a person convicted of or found liable for a 
violation of section 28-307.1. Such sign shall, in English, 
Spanish, Korean, Chinese or any other language directed by 
the fire commissioner, provide notice to employees of the 
acts prohibited by section 28-307.1 and of the remedies for 
employer retaliation as set forth in section 28-307.3. The 
sign shall be in a form and posted in a manner directed by the 
fire commissioner and may contain any other information 
deemed necessary by the fire commissioner or as recom- 
mended by the police commissioner or the commissioner. 
The fire commissioner may, in the interest of public safety, 
adopt a rule requiring the posting of such signs at other 
workplaces. 

§28-307.2 Unannounced inspections of workplaces by fire 
department. In addition to any other inspections required by 
law or rule, the fire department shall conduct a minimum of 
fifty unannounced workplace inspections annually to ensure 
the identification and abatement of any hazardous conditions in 
violation of section 28-307.1. Such inspections shall include, 
but not be limited to, sites where there are known or suspected 
conditions affecting employee safety and health. 

§28-307.3 Retaliation. It shall be unlawful for an employer or 
the agent of such employer to take a retaliatory action, as 
defined by section 740 of the labor law, against an employee 
because of the lawful acts of such employee in furtherance of a 
civil or criminal enforcement proceeding arising out of the fail- 
ure of such employer or agent to comply with section 28-307. 1 
An employee who is the victim of such retaliatory action may 
commence an action in any court of competent jurisdiction for 
the relief provided for in this section and shall be entitled to all 
relief necessary to make such employee whole. Lawful acts of 
an employee shall include, but not be limited to, assisting in the 
investigation and initiation of an enforcement proceeding 
alleging a violation of section 28-307. 1, providing testimony in 
any such proceeding or providing other assistance in connec- 
tion therewith. The relief to which such employee shall be enti- 
tled shall include, but not be limited to, (i) an injunction to 
restrain any adverse or retaliatory action, (ii) reinstatement to 
the position such officer or employee would have had but for 



such action, or to an equivalent position, (iii) reinstatement of 
full benefits and seniority rights including payment of any 
missed back pay, plus interest and (iv) compensation for any 
special damages sustained as a result of such action, including 
litigation costs and reasonable attorneys' fees. 



A-54 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



CHAPTER 4 

LICENSING AND REGISTRATION OF BUSINESSES, TRADES AND 
OCCUPATIONS EWGAGED IN BUILDING WORK 



ARTICLE 401 

GENERAL 

§28-401.1 Application. This chapter shall apply to the licens- 
ing and registration of businesses, trades and occupations 
engaged in building work regulated by this code. 

§28-401.2 General requirements for all licenses. The provi- 
sions of this article shall apply to all licenses issued by the 
department -pursuant to this chapter. All applicants and licens- 
ees shall comply with the provisions of this article as well as the 
specific requirements applicable to the particular license as set 
forth in other articles of this chapter. 

§28-401.3 Definitions. As used in this chapter the following 
terms shall have the following meanings unless the context or 
subject matter requires otherwise. 

CERTIFICATE OF COMPETENCE. A certificate issued 
by the department to an individual representing that such indi- 
vidual has completed all requirements for the master plumber 
or master fire suppression piping contractor license but has not 
obtained a seal or plate; and that such certificate of competence 
has been renewed as required and is currently in effect. The cer- 
tificate of competence shall bear the name of the holder and the 
certificate number. The holder of a certificate of competence is 
not a licensed master plumber or licensed master fire suppres- 
sion piping contractor and may practice the trade for which the 
certificate is issued only under the direct and continuing super- 
vision of a licensed master plumber or licensed master fire sup- 
pression piping contractor or, with respect to a city employee 
under the direct and continuing supervision of a supervising 
licensed master plumber or licensed master fire suppression 
piping contractor. 

CITY AGENCY. A city, county, borough, or other office, 
position, administration, department, division, bureau, board 
or commission, or a corporation, institution or agency of gov- 
ernment, the expenses of which are paid, in whole or in part, 
from the city treasury. 

COMBINED STANDPIPE SYSTEM. A standpipe to which 
a sprinkler system is connected or is being connected. 

DIRECT AND CONTINUING SUPERVISION. Responsi- 
ble control exercised by a licensed individual, either personally 
or through one or more, but no more than three, levels of com- 
petent supervision over individuals (i) in the direct employ of 
the licensee, or (ii) in the direct employ of the city agency 
employing the licensee or (iii) in the direct employ of the busi- 
ness performing the actual work of the licensee's trade or the 
actual work permitted by the class of license held by the 
licensee, for which work such licensee assumes full responsi- 
bility. Such control shall be evidenced by such licensee's signa- 
ture, and seal where applicable, upon any required statements, 
applications and/or permits and by demonstrating involvement 
of the licensee in the operations of the business, including hir- 
ing of employees, responsibility for financial matters, and 



oversight of work performance. Direct and continuing supervi- 
sion includes field inspection, supervision of job sites, and the 
maintenance of records of such supervision and such other 
requirements as the commissioner may prescribe by rule for a 
particular license type. 

DIRECT EMPLOY. An individual is in the direct employ of a 
licensee or business or a city agency when such individual is on 
the payroll of such licensee or business or city agency and 
under the usual common law rules applicable in determining 
the employer-employee relationship has the status of an 
employee. The work performed by such employee shall not 
exceed the class of license held by the licensee. Direct employ- 
ment shall be evidenced by payroll records, such as social secu- 
rity payments, income tax withholding or the disbursement of 
other funds as required by law for the benefit of such employee, 
timekeeping records, such as time cards and sign-in sheets, 
work orders, and assignment or route logs. 

FIRE SUPPRESSION PIPING WORK. The installation, 
maintenance, repair, modification, extension, or alteration or 
testing of afire suppression piping system in any building in the 
city of New York. 

FIRE SUPPRESSION PIPING SYSTEM. Any system 
including any and all equipment and materials in connection 
therewith, with the exception of any electrical components that 
must be installed by a licensed electrician pursuant to the New 
York city electrical code, the purpose of which is to control, 
contain, suppress or extinguish fire and shall include: 

1. The systems, materials and equipment described or 
referred to in this code (with the exception of any electri- 
cal components that must be installed by a licensed elec- 
trician pursuant to the New York city electrical code) 
which systems, materials or equipment shall include any 
standpipe system to which a sprinkler system is or is now 
being connected; provided, however, that such systems, 
materials or equipment shall not include any systems, 

" materials or equipment constituting plumbing work, 
with the exception of up to thirty sprinkler heads off the 
domestic water in any one building; or 

2. Any dry, liquid or gaseous chemical fire containment, 
suppression, control or extinguishing system or any 
other device or means of control, suppression, contain- 
ment or extinguishing of fire (with the exception of any 
electrical components that must be installed by a 
licensed electrician pursuant to the New York city elec- 
trical code) but not including portable fire extinguishers. 

GENERAL CONTRACTOR. An individual, corporation, 
partnership or other business entity that applies for a permit 
pursuant to this code to construct a new residential structure 
containing no more than three dwelling units. The term "gen- 
eral contractor" shall not be construed to include an individual, 
corporation, partnership or other business entity that holds a 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



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LICENSING AND REGISTRATION OF BUSINESSES, TRADES AND OCCUPATIONS 



license pursuant to this code or subchapter twenty-two of chap- 
ter two of title twenty of the administrative code, and enters into 
a contract to perform work exclusively within the scope of such 
license, nor shall it include an individual who constructs a resi- 
dential structure containing no more than three dwelling units 
for his or her own occupancy, or any subcontractors working 
for the general contractor, 

HIGH-PRESSURE BOILER. A boiler that carries a pressure 
of more than fifteen pounds of steam per square inch and is 
rated in excess of ten horsepower, or that produces hot water 
over a pressure of one hundred sixty pounds per square inch or 
at a temperature over 250°F ( 1 2 1 °C) . 

LICENSE. A license, registration, certification or other evi- 
dence, issued by the department pursuant to this chapter, repre- 
senting that an individual, a sole proprietorship, partnership, 
corporation, business association or other person meets the 
qualifications and requirements as set out in this chapter and in 
the rules of the department and is authorized to engage in the 
particular trade, occupation or business as indicated on the 
license and representing that such license, with associated plate 
and/or seal, where applicable, has been renewed as required 
and is currently in effect. The license shall bear the holder's full 
name, the type of license, the license class, where applicable, 
the license number and any restrictions relating to the use of 
such license. Such term shall not include a certificate of compe- 
tence. 

LICENSE BOARD OR BOARD. A panel of trade practitio- 
ners and others appointed by the commissioner as provided 
herein and in rules promulgated by the commissioner with the 
purpose of advising the commissioner regarding the character 
and fitness of applicants for a license or certificate of compe- 
tence, allegations of illegal practices by persons licensed, or 
other matters as the commissioner may see fit. 

LICENSED MASTER FIRE SUPPRESSION PIPING 
CONTRACTOR, MASTER FIRE SUPPRESSION PIP- 
ING CONTRACTOR. An individual who has satisfied the 
requirements of this chapter for the master fire suppression pip- 
ing contractor license, who has been issued a license, plate 
and/or seal, and who is authorized under the provisions of this 
chapter to perform fire suppression piping work in the city of 
New York, according to the classification of license held. A 
master fire suppression piping contractor licensee shall prac- 
tice his or her trade in association with a master fire suppres- 
sion piping contractor business or as an employee of a city 
agency. 

LICENSED MASTER PLUMBER, MASTER 
PLUMBER. An individual who has satisfied the requirements 
of this chapter for the master plumber license, who has been 
issued a license, plate and/or seal, and who is authorized under 
the provisions of this chapter to perform plumbing work in the 
city of New York. A master plumber licensee shall practice his 
or her trade in association with a master plumber business or as 
an employee of a city agency. 

PLATE. A plaque issued by the department to a master 
plumber or a master fire suppression piping contractor setting 
forth the licensee's name and number, the class of license and 
the master plumber business or master fire suppression piping 
contractor business operating pursuant to the plate, and dis- 



played prominently and conspicuously on view to the public at 
the place of business registered with the department. The plate 
is the property of the department and is not transferable by the 
licensee. 

PLUMBING WORK. The installation, maintenance, repair, 
modification, extension or alteration of plumbing, standpipe 
where a sprinkler is not connected or is not now being con- 
nected, domestic water, connections to the domestic water, 
combination domestic water and reserve standpipe supply tank 
up to and including the roof tank check valve, gas piping or any 
piping system referred to in the New York city plumbing code, 
and/or up to thirty sprinkler heads off the domestic water in any 
building in the city of New York. 

PRIVATE ELEVATOR INSPECTION AGENCY. An 
approved agency authorized by the commissioner to operate as 
an independent contractor for the purpose of inspecting and 
testing elevators, escalators and other conveying equipment 
regulated by this code and shall include but shall not be limited 
to an insurance company, elevator maintenance company, ele- 
vator manufacturer or elevator inspection company. 

SEAL. Emblem issued by the department to an applicant for 
some license types, that allows the licensee to stamp docu- 
ments required by this code to be signed and sealed. The seal 
shall bear the full name of the licensee, the license type, the 
license class, where applicable, and the license number. The 
seal is the property of the department and is not transferable by 
the licensee. For applications and other documents submitted 
electronically, the digital signature and imprint of the seal may 
be submitted in a manner authorized by the commissioner. 

SIGN. A sign as defined in section 12-10 of the zoning resolu- 
tion. 

TOTAL BOOM. A boom including jibs and other extensions. 

§28-401.4 Requirement of license. It shall be unlawful for any 
person to engage in or carry on in the city any business, trade or 
occupation regulated by this chapter or to hold himself or her- 
self out as authorized to engage in or carry on such activity, 
without having first obtained a license from the commissioner 
in accordance with and subject to the provisions of this chapter 
and the rules of the department. A license issued by the depart- 
ment for any such business, trade or occupation prior to the 
effective date of this code, shall remain in full force and effect 
until the expiration or termination thereof in accordance with 
the terms thereof, unless sooner revoked or suspended for 
cause as hereinafter provided. Any renewal of such license 
shall be in accordance with the provisions of this code. 

§28-401.5 Application and conditions. Every application for 
a license or certificate of competence shall be made in such 
form and shall be accompanied by such information as the 
commissioner may prescribe, and by the required fee. It is a 
condition of the license or certificate of competence that infor- 
mation in the application be kept correct and current. Any 
change in required information shall be reported to the depart- 
ment within fourteen days after any change prior to issuance of 
the license or certificate of competence or within thirty days 
after any change following issuance. 

§28-401.6 Qualifications of applicant. All applicants for a 
license or certificate of competence shall be at least 18 years of 



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NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



LICENSING AND REGISTRATION OF BUSINESSES, TRADES AND OCCUPATIONS 



age, shall be able to read and write the English language, shall 
be of good moral character, and shall meet additional qualifica- 
tions that may be prescribed for the particular license or certifi- 
cate of competence. 

§28-401.7 Examination of applicant Except as otherwise 
specified for the particular license type, applicants for a license 
shall be required to take an examination in accordance with the 
rules of the department. Every applicant shall commence the 
license application process with the department within one 
year of passing the examination for licensure and shall furnish 
to the department a completed license application within one 
year of submission of the first filing. Failure to provide all 
requested documents in a timely manner will constitute an 
incomplete application and may result in denial of the license. 

§28-401.8 Investigation of applicant. Every applicant for a 
license or certificate of competence shall submit to investiga- 
tion as directed by a governmental entity in order to determine 
the applicant's character and fitness. The applicant shall fur- 
nish the department with payment for the actual cost of con- 
ducting a background investigation. Failure to provide all 
requested and completed documents in a timely fashion will 
constitute an incomplete application and will result in a denial 
of the license or certificate of competence. 

§28-401.9 Insurance. Except as noted otherwise for a particu- 
lar license, or exempted by the commissioner pursuant to rule, 
prior to the issuance of a license, or during the renewal thereof, 
the applicant shall file with the department (i) satisfactory evi- 
dence of a general liability insurance policy in the amount of 
one million dollars or such other amount as the commissioner 
may require, listing the New York city department of buildings 
as the certificate holder; and (ii) satisfactory evidence of an 
insurance policy for property damage in an amount set forth in 
rules and conditioned upon the observance of all applicable 
laws and rules governing the licensed activities and upon the 
payment of any applicable judgment awarded for damage to or 
destruction of property occurring in the performance of any 
regulated work by or under the supervision of the license 
holder. Each policy of insurance shall contain a provision for 
continuing liability notwithstanding any recovery under such 
policy. In addition, prior to the issuance of any license or seal 
and plate, if applicable, or during any renewal thereof, the 
applicant shall file with the department satisfactory evidence of 
compliance with the workers' compensation law and the dis- 
ability benefits law. 

§28-401.10 Issuance of license, plate and/or seal, where 
applicable, or certificate of competence. The commissioner 
shall issue a license or certificate of competence to each appli- 
cant who shall have submitted satisfactory evidence of his or 
her qualifications, and shall have satisfactorily passed all 
required examinations and investigations, provided that no 
license or certificate of competence shall be issued unless and 
until the applicant shall have paid the required fee and com- 
plied with such other and further requirements for the particu- 
lar license or certificate of competence as may be set forth in 
this chapter and in rules promulgated by the department. All 
licenses or certificates of competence issued by the commis- 
sioner shall have his or her signature affixed thereto; but the 



commissioner may authorize any subordinate to affix such sig- 
nature. For licenses that require a plate and/or the application of 
a seal, the plate and/or seal shall be issued with the license 
except as provided otherwise in this chapter. The license, plate 
and seal are the property of the department and are not transfer- 
able by the licensee. No licensee shall make or cause to be 
made duplicates of a department-issued license, plate or seal. 
The loss or theft of a license, plate or seal must be reported to 
the department within five calendar days. 

§28-401.11 Term of license. All licenses issued by the com- 
missioner for which an examination is required shall expire 
three years from the date of issuance thereof, and may be 
renewed every three years thereafter without examination. The 
commissioner shall have authority to stagger the issuance of 
licenses for three-year terms. All licenses not requiring exami- 
nation shall expire one year from the date of issuance thereof, 
and may be renewed each year thereafter except as otherwise 
noted for a specific license. 

§28-401.12 Renewal of license or certificate of competence. 
Applications for renewal of a license or certificate of compe- 
tence shall be accompanied by the renewal fee and such addi- 
tional information as the commissioner may require, and shall 
be made at least 30 calendar days but not more than 60 calendar 
days prior to the expiration date of same. The failure of an indi- 
vidual to renew his or her license or certificate of competence 
shall have the effect of cancellation of the license or certificate 
of competence upon expiration, and the holder of a plate and/or 
seal issued by the department shall immediately surrender such 
plate and/or seal to the department. A person who fails to renew 
a license or certificate of competence within the time period set 
forth in this section 28-401.12 may apply for reinstatement of 
such license pursuant to section 28-401.13. The department 
may, following notice and an opportunity to be heard, refuse to 
renew a license or certificate of competence on any grounds on 
the basis of which it could deny, suspend or revoke such 
license. 

§28-401.13 Reinstatement, if a license or certificate of com- 
petence expires, the individual may apply for reinstatement of 
the license or certificate of competence, within one year of the 
date of its expiration without examination but subject to appli- 
cable late and reinstatement fees. Thereafter, and up to five 
years after the date of expiration, the commissioner may rein- 
state the license or certificate of competence without examina- 
tion upon the applicant's demonstration to the commissioner's 
satisfaction of continued competence in the respective trade 
and satisfaction of any applicable continuing education 
requirements. A license or certificate of competence shall not 
be reinstated after five years from date of expiration. 

§28-401.14 Continuing education. The commissioner may 
promulgate rules to require applicants for the renewal of 
licenses or certificate of competence to complete a prescribed 
number of hours of continuing education courses approved by 
the department within the term preceding the application for 
renewal and to provide proof of same in a form acceptable to 
the department. Such proof, when required, shall be submitted 
with the application for renewal. 

§28-401.15 Schedule of fees. 



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LICENSING AND REGISTRATION OF BUSINESSES, TRADES AND OCCUPATIONS 



LICENSE TYPE 


INITIAL 
FEE 


RENEWAL 
FEE 


ADDITIONAL FEES 


Master rigger license 


$200 


$150 
triennially 


Late-renewal fee. $50 
Reissuance fee: $50 


Special rigger license 


$100 


$75 
triennially 


Late-renewal fee $50 
Reissuance fee: $50 


Basic hoisting machine operator license (Class A) 


$150 


$150 
triennially 


Late-renewal fee $50 
Reissuance fee: $50 


Basic hoisting machine operator license with endorsement to 
operate hoisting machinery without limitation or restriction 
(Class B) 


$200 


$150 
triennially 


Late-renewal fee $50. 
Reissuance fee: $50. 


Special hoisting machine operator license (Class C) 


$100 


$75 
triennially 


Late-renewal fee $50. 
Reissuance fee: $50. 


Concrete testing laboratory license 


$100 


$75 
annually 


Late-renewal fee. $50 
Reissuance fee: $50 


Welder license 


$50 


$45 
triennially 


Late-renewal fee. $50 
Reissuance fee: $50 


Master plumber license (certificate of competence) 


$200 


$150 
triennially 


Late-renewal fees: 

Up to 30 days late, $50; 

From 31 days to five years late, $100 for each year or part thereof 

Reissuance fee: $50 


Master plumber license plate 


$75 


$100 
triennially 


Replacement fee upon loss of plate, w/affidavit: $100 


Master plumber license seal 


$50 


$75 
triennially 


Replacement fee upon loss of seal, w/affidavit: $75 


Journeyman plumber registration 


$50 




No renewal, no reissuance 


Master fire suppression piping contractor (class A, B or C) 
license (certificate of competence) 


$200 


$150 
triennially 


Late-renewal fees: 

Up to 30 days late, $50; 

From 31 days to five years late, $100 for each year or part thereof 

Reissuance fee: $50 


Master fire suppression piping contractor (class A, B or C) 
license plate 


$75 


$100 
triennially 


Replacement fee upon loss of plate, w/affidavit: $ 1 00 


Master fire suppression piping contractor (class A, B or C) 
license seal 


$50 


$75 
triennially 


Replacement fee upon loss of seal, w/affidavit: $75 


Journeyman fire suppression piping installer registration 


$50 




No renewal, no reissuance 


Oil-burning equipment installer. License (class A or B) 


$100 


$75 
triennially 


Late-renewal fee $50 
Reissuance fee: $50 


High-pressure boiler operating engineer license 


$50 


$45 
triennially 


Late-renewal fee $50 
Reissuance fee: $50 


Portable high-pressure boiler operating engineer license 


$50 


$45 
triennially 


Renewal fee includes renewal fee for a hoisting machine operator 
license. 

Late-renewal fee $50 
Reissuance fee: $50 


Master sign hanger license 


$100 


$75 
triennially 


Late-renewal fee $50 
Reissuance fee: $50 


Special sign hanger license 


$100 


$75 
triennially 


Late-renewal fee $50 
Reissuance fee: $50 


Outdoor advertising company registration 


As 

provided 

by dept 

rules 


As provided 
by dept rules 


As provided by dept rules 


Filing representative registration 


$50 


$50 
annually 


Late-renewal fee $50 
Reissuance fee: $50 


Reinstatement of expired license, certificate of competence 
or certification without examination, if approved by 
commissioner, in addition to applicable renewal fees 


Same as 
initial 
license 




$100 for each year or part thereof from date of expiration 


Site safety coordinator certificate 


$100 


$50 


Late-renewal fee $50 


Site safety manager certificate 


$300 


$150 


Late-renewal fee $50 


General contractor registration 


$200 


$160 
biennially 


Late-renewal fee $160 


Tower crane rigger license 


$150 


$50 
triennially 


Late-renewal fee $20 



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LICENSING AND REGISTRATION OF BUSINESSES, TRADES AND OCCUPATIONS 



§28-401.16 Restrictions on use of license. No holder of a 
license issued under this chapter shall authorize, consent to or 
permit the use of his or her license by or on behalf of any other 
person, and no person who has not qualified and obtained or 
renewed a license under this chapter shall hold himself or her- 
self out to the public as licensed, certified, registered or as the 
holder of a license issued under this chapter, either directly or 
indirectly, by means of signs, sign cards, plates, stationery, or 
in any other manner whatsoever. 

§28-401.17 Use on behalf of a business. Except for such addi- 
tional requirements as may be set forth for a particular license, 
nothing in this chapter shall be construed to prohibit the use of a 
license by the holder thereof for or on behalf of a partnership, 
corporation or other business association, provided that: 

1. At least one member of the partnership or at least one 
officer of the corporation is licensed for the same busi- 
ness, trade or occupation, and that all work performed by 
such partnership or corporation is performed by or under 
the direct and continuing supervision of such license 
holder or holders; or 

2. Such partnership, corporation or other business associa- 
tion is itself authorized to engage in such business as pre- 
scribed herein. 

§28-401.17.1 Use on behalf of a city agency. Nothing in 
this chapter shall be construed to prohibit the holder of a 
license who is an employee of a city agency from using such 
license to practice the trade for which such license is issued 
for or on behalf of such city agency in the course of such 
employment except as otherwise limited pursuant to articles 
408 and 41 of this chapter for licensed master plumber and 
licensed master fire suppression piping contractor licens- 
ees. 

§28-401.18 New York city location required. Except as oth- 
erwise noted for a particular license, the holder of a license, 
other than an employee of a city agency, shall have or be 
employed by a business entity that has an established place of 
business with an address within the city of New York at which 
such person can be contacted by the public and the department 
by mail, telephone or other modes of communication. A post 
office box is not an acceptable address. 

§28-401.19 Suspension or revocation of license or certifi- 
cate of competence. The commissioner shall have the power to 
suspend or revoke a license or certificate of competence and/or 
to impose a fine not to exceed twenty-five thousand dollars for 
each finding of violation, and/or to order any holder thereof to 
repair damage resulting from any act or omission as set forth in 
this chapter or in rules, for any of the following: 

1 . Fraud or deceit in obtaining or renewing a license, plate 
or seal, certificate of competence, certification, regis- 
tration, or permit; 

2. The making of a material false or misleading statement 
on any form or report filed with the department or other 
governmental entity; 

3. The failure to file a statement, report or form required 
by law to be filed; 



4. Willfully impeding or obstructing the filing of a state- 
ment, report or form of another required by law to be 
filed; 

5. Fraudulent dealings; 

6. Negligence, incompetence, lack of knowledge, or dis- 
regard of this code and related laws and rules; 

7. Failure to comply with this code or any order, rule, or 
requirement lawfully made by the commissioner 
including failure to cooperate with investigations 
related to the trade for which the individual is licensed 
conducted by the commissioner or other government 
entity; 

8. Failure to comply with any order, rule, regulation or 
requirement lawfully made by the commissioner of 
environmental protection or commissioner of transpor- 
tation pertaining to water services, house connections 
street openings, street/lane closures or sidewalk clo- 
sures that relate to requirements of this code; 

9. A practice or pattern of failing timely to perform or 
complete contracts relating to home improvements as 
defined by section 20-386 of the administrative code or 
a practice of abandoning contracts on residential build- 
ings containing four dwelling units or less; 

Failure to provide documents, including payroll 
records, workers compensation or other insurance doc- 
uments, employee timekeeping records and corporate 
tax returns, required by the commissioner; 

Engaging or assisting in any act that endangers the pub- 
lic safety and welfare; 

Conviction of a criminal offense where the underlying 
act arises out of the individual's professional dealings 
with the city or any other governmental entity; 

Poor moral character that adversely reflects on his or 
her fitness to conduct work regulated by this code; or 



10. 

11. 

12. 

13. 

14. 

15. 



Failure to pay outstanding fines, penalties, or fees 
related to the individuars professional dealings with 
the city or any other governmental entity. 

With respect to general contractor registration, upon a 
finding that the applicant or registrant or a business 
entity in which one of the applicant's or registrant's 
principals, officers or directors is a principal, officer or 
director has engaged in any of the acts set forth in items 
1 through 14 or any of the following: 

15.1. Fraud, misrepresentation or bribery in securing 
a sign-off of work or a temporary or permanent 
certificate of occupancy. 

15.2. A practice on the part of the registrant of failure 
to timely perform or complete its contracts for 
the construction of new residential structures 
containing no more than three dwelling units, 
or the manipulation of assets or accounts, or 
fraud or bad faith. 

15.3. Approval or knowledge on the part of the regis- 
trant of an act of omission, fraud, or misrepre- 
sentation committed by one or more agents or 



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employees of the registrant, and failure to 
report such act to the department. 

1 5.4. The applicant or registrant, or any of its princi- 
pals, officers or directors, or any of its stock- 
holders owning more than ten percent of the 
outstanding stock of the corporation has been 
convicted of a crime which, in accordance with 
article twenty-three-a of the correction law, is 
determined to have a direct relationship to such 
person's fitness or ability to perform any of the 
activities for which a registration is required 
under this article. 

15.5. The applicant or registrant, or any of its princi- 
pals, officers or directors has been or is a princi- 
pal, officer or director of a registered general 
contractor whose registration has been 
revoked. 

28-401.19.1 Notice and hearing. The commissioner shall 
not revoke or suspend a license or certificate of competence 
for any cause or impose any other sanction on a licensee 
unless and until the holder has been given at least five calen- 
dar days prior written notice and an opportunity to be heard. 
However, when the public safety may be imminently jeop- 
ardized the commissioner shall have the power, pending a 
hearing and determination of charges, to forthwith suspend 
any license for a period not exceeding five working days. 

§28-401.19.2 Surrender of plate or seal. Upon surrender, 
suspension or revocation of a license for which the depart- 
ment has also issued a plate or seal, the license and such 
plate and/or seal shall be immediately surrendered to the 
department. 

§28-401.19.3 Reinstatement fees. The fees required for the 
reinstatement of a certificate of competence or license, plate 
or seal after suspension shall be the same as those required 
to obtain an original document. If reinstatement of the cer- 
tificate of competence, license, plate or seal is not requested 
within 30 days of the lifting of the suspension, then late fees 
shall be imposed in accordance with article 1 19 of chapter 1 
of this title. 

§28-401.19.4 Mandatory suspension or revocation. The 
commissioner shall immediately suspend or revoke a 
license issued pursuant to this code as set forth below. Noth- 
ing in the following sections shall be construed to limit the 
commissioner's power to revoke or suspend licenses in 
other circumstances. 

§28-401.19.4.1 Rigger license. Any licensed rigger who 
has been found guilty after proceedings before the envi- 
ronmental control board or other adjudicative proceed- 
ings of violating section 28-404.1 or 28-404.9 of the 
administrative code or section 3314.10 of the New York 
city building code, or of failing to insure that workers 
have certificates of fitness required pursuant to this code 
or applicable rule three times within any six-month 
period, shall be subject to immediate suspension of his or 
her license pending a hearing and determination in 
accordance with the provisions of this code. 



§28-401.19.4.2 General contractor registration. Any 
registered general contractor who has defaulted at or 
been found liable after proceedings before the environ- 
mental control board or in an adjudication in criminal 
court of violations of any provisions of this code relating 
to a stop work order, public health or safety, structural 
integrity, building in compliance with approved con- 
struction documents or fire safety three times within any 
twenty-four-month period shall be subject to immediate 
suspension of his or her registration, pending a hearing 
and determination at OATH. 

§28-401.20 Cooperation required. Any person, including 
any corporation, partnership, business or other entity, issued a 
license or certificate of competence by the department shall, 
pursuant to a request or order of the commissioner or any other 
city agency or office, cooperate fully and completely with 
respect to any department or city agency or office investigation. 
Evidence of cooperation shall include, but is not limited to, 
appearing before the department or other city agency or office, 
answering questions completely and accurately, and providing 
any and all requested documents. Failure to comply with such 
request or order may subject such person to disciplinary mea- 
sures authorized by law, including but not limited to suspension 
or revocation of the license or certificate of competence. 

§28-401.20.1 Service of request or order. Such request or 
order by the commissioner or other city agency or office 
shall be mailed by regular mail to the person named therein 
to his or her last known business or home address at least ten 
days before such appearance and shall contain the name of 
the person, date, time and place of such appearance and, if 
known or applicable, a description of any requested docu- 
ments. If the appearance or information is required immedi- 
ately, the request or order may be transmitted via facsimile 
or delivered to the person's last known business or home 
address prior to the date and time specified therein. 

§28-401.21 Judicial review of determinations. Notwith- 
standing any other provision of law to the contrary, decisions, 
orders and interpretations of the commissioner made pursuant 
to this chapter shall not be subject to review by the board of 
standards and appeals. Final decisions and orders of the com- 
missioner made pursuant to this chapter shall be subject to 
review pursuant to article 78 of the civil practice law and rules. 



ARTICLE 402 
SITE SAFETY MANAGER CERTIFICATE 

§28-402.1 Certificate required. It shall be unlawful to per- 
form the duties and responsibilities of a site safety manager as 
specified in chapter 33 of the New York city building code 
unless such work is performed by a person certified as a site 
safety manager under the provisions of this article. 

§28-402.2 Qualifications. All applicants for a site safety man- 
ager certificate shall submit satisfactory proof establishing that 
the applicant: 

1. Is a registered design professional and has had three 
years of experience supervising major buildings as that 
term is defined in chapter 33, and within one year prior to 



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application has satisfactorily completed a 8-hour course 
approved by the department; 

2. Has eight years of construction supervision experience 
within the 10 years prior to application, including five 
years supervising major buildings as that term is defined 
in chapter 33, and within one year prior to application has 
satisfactorily completed a 40-hour course approved by 
the department; 

3. Has completed an 1 8 month on-the-job training program 
working on major buildings as that term is defined in 
chapter 33 under the direct and continuing supervision of 
a certified site safety manager. Such on-the-job training 
program shall conform to rules promulgated by the 
department. The supervising site safety manager shall 
certify the trainee's satisfactory completion of the train- 
ing program. In addition, the applicant shall provide 
proof that, within one year prior to the date of applica- 
tion, he or she has satisfactorily completed a 40-hour 
course approved by the department; 

4. Has equivalent education and construction experience as 
determined by the department and within one year prior 
to application has satisfactorily completed a 40-hour 
course approved by the department; or 

5. Has three years of experience as a certified site safety 
coordinator and within one year prior to application has 
satisfactorily completed a 40-hour course approved by 
the department. 



ARTICLE 403 
SITE SAFETY COORDINATOR CERTIFICATE 

§28-403.1 Certificate required. It shall be unlawful to per- 
form the duties and responsibilities of a site safety coordinator 
as specified in chapter 33 of the New York city building code 
unless such work is performed by a person certified as a site 
safety coordinator under the provisions of this article. 

§28-403.2 Qualifications. All applicants for a site safety coor- 
dinator certificate shall submit satisfactory proof establishing 
that the applicant: 

L Is a registered design professional and has had two years 
of experience supervising major buildings as that term is 
defined in chapter 33, and within one year prior to appli- 
cation has satisfactorily completed an 8-hour course 
approved by the department; 

2. Has five years of construction supervision or construc- 
tion safety experience within the 10 years prior to appli- 
cation, including three years supervising major buildings 
as that term is defined in chapter 33, and within one year 
prior to application has satisfactorily completed an 
8-hour course approved by the department; or 

3. Has equivalent education and construction experience as 
determined by the department and within one year prior 
to application has satisfactorily completed a 40-hour 
course approved by the department. 



ARTICLE 404 
RIGGER LICENSE 

§28-404.1 Rigger license required. It shall be unlawful to 
hoist or lower any article on the outside of any building in the 
city unless such work is performed by or under the direct and 
continuing supervision of a person licensed as a rigger under 
the provisions of this article. The provisions of this article shall 
apply to the erection or dismantling of a tower crane or a 
climber crane on a building and to the use of a derrick in their 
removal, except that such erection or dismantling may be per- 
formed by or under the direct and continuing supervision of a 
licensed climber or tower crane rigger in accordance with rules 
promulgated by the department. 

Exception: The provisions of this article shall not apply to 
the hoisting or lowering of signs if the person so doing pos- 
sesses a license as a sign hanger, as provided in this chapter, 
or to the loading or unloading of any building materials or 
equipment, other than boilers and tanks, from a delivery 
truck. 

§28-404.2 Classification. Such licenses shall be classified as 
follows: 

1. Master rigger license. Authorizes the holder thereof to 
hoist or lower any article, irrespective of weight, on the 
outside of any building. 

2. Special rigger license. Authorizes the holder thereof to 
hoist or lower any article not exceeding 2,000 pounds 
(907 kg) in weight on the outside of any building. 

3. Climber or tower crane rigger license. Authorizes the 
holder thereof to erect or dismantle a tower crane or a 
climber crane on a building and to use a derrick in their 
removal. 

§28-404.3 Additional qualifications. Applicants for a rigger 
license shall have the additional qualifications as set forth in 
sections 28-404.3.1 through 28-404.3.3. 

§28-404.3.1 Master rigger qualifications. All applicants 
for a master rigger license shall submit satisfactory proof 
establishing that the applicant: 

1 . Has had at least five years of practical experience in 
the hoisting and rigging business within the seven 
years prior to application; and 

2. Has knowledge of and is able to explain the risks inci- 
dent to such business and precautions to be taken in 
connection therewith, safe loads and computation 
thereof, types of rigging, size and strength of ropes, 
cables, blocks, poles, derricks, sheer legs and other 
tools used in connection with such business. 

§28-404.3.2 Special rigger qualifications. All applicants 
for a special rigger license shall submit satisfactory proof 
establishing that the applicant: 

1 . Has had at least one year of practical experience in the 
hoisting and rigging business within the three years 
prior to application; and 

2. Has knowledge of and is able to explain the risks inci- 
dent to such business and precautions to be taken in 
connection therewith. 



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§28-404.3.3 Climber or tower crane rigger qualifica- 
tions. All applicants for a climber or tower crane rigger 
license shall submit satisfactory proof establishing that the 
applicant: 

1 . Has had at least five years of practical experience in 
the climber or tower crane rigging business within the 
seven years prior to application; and 

2. Has knowledge of and is able to explain the risks inci- 
dent to such business and precautions to be taken in 
connection therewith, including connecting pins, 
cables, anchorage, platform or pad, plumb of mast, 
torque of bolts, supervision of rigging and hoisting of 
loads, placement of components, and coordination of 
sequencing. 

§28-404.4 Additional requirements. The additional require- 
ments set forth in sections 28-404.4.1 through 28-404.4.3 shall 
apply to riggers: 

§28-404.4.1 Danger warning. Every licensed master or 
special rigger shall, while rigging operations are in progress 
at a job site, place, conspicuously, at such job site two plates 
or signs not less than 1 8 inches (457 mm) by 24 inches (61 
mm) in size (i) displaying the word "danger" in letters not 
less than 6 inches (1 52 mm) high, and (ii) disclosing the rig- 
ger's name, business address, type of rigger license and 
license number. 

§28-404.4.2 Master rigger place of business. Every 
licensed master rigger shall have a place of business within 
the city and shall display prominently at such place of busi- 
ness a plate or sign marked with the words "master rigger" 
and his or her license number immediately thereunder. 

§28-404.4.3 Fitness to perform work. As a condition of 
license renewal, a licensed master or special rigger shall 
provide evidence satisfactory to the department that such 
licensee is fit to perform the work. 



ARTICLE 405 
HOISTING MACHINE OPERATOR LICENSE 

§28-405.1 Hoisting machine operator license required. It 
shall be unlawful for any persons to take charge of or operate 
any power-operated hoisting machine used for hoisting pur- 
poses or cableways under the jurisdiction of the department, 
except power-operated scaffolds and window-washing 
machines, unless such person is licensed under the provisions 
of this article or is a holder of a certificate of qualification as a 
hoisting machine operator issued prior to December 6, 1968 
and not allowed to lapse. 

Exceptions: 

1 . The commissioner may, by rule, exempt operators of 
mobile cranes of limited size and capacity from the 
requirements of this article. 

2. The provisions of this article shall not apply to 
machines under one ton capacity. 



§28-405.2 Classification. Hoisting machine operator licenses 
shall be classified as follows: 

1. Class A license: Basic license to operate cranes with 
total boom less that 200 feet (60 960 mm) in length, der- 
ricks and cableways, excluding truck-mounted tower 
cranes that exceed 200 feet (60 960 mm) in height. 

2. Class B license: Endorsement on basic license to include 
the operation of hoisting machinery without limitation or 
restriction. 

3. Class C license: Special hoisting machine operator 
license to operate a specified class of hoisting machine of 
limited size and capacity as follows: 

Class CI: License to operate wheel mounted cranes 
(single control station) with telescoping, hydraulic or 
folding booms, including jibs and any other exten- 
sions to the boom, not exceeding 200 feet in length 
(60 960 mm) with a manufacturer's rated capacity of 
50 tons (51 t) or less; 

Class C2: License to operate boom trucks with tele- 
scoping, hydraulic or folding booms, including jibs 
and any other extensions to the boom, not exceeding 
200 feet (60 960 mm) in length with a manufacturer's 
rated capacity of 50 tons (51 t) or less; 

Class C3: License to operate boom trucks with tele- 
scoping, hydraulic or folding booms, including jibs 
and any other extensions to the boom, not exceeding 
135 feet (41 148 mm) in length with a manufacturer's 
rated capacity of three tons or less, used exclusively 
for the erection, maintenance or removal of signs. 

§28-405.3 Additional qualifications. Applicants for a hoist- 
ing machine operator license shall have the following addi- 
tional qualifications. 

§28-405.3.1 Class A license. AH applicants for a class A 
basic hoisting machine operator license shall have had at 
least three years experience within the five years prior to 
application under the direct and continuing supervision of a 
licensed hoisting machine operator. 

§28-405.3.2 Class B license. All applicants for a class B 
hoisting machine operator license shall hold a class A basic 
hoisting machine operator license, and shall have had at 
least two years experience prior to application under the 
direct and continuing supervision of a Class B licensed 
hoisting machine operator operating the equipment for 
which they are applying for endorsement and shall satisfac- 
torily demonstrate by operation that they are competent to 
operate a crane with a boom, including jibs and other exten- 
sions, exceeding 200 feet (60 960 mm) in length or 
truck-mounted tower crane exceeding 200 feet (60 960 mm) 
in height, or as otherwise provided in rules of the depart- 
ment. 

§28-405.3.3 Class C license. All applicants for a class C 
special hoisting machine operator license shall have had at 
least two years experience within the three years prior to 
application under the direct and continuing supervision of a 



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licensed hoisting machine operator and have satisfactorily 
passed a practical examination in the operation of equip- 
ment for which such license is to be issued. 

§28-405.4 Fitness to perform work. As a condition of license 
renewal, a licensed hoisting machine operator shall provide 
evidence satisfactory to the department that he or she is fit to 
perform the work. 

§28-405.5 Insurance exemption. Unless otherwise required 
by rule, licensed hoisting machine operators are exempt from 
the insurance requirements of section 28-401.9. 



ARTICLE 406 
CONCRETE TESTING LABORATORY LICENSE 

§28-406.1 Concrete testing laboratory license required. 
Testing of concrete required by this code or other applicable 
laws or rules shall be conducted by a concrete testing labora- 
tory licensed in accordance with this article. 

§28-406.2 Qualifications. All applicants for a concrete testing 
laboratory license shall maintain a laboratory within 50 miles 
(80 467 m) of the city and shall submit satisfactory proof estab- 
lishing that the business is conducted by qualified personnel in 
accordance with procedures, safety requirements and profes- 
sional standards as set forth in rules of the department. The 
department shall inspect an applicant's place of business and 
equipment and conduct an investigation of applicant's person- 
nel in a manner to be set forth in department rules prior to the 
issuance or renewal of a license. 

§28-406.3 Additional requirements. The following addi- 
tional requirements shall apply to concrete testing laboratories: 

§28-406.3.1 Director. Each laboratory shall have in respon- 
sible charge a director who shall be a registered design pro- 
fessional and who shall personally supervise all technical 
functions of the laboratory relating to testing of concrete 
and concrete materials as required in this code and in rules 
of the department. 

§28-406.3.2 Certification of reports by director. The 
director shall certify the truth and accuracy of all reports 
filed by the laboratory under the provisions of this code or 
other applicable laws and rules. 

§28-406.4 No examination required. An examination shall 
not be required for a concrete testing laboratory license. 



ARTICLE 407 
WELDER LICENSE 

§28-407.1 Welder license required. It shall be unlawful to 
perform manual welding work on any structural member of any 
building in the city unless such work is performed by a person 
licensed as a welder under the provisions of this article. 

§28-407.2 Qualifications. All applicants for a welder license 
shall submit satisfactory proof of the applicant's fitness to 
make structural welds, including his or her ability to pass oper- 
ator qualification tests as determined by the commissioner. 



§28-407.3 Fitness to perform work. As a condition of license 
renewal, a licensed welder shall provide evidence satisfactory 
to the department that such licensee is fit to perform the work. 

§28-407.4 Insurance exemption. Unless otherwise required 
by rule, licensed welders are exempt from the insurance 
requirements of section 28-401 .9. 



ARTICLE 408 
MASTER PLUMBER LICENSE 

§28-408.1 Master plumber license required. It shall be 
unlawful for any person: 

1. To perform plumbing work unless such person is a 
licensed master plumber or working under the direct and 
continuing supervision of a licensed master plumber 
except that a city employee who holds a master plumber 
license may only perform replacement, maintenance and 
repair plumbing work on existing buildings in the course 
of his or her employment. 

2. To use the title licensed master plumber, master plumber 
or any other title in such manner as to convey the impres- 
sion that such person is a licensed master plumber unless 
such person is licensed as such in accordance with the 
provisions of this article. 

§28-408.2 Seal. All documents that are required to be filed 
with any department or agency of the city of New York shall 
bear the stamp of the seal as well as the signature of the 
licensee. The licensed master plumber performing the work 
and services shall personally sign and seal all applications and 
other documents required to be filed pursuant to this code. 

§28-408.3 Additional qualifications. Applicants for a master 
plumber license shall have the following additional qualifica- 
tions: 

§28-408.3.1 Experience. All applicants for a master 
plumber license shall submit satisfactory proof establishing 
that the applicant: 

1. Has had at least seven years total experience within 
the 10 years prior to application in the design and 
installation of plumbing systems under the direct and 
continuing supervision of a licensed master plumber 
in the United States, with at least two years of such 
experience as a registered journeyman plumber in 
accordance with the provisions of article 409, except 
that during the three years immediately following the 
effective date of this code there shall be no require- 
ment for such registered journeyman plumber experi- 
ence; 

2. Has received a bachelor's degree in engineering or 
appropriate engineering technology from an accred- 
ited college or university and has had at least five 
years total experience within the seven years prior to 
application in the design and installation of plumbing 
systems under the direct and continuing supervision 
of a licensed master plumber in the United States, 
where at least two years of such experience were in 
New York city; 



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3. Is an architect or engineer with at least three years of 
experience within the five years prior to application in 
the design and installation of plumbing systems under 
the direct and continuing supervision of a licensed 
master plumber in the United States, where at least 
one year of such experience was in New York city; or 

4. Has had at least seven years total experience within 
the 10 years prior to application, with at least two 
years of such experience working in the design and 
installation of plumbing systems under the direct and 
continuing supervision of a licensed master plumber 
in the United States. The balance of such required 
experience may be obtained by performing mainte- 
nance, replacement and repair plumbing work on 
existing buildings while in the employ of a city 
agency under the direct and continuing supervision of 
a licensed master plumber supervisor employed by 
the city agency. Three years after the effective date of 
this code the two years experience in the design and 
installation of plumbing systems set forth above may 
only be satisfied by working as a registered journey- 
man plumber. 

5. An employee of a government agency, private 
inspection agency or other entity, acceptable to the 
commissioner, whose duties primarily involve the 
inspection of plumbing work for compliance with the 
New York city plumbing code and/or other laws relat- 
ing to the installation, alteration or repair of plumbing 
systems shall be credited with fifty percent (50%) of 
the number of years that he or she has been satisfacto- 
rily employed in such duties within the ten (10) year 
period prior to application, which, however, in no 
event, shall exceed two and one-half (2V 2 ) years 
credit of satisfactory experience. The balance of the 
required seven years must have been obtained by 
working in the design and installation of plumbing 
systems under the direct and continuing supervision 
of a licensed master plumber in the United States 
except that the requirement of paragraph 1 of this sec- 
tion 28-408.3.1 that an applicant's working experi- 
ence must have been within the ten (10) year period 
prior to application shall not apply to such balance of 
the work experience required pursuant to this para- 
graph. 

§28-4083.2 Armed services. Applicants who were 
engaged in plumbing work as above provided prior to enter- 
ing the armed services of the United States shall be permit- 
ted to credit their time in the service as experience in the 
plumbing business, as above provided; but such service 
credit shall not exceed one-third of the time required for 
experience. 

§28-408.4 Certificate of competence and license, plate 
and/or seal. The commissioner shall issue a certificate of com- 
petence, license, plate, and/or seal, in accordance with the fol- 
lowing: 

§28-408.4.1 Certificate of competence. A certificate of 
competence shall be issued by the commissioner to an appli- 
cant who satisfactorily complies with the experience and 



examination requirements of this chapter for a license, upon 
payment of the fee. Such certificate shall contain the full 
name of the individual and a certificate number, the date of 
issuance, and shall be signed by the commissioner. 

§28-408.4.2 Effect of issuance. The issuance of a certifi- 
cate of competence shall constitute evidence that the person 
named therein is qualified upon payment of applicable fees 
to obtain a plate and seal while the certificate is valid except 
that a city employee while in the employ of the city shall 
only be entitled to obtain a seal. 

§28-408.43 Plate and/or seal required. The holder of a 
certificate shall not be entitled to perform work or hold him- 
self or herself out to perform work as a licensed master 
plumber until such plate and/or seal have been obtained. 
Further, no holder of a certificate of competence shall enter 
into any contractual agreement to install or alter any plumb- 
ing, gas piping, or any piping system, other than an employ- 
ment agreement with a master plumber business or a city 
agency. 

§28-408.4.4 Effect of failure to obtain plate and/or seal. 
If a holder of a certificate of competence has held the certifi- 
cate for five years without a plate and/or seal, then the com- 
missioner may require said person to submit an affidavit and 
supporting documentation satisfactory to the department 
stating that over the five-year period the individual has been 
engaged in the design and installation of plumbing systems 
in the United States under the direct and continuing supervi- 
sion of a licensed master plumber. If the holder's qualifica- 
tions are not satisfactory to the commissioner, the 
commissioner may require such person to submit to reex- 
amination or to provide evidence of retained proficiency. In 
addition, additional fees will be due as set forth in this chap- 
ter. 

§28-408.4.5 Requirement for obtaining plate and /or 
seal. A holder of a certificate of competence shall obtain: 

1. A license, plate and seal upon establishing a master 
plumbing business conforming to the requirements of 
this article and rules promulgated by the department; 
or 

2. A license and seal upon demonstrating employment 
with a city agency. The license shall clearly state: 
4 'The bearer of this master plumber license is a gov- 
ernment employee and as such is not authorized to 
engage in plumbing contract work outside of his/her 
government employment and within such govern- 
ment employment shall only engage in maintenance, 
replacement and repair plumbing work on existing 
buildings." No plate shall be issued to a licensed mas- 
ter plumber employed by a city agency. 

§28-408.4.6 Issuance. A certificate of competence or a 
license, plate, and/or seal as a master plumber shall be 
issued only to an individual. 

§28-408.4.7 Duplication prohibited. Not more than one 
license, plate and/or seal shall be issued to an individual and 
no individual shall make or cause to be made a duplicate of 
such license, plate or seal. 



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§28-408.5 Surrender of license, plate or seal. Upon the death 
or the retirement of a licensed master plumber, or upon the sur- 
render, revocation or suspension of his or her license, his or her 
license, plate and/or seal shall immediately be surrendered to 
the commissioner. Nothing contained herein shall be construed 
to prevent the legal representative of a deceased licensee, with 
the consent of the commissioner, from retaining such plate and 
seal for the purpose of completing all unfinished work of the 
deceased licensee for which plans have been approved and a 
permit issued, provided such work is performed by or under the 
direct and continuing supervision of a licensed master plumber 
and is completed within one year from the date of the death of 
the original licensee. 

§28-408.6 Master plumber business. No individual, corpora- 
tion, partnership or other business association shall conduct a 
plumbing contracting business in the city of New York, or 
employ the name "plumber" or "plumbing" in its business 
name unless such business is a master plumber business as fol- 
lows: 

1 . No less than 5 1 percent of the control and voting capital 
stock of such entity is owned by one or more individuals 
who are licensed master plumbers, except as otherwise 
provided; 

2. All plumbing or gas piping work performed by such 
entity is performed by or under the direct and continuing 
supervision of such licensed master plumber; 

3. The person in charge of such work is such licensed mas- 
ter plumber; and 

4. The persons actually performing such work are in the 
direct employ of such master plumber business as autho- 
rized by the code. 

Exception: A company, corporation, partnership or 
other business association or its predecessor that was 
engaged in plumbing work prior to January 25, 1990 
may continue to do so in any one or more of such busi- 
ness forms without complying with the foregoing, if 
(i) application was made to the department prior to 
July 25, 1990, and (ii) necessary evidence was fur- 
nished on or prior to January 25, 1 99 1 , that such com- 
pany, corporation, partnership or other business 
association or its predecessor had employed an aver- 
age of ten or more journeymen plumbers doing 
plumbing work for at least five days a week for a 
period of 1 years or more out of the twenty years pre- 
ceding July 25, 1990, provided, that such plumbing 
business continues to have all plumbing work con- 
ducted under the management and direct and continu- 
ing supervision of a licensed master plumber in the 
direct employ of such plumbing business and that 
such licensed master plumber is not otherwise inter- 
ested in, associated with or employed by any other 
plumbing business operating in this city except as a 
joint venture in which such master plumber's 
employer is one of the joint venturers. 

§28-408.6.1 Use. Nothing herein contained shall be con- 
strued to prohibit the use of a master plumber license by the 
holder thereof for or on behalf of a partnership, corporation 
or other business association provided that such partner- 



ship, corporation or other business is a master plumber 
business. 

§28-408.6.2 Identification. All business vehicles, advertis- 
ing, websites and stationery used in connection with a mas- 
ter plumber business shall display prominently the full 
name of the licensee, the words "NYC. licensed plumber," 
the licensee's number and the licensee's business address. If 
the business is conducted under a trade name, or by a part- 
nership or corporation, the trade name, partnership or cor- 
porate name shall be placed immediately above the full 
name or names of the licensed master plumber or licensed 
master plumbers to whom the plates were issued. 

§28-408.6.3 Withdrawal of license. If a licensed master 
plumber withdraws from a master plumbing business oper- 
ating pursuant to such individual's license, the right of the 
business to perform plumbing work shall lapse if the provi- 
sions of this section 28-408.6 are no longer satisfied. If a 
licensed master plumber's license is revoked or suspended, 
such licensee will be deemed withdrawn from such busi- 
ness. 

§28-408.6.4 Ownership limitations. An individual who is 
a licensed master plumber whose interest or ownership in a 
master plumber business constitutes any portion of the 51 
percent interest or control required by this section 28-408.6 
shall be prohibited from possessing an interest or ownership 
in more than one other master plumber business at his or her 
established place of business, where such interest or owner- 
ship would constitute any portion of the 5 1 percent interest 
or control required by this section 28-408.6. Both master 
plumber businesses in which the individual who is a 
licensed master plumber has an interest shall be located at 
the same place of business. For the purposes of this section 
28-408.6, where two or more individuals who are licensed 
master plumbers possess an interest or ownership in any 
master plumber business which together represents more 
than 5 1 percent of the interest or control of such entity, all of 
such licensees shall be deemed to possess a portion of the 5 1 
percent interest or control required by this section 28-408.6. 

§28-408.6.5 Joint ventures. Nothing contained in this sec- 
tion 28-408.6 shall be construed to prevent a master 
plumber business from entering into a joint venture of lim- 
ited duration for a particular project with another master 
plumber business. The terms of a joint venture must be in 
writing, and documentation of the joint venture must be 
submitted to the department for approval prior to the initia- 
tion of work under such venture. 

§28-408.6.6 Supervision. The master plumber shall con- 
duct his or her business to provide direct and continuing 
supervision in accordance with the provisions of this code. 

Exception: The provisions of this section 28-408.6.6 
shall not apply to minor alterations or ordinary repairs, as 
defined in this code, or to the installation or alteration of 
gas service piping and gas meter piping, including 
meters, valves, regulators or related equipment, when 
such work is to be performed, serviced and maintained 
by utility corporations subject to the jurisdiction of the 
New York state public service commission. 



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ARTICLE 409 
JOURNEYMAN PLUMBER REGISTRATION 

§28-409.1 Journeyman plumber registration; additional 
qualifications. Upon satisfactory completion of a New York 
State-recognized training program or affirmation of an appli- 
cant's qualifications by an employer licensed master plumber 
or, in the case of a city agency, a supervising licensed master 
plumber and upon written stipulation of same by the applicant, 
the commissioner shall register an applicant as journeyman 
plumber. Such qualifications shall reflect a progressive under- 
standing, proficiency and competence in the plumbing trade, 
including: 

1 . A working familiarity with the plumbing code and tech- 
nical standards and the ability to apply the code require- 
ments correctly; 

2. The application of basic plumbing theory and the utiliza- 
tion of trade skills on the job site; 

3. A working knowledge of the tools of the trade and the 
ability to utilize them properly; and 

4. An ability to draft simple diagrams and interpret from 
drawings for the purpose of the plumbing work in which 
the applicant is engaged. 

§28-409.2 Experience. The applicant for journeyman plumber 
registration shall have a minimum of five years of full-time 
experience in the performance of plumbing work under the 
direct and continuing supervision of a licensed master plumber 
or equivalent, where at least one year of such experience shall 
have been in New York city. 

§28-409.3 Registration need not be renewed. The registra- 
tion for journeyman plumber shall have no expiration and shall 
not require renewal or re-issuance. 

§28-409.4 Registration card. The registration card shall 
clearly state: 'This registration is NOT A LICENSE, and the 
holder is NOT AUTHORIZED TO PERFORM PLUMBING 
WORK in New York city except under the direct and continu- 
ing supervision of a licensed master plumber." 



ARTICLE 410 

MASTER FIRE SUPPRESSION PIPING 

CONTRACTOR LICENSE 

§28-410.1 Master fire suppression piping contractor 
license required. It shall be unlawful for any person: 

1. To perform fire suppression piping work unless such 
person is a licensed master fire suppression piping con- 
tractor or working under the direct and continuing super- 
vision of a licensed master fire suppression piping 
contractor except that a city employee who holds a 
license may only perform replacement, maintenance and 
repair fire suppression piping work on existing buildings 
in the course of his or her employment. 

2. To use the title licensed master fire suppression piping 
contractor, master fire suppression piping contractor or 
any other title in such manner as to convey the impres- 
sion that such person is a licensed master fire suppres- 



sion piping contractor unless such person is licensed as 
such in accordance with the provisions of this article. 

§28-410.2 Seal. All documents that are required to be filed 
with any department or agency of the city of New York shall 
bear the stamp of the seal as well as the signature of the 
licensee. The licensed master fire suppression piping contrac- 
tor performing the work and services shall personally sign and 
seal all applications and other documents required to be filed 
pursuant to the code. 

§28-410.3 Classification. There shall be three classes of 
licenses for master fire suppression piping contractor: 

1 . Class A. The holder of a class A master fire suppression 
piping contractor license is authorized to perform any 
work in connection with any and all fire suppression pip- 
ing systems as set forth in paragraphs 1 and 2 of the defi- 
nition of fire suppression piping system in section 
28-401.3. 

2. Class B. The holder of a class B master fire suppression 
piping contractor license is authorized to perform any 
work in connection with any and all fire suppression pip- 
ing systems as set forth in paragraph 1 of the definition of 
fire suppression piping system in section 28-401.3. 

3. Class C. The holder of a class C master fire suppression 
piping contractor license is authorized to perform any 
work in connection with any and all fire suppression pip- 
ing systems as set forth in paragraph 2 of the definition of 
fire suppression piping system in section 28-401 .3. 

§28-410.4 Additional qualifications. Applicants for a master 
fire suppression piping contractor license shall have the fol- 
lowing additional qualifications: 

§28-410.4.1 Experience. All applicants for a master fire 
suppression piping contractor license shall submit satisfac- 
tory proof establishing that the applicant: 

1 . Has had at least seven years total experience within 
the 10 years prior to application in the design and 
installation of fire suppression piping systems under 
the direct and continuing supervision of a licensed 
master fire suppression piping contractor in the 
United States with the class of license for which appli- 
cation is made, with at least two years of such experi- 
ence as a registered journeyman fire suppression 
piping installer in accordance with the provisions of 
article 41 1 , except that during the three years immedi- 
ately following the effective date of this code there 
shall be no requirement for such registered journey- 
man fire suppression piping installer experience; 

2. Has received a bachelor's degree in engineering or 
appropriate engineering technology from an accred- 
ited college or university and has had at least five 
years total experience within the seven years prior to 
application in the design and installation of fire sup- 
pression piping systems under the direct and continu- 
ing supervision of a licensed master fire suppression 
piping contractor in the United States for the class of 
license for which application is made, at least two of 
which were in New York city; 



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3. Is an architect or engineer with at least three years of 
experience within the five years prior to application in 
the design and installation of fire suppression piping 
systems in the United States for the class of license for 
which application is made, where at least one year of 
such experience was in New York city; or 

4. Has had at least seven years total experience within 
the 10 years prior to application, with at least two 
years of such experience working in the design and 
installation of fire suppression piping systems under 
the direct and continuing supervision of a licensed 
master fire suppression piping contractor in the 
United States with the class of license for which appli- 
cation is made. The balance of such required experi- 
ence may be obtained by performing maintenance, 
replacement and repair of fire suppression piping 
work on existing buildings while in the employ of a 
city agency under the direct and continuing supervi- 
sion of a licensed master fire suppression piping con- 
tractor supervisor employed by the city agency with 
the class of license for which application is made. 
Three years after the effective date of this article the 
two years of experience in the design and installation 
of fire suppression piping systems set forth above 
may only be satisfied by working as a registered jour- 
neyman fire suppression piping installer. 

5. An employee of a government agency, private 
inspection agency or other entity, acceptable to the 
commissioner, whose duties primarily involve the 
inspection of plumbing work for compliance with this 
the New York city plumbing code and/or other laws 
relating to the installation, alteration or repair of fire 
suppression piping systems shall be credited with 
fifty percent (50%) of the number of years that he or 
she has been satisfactorily employed in such duties 
within the ten (10) year period prior to application, 
which, however, in no event, shall exceed two and 
one-half (IVi) years credit of satisfactory experience. 
The balance of the required seven years must have 
been obtained by working in the design and installa- 
tion of fire suppression piping systems under the 
direct and continuing supervision of a licensed fire 
suppression piping contractor in the United States 
except that the requirement of paragraph 1 of this sec- 
tion 28-410.4.1 that an applicant's working experi- 
ence must have been within the ten (10) year period 
prior to application shall not apply to such balance of 
the work experience required pursuant to this para- 
graph. 

§28-410.4.2 Armed services. Applicants who were 
engaged in fire suppression piping work prior to entering 
the armed services of the United States shall be permitted to 
credit their time in the service as experience in the fire sup- 
pression piping business, as above provided; but such ser- 
vice credit shall not exceed one- third of the time required 
for experience. 

§28-410.5 Certificate of competence and license, plate 
and/or seal. The commissioner shall issue a certificate of com- 



petence, license, plate and/or seal in accordance with the 
following: 

§28-410.5.1 Certificate of competence. A certificate of 
competence shall be issued by the commissioner to an appli- 
cant who satisfactorily complies with the experience and 
examination requirements of this article for a license, upon 
payment of the fee. Such certificate shall contain the full 
name of the individual and a certificate number, and shall be 
signed by the commissioner. 

§28-410.5.2 Effect of issuance. The issuance of a certifi- 
cate of competence shall constitute evidence that the person 
named therein is qualified upon payment of applicable fees 
to obtain a plate and seal while the certificate is valid except 
that a city employee while in the employ of the city shall 
only be entitled to obtain a seal. 

§28-410.5.3 Plate and/or seal required. The holder of a 
certificate of competence shall not be entitled to perform 
work or hold himself or herself out to perform work as a 
licensed master fire suppression piping contractor until such 
plate and/or seal have been obtained. Further, no holder of a 
certificate of competence shall enter into any contractual 
agreement to install or alter any fire suppression piping sys- 
tem other than an employment agreement with a master fire 
suppression piping business or a city agency. 

§28-410.5.4 Failure to obtain plate and/or seal. If a holder 
of a certificate of competence has held the certificate for five 
years without a plate and/or seal, then the commissioner 
may require said person to submit an affidavit and support- 
ing documentation satisfactory to the department stating 
that over the five-year period the individual has been 
engaged in the design and installation of fire suppression 
piping systems in the United States under the direct and con- 
tinuing supervision of a licensed master fire suppression 
piping contractor. If the holder's qualifications are not satis- 
factory to the commissioner, the commissioner may require 
such person to submit to reexamination or to provide evi- 
dence of retained proficiency. In addition, additional fees 
will be due as set forth in this chapter. 

§28-410.5.5 License plate and/or seal. A holder of a certif- 
icate of competence or an applicant who has satisfied all 
requirements for a master fire suppression piping contractor 
license shall obtain: 

1. A license, plate and seal upon establishing a fire sup- 
pression piping contracting business conforming to 
the requirements of this article and any rules promul- 
gated by the department; or 

2. A license and seal upon demonstrating employment 
with a city agency. The license shall clearly state: 
"The bearer of this master fire suppression piping 
contractor license is a government employee and as 
such is not authorized to engage in fire suppression 
piping contract work outside of his/her government 
employment and within such government employ- 
ment shall only engage in maintenance, replacement 
and repair fire suppression piping work on existing 
buildings." No plate shall be issued to a licensed mas- 



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ter fire suppression piping contractor employed by a 
city agency. 

§28-410.5.6 Issuance. A certificate of competence or a 
license, plate and/or seal as a master fire suppression piping 
contractor shall be issued only to an individual. 

§28-410.5.7 Duplication prohibited. Not more than one 
license, plate and/or seal shall be issued to an individual, and 
no individual shall make or cause to be made a duplicate of 
such license, plate or seal. 

§28-410.6 Waiver of examinations. Any license issued with- 
out examination pursuant to an application filed prior to July 
25, 1990 pursuant to the provisions of law in effect prior to the 
effective date of this code that has not lapsed as of the effective 
date of this code, shall be renewable pursuant to the provisions 
of this code. 

§28-410.7 Surrender of license, plate and/or seal. Upon the 
death or the retirement of a licensed master fire suppression 
piping contractor, or upon the surrender, revocation or suspen- 
sion of his or her license, his or her license, plate and seal shall 
immediately be surrendered to the commissioner. Nothing 
contained herein shall be construed to prevent the legal repre- 
sentative of a deceased licensee, with the consent of the com- 
missioner, from retaining such plate and seal for the purpose of 
completing all unfinished work of such deceased licensee for 
which plans have been approved and a permit issued, provided 
such work is performed by or under the direct and continuing 
supervision of a licensed master fire suppression piping con- 
tractor and is completed within one year from the date of the 
death of the original licensee. 

§28-410.8 Master fire suppression piping contractor busi- 
ness required. No individual, corporation, partnership or other 
business association shall conduct a fire suppression piping 
contracting business in the city of New York, or employ the 
name "fire suppression piping" in its business name, unless the 
business is a master fire suppression business as follows: 

1. No less than 51 percent of the control and voting capital 
stock of such entity is owned by one or more individuals 
who are licensed master fire suppression piping contrac- 
tors, except as otherwise provided; and 

2. All fire suppression piping work performed by such 
entity is performed by or under the direct and continuing 
supervision of such licensed master fire suppression pip- 
ing contractor; 

3. The person in charge of such work is such licensed mas- 
ter fire suppression piping contractor; and 

4. The persons actually performing such work are in the 
direct employ of such master fire suppression piping 
contractor business as authorized by the code. 

Exception: A company, corporation, partnership or 
other business association or its predecessor that was 
engaged in fire suppression piping contractor work 
prior to January 25, 1990 may continue to do so in any 
one or more of such business forms without comply- 
ing with the foregoing, if (i) application was made to 
the department prior to July 25, 1990, and (ii) neces- 
sary evidence was furnished on or prior to January 25, 



1991, that such company, corporation, partnership or 
other business association or its predecessor had 
employed an average of 1 or more journeymen doing 
fire suppression piping contractor work for at least 
five days a week for a period often years or more out 
of the 20 years preceding July 25, 1 990, provided, that 
such business continues to have all fire suppression 
piping contractor work conducted under the manage- 
ment and direct and continuing supervision of a 
licensed master fire suppression contractor in the 
direct employ of such business and that such licensed 
master fire suppression contractor is not otherwise 
interested in, associated with or employed by any 
other licensed master fire suppression contracting 
business operating in this city except as a joint venture 
in which such licensed master fire suppression con- 
tractor's employer is one of the joint venturers. 

§28-410.8.1 Use. Nothing herein contained shall be con- 
strued to prohibit the use of a master fire suppression piping 
contractor license by the holder thereof for or on behalf of a 
partnership, corporation or other business association pro- 
vided that such partnership, corporation or other business is 
a master fire suppression piping contractor business. 

§28-410.8.2 Identification. All business vehicles, advertis- 
ing, websites and stationery used in connection with a mas- 
ter fire suppression piping contractor business shall display 
prominently the full name of the licensee, the words 
"N.Y.C. licensed fire suppression piping contractor - class 
A, B or C " the licensee's number and the licensee's business 
address. If the business is conducted under a trade name, or 
by a partnership or corporation, the trade name, partnership 
or corporate name shall be placed immediately above the 
full name or names of the licensed master fire suppression 
piping contractor or licensed master fire suppression piping 
contractors to whom the plates were issued. 

§28-410.8.3 Withdrawal of licensee. If a licensed master 
fire suppression piping contractor withdraws from a master 
tire suppression piping contractor business operating pursu- 
ant to such individual's license, the right of the business to 
perform fire suppression piping work shall lapse if the pro- 
visions of this article are no longer satisfied. If a licensed 
master fire suppression piping contractor's license is 
revoked or suspended, such licensee will be deemed with- 
drawn from such business. 

§28-410.8.4 Ownership limitations. An individual who is 
a licensed master fire suppression piping contractor whose 
interest or ownership in a master fire suppression piping 
contractor business constitutes any portion of the 5 1 percent 
interest or control required by this section 28-410.8 shall be 
prohibited from possessing an interest or ownership in more 
than one other fire suppression piping contractor business at 
his or her established place of business where such interest 
or ownership would constitute any portion of the 51 percent 
interest or control required by this section 28-410.8. Both 
fire suppression piping contractor businesses in which the 
individual who is a licensed master fire suppression piping 
contractor has an interest shall be located at the same place 
of business. For the purposes of this section 28-410.8, 
where two or more individuals who are licensed master fire 



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LICENSING AND REGISTRATION OF BUSINESSES, TRADES AND OCCUPATIONS 



suppression piping contractors possess an interest or owner- 
ship in any master fire suppression piping contractor busi- 
ness which together represents more than fifty-one percent 
of the interest or control of such entity, all of such licensees 
shall be deemed to possess a portion of the 5 1 percent inter- 
est or control required by this section 28-410.8. 

§28-410.8.5 Joint ventures. Nothing contained in this sec- 
tion 28-4 1 0.8 shall be construed to prevent a master fire sup- 
pression piping contractor business from entering into a 
joint venture of limited duration for a particular project with 
another master fire suppression piping contractor business. 
The terms of a joint venture must be in writing, and docu- 
mentation of the joint venture must be submitted to the 
department for approval prior to the initiation of work under 
such venture. 

§28-410.8.6 Supervision. The master fire suppression pip- 
ing contractor shall conduct his or her business to provide 
direct and continuing supervision in accordance with the 
provisions of this article. 

Exception: The provisions of this section 28-410.8.6 
shall not apply to minor alterations or ordinary repairs, as 
defined in this code, and/or to maintenance of a fire sup- 
pression piping system. 



ARTICLE 411 

JOURNEYMAN FIRE SUPPRESSION PIPING 

INSTALLER REGISTRATION 

§28-411.1 Journeyman fire suppression piping installer 
registration; additional qualifications. Upon satisfactory 
completion of a New York state-recognized training program 
or affirmation of an applicant's qualifications by an employer 
licensed master fire suppression piping contractor or, in the 
case of a city agency, a supervising licensed master fire sup- 
pression piping contractor and upon written stipulation of same 
by the applicant, the commissioner shall register an applicant 
as journeyman fire suppression piping installer. Such qualifica- 
tions shall reflect a progressive understanding, proficiency and 
competence in the fire suppression piping trade, including: 

1 . A working familiarity with the code and technical stan- 
dards with regard to fire suppression piping, and the abil- 
ity to apply the code requirements correctly; 

2. The application of basic fire suppression theory and the 
utilization of trade skills on the job site; 

3. A working knowledge of the tools of the trade and the 
ability to utilize them properly; and 

4. An ability to draft simple diagrams and interpret from 
drawings for the purpose of the fire suppression piping 
work in which the applicant is engaged. 

§28-411.2 Experience. The applicant for journeyman fire sup- 
pression piping installer registration shall have a minimum of 
five years of full-time experience in the performance of fire 
suppression piping work under the direct and continuing super- 
vision of a licensed master fire suppression piping contractor or 
equivalent, where at least one year of such experience shall 
have been in New York city. 



§28-411.3 No required expiration, renewal or reissuance. 
The registration for journeyman fire suppression piping 
installer shall have no expiration and shall not require renewal 
or reissuance. 

§28-411.4 Required statement. The registration shall clearly 
state: "This registration is NOT A LICENSE, and the holder is 
NOT AUTHORIZED TO PERFORM FIRE SUPPRESSION 
PIPING WORK in New York city except under the direct and 
continuing supervision of a Licensed Master Fire Suppression 
Piping Contractor." 



ARTICLE 412 
OIL-BURING EQUIPMENT INSTALLER LICENSE 

§28-412.1 Oil-burning equipment installer license 
required. It shall be unlawful to install oil-burning equipment 
in the city unless such work is performed by or under the direct 
and continuing supervision of a person licensed as an oil-burn- 
ing equipment installer under the provisions of this article. 

§28-412.2 Classifications. Oil-burning equipment installer 
licenses shall be classified as follows: 

1. Class A oil-burning equipment installer license. 
Licenses the holder thereof to install any type of 
oil-burning equipment, as an independent contractor 
with full responsibility for the manner in which the work 
is done, and for the material and equipment used, and for 
the control and direct and continuing supervision of the 
persons employed on the work. Such equipment shall 
include but not be limited to burners, boilers and genera- 
tors. 

2. Class B oil-burning equipment installer license. 
Licenses the holder thereof to install oil-burning equip- 
ment for the use of domestic fuel oils from number one 
fuel oil to and including number four fuel oil, as an inde- 
pendent contractor with full responsibility for the man- 
ner in which the work is done, for the materials and 
equipment used, and for the control and direct and con- 
tinuing supervision of the persons employed on the 
work. 

§28-412.3 Qualifications. Applicants for an oil- burning 
equipment installer license shall have the qualifications set 
forth in sections 28-412.3.1 through 28-412.3.2. 

§28-412.3.1 Experience for Class A license. All applicants 
for a class A oil-burning equipment installer license shall 
submit satisfactory proof establishing that the applicant has 
had at least four years practical experience within the seven 
years prior to application in the installation of oil-burning 
equipment under the direct and continuing supervision of a 
Class A-licensed oil-burning equipment installer in the city, 
including at least one year experience in the installation of 
oil-burning equipment for the use of number five and num- 
ber six fuel oils. 

§28-412.3.2 Experience for Class B license. All applicants 
for a class B oil-burning equipment installer license shall 
submit satisfactory proof establishing that the applicant has 
had at least three years practical experience within the five 
years prior to application in the installation of oil-burning 



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equipment under the direct and continuing supervision of a 
licensed oil-burning equipment installer in the city. 

§28-412.4 Fitness to perform work. As a condition of license 
renewal, a licensed oil burning equipment installer shall pro- 
vide evidence satisfactory to the department that such licensee 
is fit to perform the work. 



ARTICLE 413 

HIGH-PRESSURE BOILER 

OPERATING ENGINEER LICENSE 

§28-413.1 High-pressure boiler operating engineer license 
required. It shall be unlawful to operate any high-pressure 
steam boiler for any purpose whatsoever, in the city of New 
York or in connection with any vessel on the waters in and 
around the city not subject to the jurisdiction of the United 
States, unless such boiler is operated by or under the direct and 
continuing supervision and in the presence of a person having a 
high-pressure boiler operating engineer license under the pro- 
visions of this article. 

§28-413.2 Qualifications. Applicants for a high-pressure 
boiler operating engineer license shall present satisfactory 
proof that: 

1. Applicant was employed as a fireman, oiler, general 
assistant, journeyman, boiler-maker or machinist under 
the direct and continuing supervision of a licensed 
high-pressure boiler operating engineer in the city for a 
period of not less than five years within the seven year 
period preceding the date of the application; however, in 
lieu of the experience requirement contained in this para- 
graph, an applicant for a high-pressure boiler operating 
engineer license who is employed in a fossil fuel produc- 
tion plant located in the Rockaway Peninsula area of 
Queens county may submit satisfactory proof establish- 
ing that the applicant has obtained at least five years 
experience within the seven years preceding the date of 
the application which shall include at least two years of 
experience obtained during employment under the direct 
and continuing supervision of a licensed high-pressure 
boiler operating engineer in a steam generating plant 
located outside of the city of New York but within the 
state of New York that is owned and operated by a 
licensed public utility company, and shall also include a 
separate period of at least three years of experience 
obtained during employment as a fireman, oiler, general 
assistant, journeyman, boiler-maker or any comparable 
position as approved by the commissioner, in such steam 
generating plant; 

2. Applicant received a degree in mechanical engineering 
from an accredited school or college and had one year 
experience in the operation and maintenance of 
high-pressure boilers under the direct and continuing 
supervision of a licensed high-pressure boiler operating 
engineer in the city within the two year period preceding 
the date of the application; 

3 . Applicant has held, for a mi ni mum of four years, a certif- 
icate as an engineer issued by a board of examining engi- 
neers duly established and qualified pursuant to the laws 



of the United States or any state or territory thereof, or a 
certificate as a marine engineer issued by the United 
States Coast Guard, and a minimum of one year experi- 
ence in the city in the operation and maintenance of sta- 
tionary high-pressure boiler plants under the direct and 
continuing supervision of a licensed high-pressure boiler 
operating engineer within the seven years preceding the 
date of the application, provided that the applicant shall 
have filed with such application a signed statement that 
the applicant is the person named in said certificate 
together with the supporting signed statements by three 
licensed high-pressure boiler operating engineers 
employed in the city of New York at the time of making 
of such signed statements; 

4. Applicant exercised direct and continuing supervision, 
care, operation and maintenance over a steam generating 
plant of a governmental building, having boilers of 150 
or more horsepower, for a minimum of five years and 
had a minimum of one year of experience on high-pres- 
sure boilers under the direct and continuing supervision 
of a licensed high-pressure boiler operating engineer in 
the city within the seven year period preceding the date 
of the application; or 

5. Applicant successfully completed a New York state 
approved apprenticeship training program of at least two 
years and had at least three years experience within the 
seven years preceding the date of the application in the 
operation and maintenance of high-pressure boilers in 
the city under the direct and continuing supervision of a 
licensed high-pressure boiler operating engineer. 

§28-413.3 Fitness to perform work. As a condition of license 
renewal, a licensed high-pressure boiler operating engineer 
shall provide evidence satisfactory to the department that such 
licensee is fit to perform the work. 



ARTICLE 414 

PORTABLE HIGH-PRESSURE BOILER OPERATING 

ENGINEER LICENSE 

§28-414.1 Portable high -pressure boiler operating engi- 
neer license required. It shall be unlawful to operate a portable 
high-pressure steam boiler for any purpose whatsoever in the 
city of New York unless such boiler is operated by or under the 
direct and continuing supervision and in the presence of a per- 
son licensed as a portable high-pressure boiler operating engi- 
neer. 

§28-414.2 Qualifications. Applicants for a portable 
high-pressure boiler operating engineer license shall present 
satisfactory proof that applicant held a basic license as a hoist- 
ing machine operator as provided in this chapter for a minimum 
of three years within the five year period preceding the date of 
the application; and served as a fireman, oiler, assistant engi- 
neer or engineer on portable high-pressure boilers for a mini- 
mum of three years within the seven year period preceding the 
date of the application at least one year on portable high pres- 
sure boilers within the city under the direct and continuing 
supervision of a licensed portable high-pressure boiler operat- 
ing engineer. 



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§28-414.3 Fitness to perform work. As a condition of license 
renewal, a licensed portable high-pressure boiler operating 
engineer shall provide evidence satisfactory to the department 
that such licensee is fit to perform the work. 



ARTICLE 415 
SIGN HANGER LICENSE 

§28-415.1 Sign hanger license required. It shall be unlawful 
to hoist or lower or to hang or attach any sign upon or on the 
outside of any building in the city unless such work is per- 
formed by or under the direct and continuing supervision of a 
person licensed as a sign hanger under the provisions of this 
article. 

§28-415.2 Exemptions. The provisions of this article shall not 
apply to the following: 

1. . Signs not exceeding 75 square feet (7 m 2 ) in area, mea- 
sured on one face only, nor exceeding 25 pounds (1 1 kg) 
in weight; 

2. Signs supported directly on the ground; or 

3. Directional signs; or 

4. Temporary signs erected during the construction or 
alteration of a building and related to such work; or 

5. The erection or placing of any signs by employees of the 
city, any city department or other city agency. 

§28-4153 Classification. Such licenses shall be classified as 
follows: 

1. Master sign hanger license. Authorizes the holder 
thereof to hoist or lower or to hang or attach any sign, 
irrespective of weight, upon or on the outside of any 
building. 

2. Special sign hanger license. Authorizes the holder 
thereof to hoist or lower or to hang or attach any sign not 
exceeding one hundred fifty square feet in area, mea- 
sured on one face only, nor exceeding one thousand two 
hundred pounds in weight, upon or on the outside of any 
building. 

§28-415.4 Additional qualifications. Applicants for a sign 
hanger license shall have the additional qualifications set forth 
in sections 28-415.4.1 through 28-415.4.2. 

§28-415.4.1 Master sign hanger qualifications. All appli- 
cants for a master sign hanger license shall submit satisfac- 
tory proof establishing that the applicant has had at least five 
years practical experience in sign hanging within the seven 
years preceding the date of the license application under the 
direct and continuing supervision of a licensed master sign 
hanger; and the applicant shall also have a knowledge of and 
ability to read plans and specifications relating to sign con- 
struction and erection, including supporting framework and 
other supports, and a knowledge of the problems and prac- 
tices of sign construction and hanging and be familiar with 
the equipment and tools used in sign hanging. 

§28-415.4.2 Special sign hanger qualifications. All appli- 
cants for a special sign hanger license shall submit satisfac- 
tory proof establishing that the applicant has had at least 



three years practical experience in sign hanging within the 
five years preceding the date of the license application under 
the direct and continuing supervision of a licensed sign 
hanger; and the applicant shall also have a knowledge and 
ability to read plans and specifications relating to sign con- 
struction and erection, including supporting framework and 
other supports, and a knowledge of the problems and prac- 
tices of sign construction and hanging and be familiar with 
the equipment and tools used in sign hanging. 

§28-415.5 Additional requirements. The additional require- 
ments set forth in sections 28-415.5.1 through 28-415.5.2 shall 
apply to sign hangers: 

§28-415.5.1 Danger warning. Every licensed sign hanger 
shall, while sign hanging operations are in progress at a job 
site, place conspicuously at such job site two plates or signs 
not less than 18 inches (457 mm) by 24 inches (610 mm) in 
size (i) displaying the word "danger" in. letters not less than 
6 inches (152 mm) high, and (ii) disclosing the sign hanger's 
name, business address, type of license and license number. 

§28-415.5.2 Sign hanger place of business. Every licensed 
sign hanger shall have a place of business within the city and 
shall display prominently at such place of business a plate or 
sign marked with the words "sign hanger' and the license 
number immediately thereunder. 

§28-415.6 Fitness to perform work. As a condition of license 
renewal, a licensed sign hanger shall provide evidence satisfac- 
tory to the department that such licensee is fit to perform the 
work. 



ARTICLE 416 
FILING REPRESENTATIVE REGISTRATION 

§28-416.1 Filing representative registration required. No 
person shall use the term "registered filing representative" or 
"filing representative" or any similar representation in such 
manner as to convey the impression that such person is a regis- 
tered filing representative in accordance with the provisions of 
this article; nor shall any person present, submit, furnish or 
seek approval of applications or construction documents, or 
remove any documents from the possession of the department, 
without first having registered with the department such per- 
son's name, address and company affiliation on a form to be 
furnished by the department. 

§28-416.2 Exemptions. The following persons are exempt 
from the provisions of this article: 

1 . The owners of the premises for which the building appli- 
cations are filed including, in the case of partnerships or 
corporations, the general partners or the principal offi- 
cers of the corporation, where the principal officers of a 
corporation shall include the president, vice presidents, 
secretary and treasurer; 

2. The lessees of such premises authorized by the owner to 
file building applications; 

3. Condominium unit owners authorized by the condomin- 
ium board of managers to file building applications; 

4. Cooperative shareholders authorized by the cooperative 
board of directors to file building applications; 



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5. Architects; 

6. Engineers; 

7. Attorneys admitted to practice in New York state; 

8. Master plumbers licensed pursuant to this chapter; 

9. Master fire suppression piping contractors licensed 
pursuant to this chapter; and 

10. Master electricians licensed pursuant to subchapter one 
of chapter 3 of title 27 of the administrative code. 

§28-416.3 Rules. The commissioner shall promulgate rules for 
the proper and efficient administration and enforcement of this 
article. Unless required by rule, a registered filing representa- 
tive shall not be required to take an examination or to complete 
continuing education courses as a condition for renewal of the 
registration. 



ARTICLE 417 
BOARDS 

§28-417.1 Plumbing and fire suppression piping contractor 
license board. The commissioner shall appoint annually and 
may remove in his or her discretion each member of a plumb- 
ing and fire suppression piping contractor license board that 
shall have as its purpose the following: 

1. To advise the commissioner regarding the character and 
fitness of applicants for certificates of competence and 
licenses who have passed the required examination. 

2. To advise the commissioner regarding allegations of ille- 
gal practices on the part of licensed master plumbers, 
licensed master fire suppression piping contractors, mas- 
ter plumber businesses or master fire suppression piping 
businesses. 

3 . To ad vise the comrni ss.io.ner regarding plumbing and fire 
suppression piping practices, code applications, regula- 
tions and legislation. 

4. To perform such other responsibilities as may be 
requested by the commissioner and as set forth in rules 
promulgated by the department. 

§28-417.1.1 Removal. The commissioner may remove any 
member of the license board and shall fill any vacancy 
therein. 

§28-417,1.2 Membership. Membership of the board shall 
consist of: 

1 . Two officers or employees of the department; 

2. Five licensed master plumbers, three of whom shall 
be selected from nominees of the New York city 
contracting plumbing association whose members 
perform the largest dollar value of work within the 
city and one of whom shall be the holder of a class A 
or class B master fire suppression piping contractor 
license. The two remaining licensed master plumber 
board member positions shall be from the next larg- 
est plumbing association in the city of New York. 

3. Two licensed master fire suppression piping con- 
tractors, both of whom shall hold a class A license 



and shall be selected from nominees of the New 
York city sprinkler/fire suppression piping contrac- 
tors association whose members perform the largest 
dollar value of work within the city; 

4. A registered journeyman plumber from the organi- 
zation representing the largest number of registered 
journeyman plumbers; 

5. A registered journeyman fire suppression piping 
installer from the organization representing the larg- 
est number of registered journeyman fire suppres- 
sion piping installers; 

6. An engineer having at least five years experience in 
the design of plumbing systems; 

7. An architect; 

8. An engineer who is a full member of the society of 
fire protection engineers; 

9. Two officers or employees of the fire department 
representing the fire commissioner; and 

10. A real estate owner or manager or representative 
thereof. 

§28-417.1.3 Organization of the board. A member of the 
board who is an officer or employee of the department rep- 
resenting the commissioner shall serve as chairperson and 
all members shall serve without compensation. Nine mem- 
bers including the chairperson, who shall be entitled to vote, 
shall constitute a quorum of the board for the transaction of 
business. All actions shall be conducted by majority vote 
except as otherwise provided, and the board shall keep min- 
utes of its proceedings and records of its investigations. The 
board shall meet at least once a month except during the 
months of July and August, and at such other times upon call 
of the chairperson. 

§28-417.1.4 Advisory and support personnel. The board 
may request the commissioner to appoint duly authorized 
representatives to conduct investigations and other activities 
incidental to the functions of the license board. Such 
appointees shall be non-voting members of the committee 
to which they are appointed, and may include personnel 
who are not department employees who shall serve without 
compensation. In addition the commissioner may designate 
such employees of the department as the commissioner 
deems necessary to the service and support of the license 
board. 



ARTICLE 418 
GENERAL CONTRACTOR REGISTRATION 

§28-418.1 Requirement of registration. On and after Novem- 
ber 1, 2008 shall be unlawful for a person to conduct business 
as a general contractor unless such person holds a general con- 
tractor registration in accordance with the provisions of this 
article. 

§28-418.1.1 Expiration of registration. A general con- 
tractor registration shall expire on the second anniversary of 
such registration or such other date as determined by the 



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commissioner by rule so as to distribute the expiration dates 
of the registrations evenly over the course of a year. 

§28-418.2 Unlawful use of general contractor title. On and 
after November 1, 2008 shall be unlawful to use or cause to be 
used the title registered general contractor or any other title in a 
manner as to convey the impression that an individual, corpora- 
tion, partnership or other business entity, or any person it 
employs, is a registered general contractor, unless such individ- 
ual, corporation, partnership or other business entity is regis- 
tered in accordance with the provisions of this article. 

§28-418.3 Application requirements. An application for a 
general contractor registration or renewal shall be made in writ- 
ing to the commissioner on a form provided by the department 
and shall be accompanied by the following: 

1. If the applicant is an individual: the applicant's full 
name, residence address, business address and busi- 
ness telephone number; 

2. If the applicant is a corporation: 

2.1. The corporate name, address and telephone num- 
ber of the applicant's principal office or place of 
business; 

2.2. The date and state of incorporation; 

2.3. The name, residence address and residence tele- 
phone number of all corporate officers and regis- 
tered agents and any person owning an interest of 
ten percent or more in the corporation; 

2.4. Proof that the corporation is in good standing 
under the laws of the state of New York; 

3. If the applicant is a partnership: 

3.1. The name, address and telephone number of the 
applicant's principal office or place of business; 

3.2. The name, residence address and residence tele- 
phone number of all partners; 

4. The registration fee; 

5. A verified statement that the applicant is financially 
solvent; 

6. The name and address of the principal location from 
which the applicant has engaged in the business of gen- 
eral contracting at any time within the last five years; 

7. If the applicant is not a sole proprietor, proof that the 
applicant is authorized to do business in the state of 
New York; 

8. Proof of insurance as required by section 28-401 .9; 

9. The name and address of the officer, principal or direc- 
tor of the applicant who is primarily responsible for the 
registrant's compliance with the requirements of this 
code or any rule adopted thereunder; 

10. Any other information that the commissioner may 
require. 

§28-4183.1 Financial solvency. For the purposes of this 
article, financial solvency shall mean that the applicant's 
operating capital shall exceed twenty-five thousand dollars. 



§28-418.4 Warranties. A warranty shall be provided to the 
buyer of a new one-, two- or three-family structure that accords 
with the provisions of article thirty-six-B of the New York state 
general business law, including the following: 

1 . One year from and after the warranty date the home will 
be free from defects due to a failure to have been con- 
structed in a skillful manner; 

2. Two years from and after the warranty date the plumb- 
ing, electrical, heating, cooling and ventilation systems 
of the home will, be free from defects due to a failure by 
the builder to have installed such systems in a skillful 
manner; and 

3. Six years from and after the warranty date the home will 
be free from material defects, including, but not limited 
to, any construction that is not in compliance with the 
building code or the zoning resolution of the city of New 
York. 

§28-418.4.1 Modification prohibited. Except as otherwise 
provided in section seven hundred seventy-seven-b of such 
article thirty-six-B, no such warranty shall be modified or 
excluded in any way. 

§28-418.5 Duties and responsibilities. The general contractor 
shall comply with sections 28-418.5.1 through 28-418.5.3. 

§28-418.5.1 Subcontractor information. The general 
contractor shall be responsible for providing information to 
the department about his or her subcontractors and the par- 
ticular work they perform on jobs for which the department 
has issued permits to the general contractor. Such informa- 
tion shall be provided in a format and at the times specified 
in the rules of the department. 

§28-418.5.2 Technical reports. The general contractor 
shall maintain at the work site such technical reports as 
specified in the rules of the department and shall make such 
reports available to department personnel on request. 

§28-418.5.3 Notice of pending disciplinary actions. The 
general contractor shall notify all of its suppliers of any 
pending suspension or revocation actions against such gen- 
eral contractor and shall provide an affidavit to the depart- 
ment stating that this notification has been made. 

§28-418.6 Posting of disciplinary actions. The names of all 
general contractors whose registration was suspended or 
revoked after an OATH decision shall be posted on the depart- 
ment's website. 



ARTICLE 419 
SEIZURE AND FORFEITURE 

§28-419.1 General. On and after November 1, 2008 vehicles 
and tools used in connection with unlicensed or unregistered 
activity at the work site of a new residential structure contain- 
ing no more than three dwelling units shall be subject to seizure 
and forfeiture. 

§28-419.2 Definitions. For purposes of this article, the follow- 
ing terms shall have the following meanings. 

1. The term "owner" as applied to vehicles shall mean an 
owner as defined in section one hundred twenty-eight 



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and in subdivision three of section three hundred 
eighty-eight of the vehicle and traffic law. 

2, The term "security interest" as applied to vehicles shall 
mean a security interest as defined in subdivision k of 
section two thousand one hundred one of the vehicle and 
traffic law. 

3. The term "unlicensed activity" shall mean the conduct of 
any activity at a work site for the construction of a resi- 
dential structure containing no more than three dwelling 
units without a license for which a license is required 
under any law, rule or regulation enforced by the com- 
missioner of buildings, and the term "unregistered activ- 
ity" shall mean the conduct of any activity at a work site 
for the construction of a residential structure containing 
no more than three dwelling units without a registration 
for which a registration is required under any law or reg- 
ulation enforced by the commissioner of buildings. 

§28-419,3 Seizure procedure. The following provisions shall 
govern seizure of vehicles and tools pursuant to this article. 

§28-419.3.1 Seizure. Any police officer or authorized offi- 
cer or authorized employee of the department may seize any 
vehicle and any tools contained therein that such police offi- 
cer or authorized officer or authorized employee has reason- 
able cause to believe is being used in connection with 
unlicensed or unregistered activity, upon service on the 
owner or operator of the vehicle of a notice of violation for 
engaging in such activity. Any vehicle and tools seized pur- 
suant to this section shall be delivered into the custody of the 
department or other appropriate agency. 

§28-419.3.2 Written demand. The owner or operator of 
the vehicle and/or tools may make a written demand for a 
hearing for the return of the seized property. Notice of the 
right to a head ng shall be provided to the operator at the time 
of seizure of the vehicle and/or tools, and a copy of such 
notice shall be sent by mail to the registered and/or title 
owner of the vehicle, if other than the operator, and to the 
owner of the tools if other than the owner or operator of the 
vehicle and if reasonably ascertainable, within five business 
days of the seizure. The department shall schedule the hear- 
ing at the office of administrative trials and hearings 
(OATH) or its successor agency, as applicable, for a date 
within ten business days after receipt of the demand and 
shall notify the operator and the owner(s) of the opportunity 
to participate in the hearing and the date thereof. 

§28-419.3.3 Claimant, A claimant seeking release of the 
vehicle and tools at the hearing may be either the person 
from whom the vehicle and tools were seized, if that person 
was in lawful possession of the vehicle and tools, or the 
owner if different from such person. 

§28-419.3.4 Determination. The OATH judge shall issue a 
determination within five business days after the conclusion 
of the hearing. 

§28-419.3.5 Return pending hearing. The department 
shall establish a procedure whereby an owner or operator 
who wishes to have the vehicle and/or tools returned pend- 
ing the hearing shall post a bond in an amount determined 
by the department, but in no event less than an amount suffi- 



cient to cover any applicable removal and storage fees as 
well as fines and penalties. 

§28-419.3.6 Return without hearing. The department 
shall establish a procedure whereby an owner or operator 
may request the return of the vehicle and/or tools without a 
hearing if such owner or operator: 

1. Establishes that the vehicle and/or tools were seized 
in error, or 

2. Immediately applies for licensure or registration pur- 
suant to the applicable provisions of this code and 
pays an amount not to exceed removal and storage 
fees and any fines or penalties that could have been 
imposed under the provisions of this code. 

Where the owner or operator establishes that the vehicle 
and/or tools were seized in error, the department shall expe- 
ditiously return such vehicle and/or tools. 

§28-419.4 Abandoned property. Any vehicle and/or tools for 
which a written demand for return of the vehicle and/or tools or 
for ahearing pursuant to section 28-41 9.3.2 has not been made 
within thirty days of service of the notice of violation on the 
operator of the vehicle and/or tools or within thirty days of ser- 
vice of the notice of violation on the owner of the vehicle and/or 
tools if the owner is not the operator of the vehicle and/or tools 
shall be deemed abandoned and shall be disposed of by the 
department pursuant to applicable law. 

§28-419.5 Combined hearings. The department may choose 
to have the underlying violation adjudicated before the office 
of administrative trials and hearings in accordance with sec- 
tions 28- 419.5.1 through 28- 419.5.3. 

§28-419.5.1 Combined hearing and determination. 
Upon notice to the respondent, the department may choose 
to have the violation underlying the seizure returnable to 
and heard at OATH and may combine the hearing on the 
underlying violation with the hearing for the return of the 
seized property. At such combined hearing the OATH judge 
shall make a determination as to both and may impose any 
penalty that could be imposed in a proceeding before the 
environmental control board for the underlying violation. 
The OATH judge shall issue a determination within five 
business days after the conclusion of the hearing. 

§28-419.5.2 Release following finding of no violaiton. If 
the OATH judge finds that the vehicle and/or tools were not 
used in connection with unlicensed or unregistered activity, 
the department shall promptly release such vehicle and/or 
tools. 

§28-419.5.3 Release following finding of violation. If the 
OATH judge finds that the vehicle and/or tools were used in 
connection with unlicensed or unregistered activity, the 
department may release such vehicle and/or tools upon pay- 
ment of all applicable fines and civil penalties and all rea- 
sonable costs of removal and storage, or may commence a 
forfeiture action within twenty business days after the date 
of the judge's determination. 

§28-419.6 Separate hearings. In the event that the adjudica- 
tion of the violation underlying the seizure is not held at OATH, 
and a determination is made that the vehicle and tools were not 



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LICENSING AND REGISTRATION OF BUSINESSES, TRADES AND OCCUPATIONS 



used in connection with unlicensed or unregistered activity, the 
department shall promptly release such vehicle and/or tools. 

§28-419.7 Forfeiture procedure. The following provisions 
shall govern forfeiture of vehicles and tools pursuant to this 
article. 

§28-419.7.1 Commencement of forfeiture. A forfeiture 
action pursuant to this article shall be commenced by the fil- 
ing of a summons with a notice or a summons and complaint 
in accordance with the civil practice law and rules. Such 
summons with notice or a summons and complaint shall be 
served in accordance with the civil practice law and rules on 
the vehicle operator, the owner of the tools, if different from 
the vehicle operator, and owner of the vehicle, and on all 
owners of the subject vehicle listed in the records main- 
tained by the department of motor vehicles, or for vehicles 
not registered in the state of New York, in the records main- 
tained by the state of registration. Except as otherwise pro- 
vided in this article, a vehicle and/or tools that are the 
subject of such action shall remain in the custody of the 
department or other appropriate agency pending the final 
determination of the forfeiture action. 

§28-419.7.2 Notice of forfeiture. Notice of the institution 
of the forfeiture action shall be given by certified mail to all 
persons holding a security interest in such vehicle or tools, if 
known, if such security interest in the vehicle has been filed 
with the department of motor vehicles pursuant to the provi- 
sions of title ten of the vehicle and traffic law, at the address 
set forth in the records of such department, or, for vehicles 
not registered in the state of New York, all persons holding a 
security interest in such vehicle if such security interest has 
been filed with the state of registration and which persons 
are made known by such state to the department, at the 
address provided by such state of registration. 

§28-419.7.3 Security interest. Any person with a security 
interest in such vehicle or tools who receives notice of the 
institution of the forfeiture action who claims an interest in 
such vehicle or tools subject to forfeiture may assert a claim 
in such action for satisfaction of such person's security 
interest in such vehicle or tools. 

§28-419.7.4 Forfeiture subject to security interest. For- 
feiture shall be made subject to the interest of a person who 
claims an interest in the vehicle or tools, where such person 
establishes that: 

1 . The use of the vehicle or tools for the conduct that was 
the basis for the seizure of the vehicle and tools 
occurred without the knowledge of such person, or if 
such person had knowledge of such use, that such per- 
son did not consent to such use by doing all that could 
reasonably have been done to prevent such use, and 
that such person did not knowingly obtain such inter- 
est in the vehicle or tools in order to avoid the forfei- 
ture of such vehicle or tools, or 

2. The conduct that was the basis for such seizure was 
committed by any person other than such person 
claiming an interest in the vehicle or tools, while such 
property was unlawfully in the possession of a person 
who acquired possession thereof in violation of the 
criminal laws of the United States or any state. 



§28-419.7.5 Disposition. The department or agency having 
custody of the vehicle and tools, after judicial determination 
of forfeiture, shall, at its discretion, either (i) retain such 
vehicle and tools for the official use of the city; or (ii) by 
public notice of at least five days, sell such forfeited vehicle 
and tools at public sale. The net proceeds of any such sale 
shall be paid into the general fund of the city. 

§28-419.7.6 Amount of award. In any forfeiture action 
commenced pursuant to this article, where the court awards 
a sum of money to one or more persons in satisfaction of 
such person's interest in the forfeited vehicle and tools, the 
total amount awarded to satisfy such interest or interests 
shall not exceed the amount of the net proceeds of the sale of 
the forfeited vehicle and tools after deduction of the lawful 
expenses incurred by the city, including reasonable costs of 
removal and storage of the vehicle and tools between the 
time of seizure and the date of sale. 



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A-76 NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



CHAPTER 5 

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 



ARTICLE 501 
MAINTENANCE PERIVIIT FOR OUTDOOR SIGNS 

§28-501.1 Permit required. The commissioner may, in his or 
her discretion, when necessary in the public interest, establish a 
permit requirement for signs maintained in the areas described 
in this article in accordance with the provisions of this article 
and the rules of the department. On and after a date to be pro- 
vided by the rules establishing such a permit requirement, and 
subject to the provisions of section 28-501.6 of this code, it 
shall be unlawful to place or maintain a sign, as defined in sec- 
tion 12-10 of the zoning resolution, on any building or pre- 
mises unless a permit for the maintenance of such sign has been 
issued by the department pursuant to this article if such sign is 
within a distance of nine hundred linear feet from and within 
view of an arterial highway or within a distance of 200 linear 
feet (60 960 mm) from and within view of a public park with an 
area of one half acre or more. 

§28-501.1.1 Other permits notwithstanding. Where a 
sign maintenance permit has been established by the com- 
missioner pursuant to section 28-501 . 1 such permit shall be 
required for all signs maintained in the areas described in 
such section 28-501.1 and not otherwise excluded under 
section 28-501.6, whether or not a work permit is required 
and/or has been issued for the installation, alteration or erec- 
tion of such sign pursuant to chapter 1 of this title. 

§28-501.1.2 Arterial highway. For the purposes of this 
article, the term arterial highway shall include all highways 
that are shown on the master plan of arterial highways and 
major streets as principal routes parkways or toll crossings 
and that have been designated by the city planning commis- 
sion as arterial highways to which the provisions of sections 
42-55 and 32-66 of the zoning resolution shall apply as 
shown in appendix C of the zoning resolution. 

§28-501.2 Application. Application for a permit or for the 
renewal of a permit shall be made on forms to be furnished by 
the department and shall contain such information as the 
department shall prescribe. Except as otherwise provided in 
section 28-501 .3, a permit shall remain in effect for a period to 
be determined by rule and may be renewed. The fee for a permit 
or for its renewal shall be established by rule. The identification 
number of the permit shall be displayed on the sign or on the 
building or premises on which the sign is located or both, in a 
manner to be provided by rule. 

§28-501.3 Permit expiration. A permit issued pursuant to this 
article shall expire and be of no further force or effect where: 

1 . in the case of a sign which is accessory to a principal use 
within the meaning of section 1.2- 10 of the zoning resolu- 
tion, there has been a discontinuance of the operation of 
the principal use to which such sign is accessory, or in the 
event the sign is no longer in the same ownership as such 
principal use or is no longer operated and maintained 



substantially for the benefit or convenience of the own- 
ers, occupants, employees, customers or visitors of the 
principal use; 

2. in the case of any sign for which a permit has been issued 
pursuant to this article, whether or not accessory to a 
principal use within the meaning of section 1 2- 1 of the 
zoning resolution, there has been a change in copy which 
the commissioner has determined renders such sign no 
longer in compliance with the zoning resolution. The 
commissioner shall prescribe by rule procedures for the 
notification to the department concerning changes in 
copy which have been made on signs for which permits 
have been issued under this article. Nothing herein shall 
be construed as limiting the ability of any person to apply 
for a new permit pursuant to this article. 

§28-501.4 Civil penalties. Any person who places or main- 
tains a sign on a building or premises without an appropriate 
permit in violation of this article shall be liable for a civil pen- 
alty of, for a first violation, not more than fifteen thousand dol- 
lars and, for a second or subsequent violation, not more than 
twenty-five thousand dollars. Each day's continuance shall be a 
separate and distinct violation. Such civil penalties may be 
recovered in an action in any court of appropriate jurisdiction 
or in a proceeding before the environmental control board. 
Such board shall have the power to impose the civil penalties 
provided for in this article. Notwithstanding the provisions of 
section six hundred sixty-six of the charter, a notice of violation 
issued by the department pursuant to this section 28-501 .4 shall 
not be subject to review by the board of standards and appeals. 

§28-501.5 Construction. This chapter shall not be construed 
to grant the right to place or maintain a sign on any building or 
premises where the placement or maintenance of such sign 
would otherwise be prohibited pursuant to the zoning resolu- 
tion, the administrative code or any other provision of law. No 
permit for a sign issued hereunder shall be deemed to constitute 
permission or authorization to maintain a sign which is unlaw- 
ful pursuant to any other provisions of law nor shall any permit 
issued hereunder constitute a defense in an action or proceed- 
ing with respect to such an unlawful sign. 

§28-501.6 Exemption. The provisions of this article shall not 
apply to: 

1 . Signs with a surface area of 200 square feet (1 9 m 2 ) or 
less that are located no higher than 3 feet (9 14 mm) above 
the floor of the second story of the building on which the 
sign is located; and 

2. Signs under the control of an outdoor advertising com- 
pany and included on a certified list of signs, sign struc- 
tures, and sign locations under the control of such 
company required to be filed with the department pursu- 
ant to this chapter. 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



A-77 



MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 



ARTICLE 502 
OUTDOOR ADVERTISING COMPANIES 

§28-502.1 Definitions. As used in this chapter, the following 
terms shall have the following meanings: 

AFFILIATE. An outdoor advertising company having a con- 
trolling interest in another outdoor advertising company or in 
which such other outdoor advertising company has a control- 
ling interest. In addition, where a person or entity has control- 
ling interests in two or more outdoor advertising companies, 
such outdoor advertising companies shall be considered affili- 
ates of each other. A "controlling interest" means actual work- 
ing control, in whatever manner exercised, including without 
limitation, control through ownership, management, debt 
instruments or negative control, as the case may be, as defined 
in rules of the department. 

OUTDOOR ADVERTISING COMPANY. A person, corpo- 
ration, partnership or other business entity that as a part of the 
regular conduct of its business engages in or, by way of adver- 
tising, promotions or other methods, holds itself out as engag- 
ing in the outdoor advertising business. 

OUTDOOR ADVERTISING BUSINESS. The business of 
selling, leasing, marketing, managing, or otherwise either 
directly or indirectly making space on signs situated on build- 
ings and premises within the city of New York available to oth- 
ers for advertising purposes, whether such advertising directs 
attention to a business, profession, commodity, service or 
entertainment conducted, sold, or offered on the same or a dif- 
ferent zoning lot and whether such sign is classified as an 
advertising sign pursuant to section 12-10 of the zoning resolu- 
tion. 

SIGN. A sign as defined in section 1.2-10 of the zoning resolu- 
tion except that such term shall not include any sign subject to 
regulation by the department of transportation. 

SIGN LOCATION. A building or premises on which an out- 
door advertising company is entitled to sell, lease, market, 
manage or otherwise either directly or indirectly make space on 
signs available to customers, irrespective of whether a sign 
exists on such building or premises. 

UNDER THE CONTROL OF AN OUTDOOR ADVER- 
TISING COMPANY in reference to a sign, sign structure, or 
sign location. That space on such sign, sign structure, or at such 
sign location that is sold, leased, marketed, managed or other- 
wise either directly or indirectly made available to others for 
any purposes by such outdoor advertising company. 

§28-502.2 Registration of outdoor advertising companies. 
On and after a date to be provided by rule, it shall be unlawful 
for an outdoor advertising company to engage in the outdoor 
advertising business or, by way of advertising, promotions or 
other methods, hold itself out as engaging in the outdoor adver- 
tising business unless such company is registered in accor- 
dance with this code and the rules of the department. Such rules 
shall establish a procedure pursuant to which the department 
may require the single registration of an outdoor advertising 
company and its affiliates. An outdoor advertising company 
and its affiliates made subject to single registration shall be 
considered a single outdoor advertising company for purposes 
of this code. 



§28-502.2.1 Application. Application for registration or 
the renewal of registration shall be made on forms to be fur- 
nished by the department, may be made through electronic 
means, and shall contain such information as the depart- 
ment shall prescribe. Registration shall remain in force for 
two years and may be renewed. The fee for such registration 
and for the renewal of such registration shall be established 
by rule and may be based on the number of signs in the regis- 
tered inventory. 

§28-502.2.2 Security. Each outdoor advertising company 
shall post a bond or provide another form of security to the 
city in an amount to be determined by the department by 
rule to cover: 

1 . All costs incurred by the city pursuant to this code for 
painting over, covering, rendering ineffective or for 
the removal and storage of an illegal sign or sign 
structure under the control of such outdoor advertis- 
ing company; and 

2. All fines or civil penalties imposed against such com- 
pany pursuant to this chapter. 

§28-502.3 Revocation or suspension or registration. The 
department may revoke, suspend or refuse to renew the regis- 
tration of an outdoor advertising company or impose fines or 
other penalties where it is determined by the commissioner, 
after notice and the opportunity to be heard, that (i) such com- 
pany has made statements that it knew or should have known 
are false in any application or certification filed with the depart- 
ment, (ii) such company has failed to comply with section 
28-502.3 of this code or the rules adopted pursuant to its provi- 
sions by failing to file a listing of signs, sign structures and sign 
locations under its control as specified in such section within 
the time and in the manner required by department rules or by 
filing an incomplete listing of signs, sign structures and sign 
locations under its control as specified in such section, (iii) 
such company has been found liable for or has admitted to vio- 
lations of the zoning resolution under section 28-502.5 of this 
code committed on three or more occasions within a 36 month 
period, where such violations relate to the erection, mainte- 
nance, attachment, affixing, painting or representation in any 
other manner on a building or premises of advertising signs, as 
defined in section 12-10 of the zoning resolution, at locations 
where the display of such advertising signs is not permitted 
under the zoning resolution or at locations where the display of 
such advertising signs violates the size, height, or illumination 
provisions of the zoning resolution, and such signs are located 
within a distance of nine hundred linear feet from and within 
view of an arterial highway or within 200 linear feet (60 960 
mm) from and within view of a public park with an area of one 
half acre or more, (iv) such company has failed to pay any civil 
penalties imposed or amounts owed to the city pursuant to sec- 
tion 28-502.5 of this code or, (v) such company has violated the 
department's rules pertaining to outdoor advertising compa- 
nies. No application for registration by an outdoor advertising 
company or any affiliate thereof shall be accepted for filing by 
the department for a period of five years after revocation of or 
the refusal to renew the registration of such outdoor advertising 
company pursuant to this code. The department shall not 
accept or process any applications for permits to install, erect or 
alter signs pursuant to this code or for the maintenance of signs 



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NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 



pursuant to section 28-501.1 of this code where such applica- 
tions are filed by or where such signs are under the control of an 
outdoor advertising company or any affiliate thereof after the 
registration of such outdoor advertising company has been 
revoked or not renewed or during the term of any period of sus- 
pension of such registration. The commissioner may settle any 
proceeding in which the revocation, suspension or renewal of 
an outdoor advertising company's registration is at issue upon 
such terms and conditions as he or she may deem appropriate 
including but not limited to the agreement of an outdoor adver- 
tising company to remove signs along with supporting sign 
structures as a condition for the dismissal of such proceeding. 

§28-502.4 Reporting requirement An outdoor advertising 
company shall provide the department with a list with the loca- 
tion of signs, sign structures and sign locations under the con- 
trol of such outdoor advertising company in accordance with 
the following provisions: 

1. The list shall include all signs, sign structures and sign 
locations located (i) within a distance of 900 linear feet 
(274 m) from and within view of an arterial highway; or 
(ii) within a distance of 200 linear feet (60 960 mm) from 
and within view of a public park with an area of V 2 acre 
(5000 m) or more. 

2. The commissioner may, by rule, expand the scope of 
such list to include the reporting of other signs, sign 
structures and sign locations, as specified in such rule. 

§28-502.4,1 Form of list The list shall be in such form, 
containing such information and filed at such periodic inter- 
vals or upon such other conditions, as the department shall 
prescribe by rule. 

§28-502.4.2 Other required information. Such list shall 
also indicate the work permit identification numbers for the 
erection, alteration or installation of such signs pursuant to 
chapter 1 of this title and for the maintenance of such signs 
pursuant to article 501, unless a permit is not required pur- 
suant to such provisions, as well as the name and license 
number of the master or special sign hanger who hung or 
erected each such sign. 

§28-502.4.3 Certification of list. Such list shall be accom- 
panied by (i) a certification by an architect or engineer, 
co-signed by a responsible officer of the outdoor advertising 
company, that all signs reported on such list are in compli- 
ance with the zoning resolution; (ii) copies of proof that the 
sign complies with the zoning resolution and a certification 
by the sign's owner that to the best of the certifier's knowl- 
edge and belief the information provided is accurate, or (iii) 
a written opinion by the department, stating that the sign to 
which the opinion refers complies with the zoning resolu- 
tion. Notwithstanding any inconsistent provision of this 
code, where, in accordance with the department's rules, the 
department renders an opinion, determination or decision 
relating to whether a sign is non-conforming or whether it is 
located in proximity to an arterial highway as defined by the 
zoning resolution, such decision, determination or opinion 
will be appealable to the board of standards and appeals in 
accordance with applicable law. If a timely appeal to such 
board is taken, the department shall not issue a notice of vio- 



lation with respect to such sign pending a determination of 
such appeal by such board. 

§28-502.4.4 Public access to list. The commissioner shall 
make all listings filed pursuant to this article accessible to 
the public. 

§28-502.5 Display of name and registration number of out- 
door advertising company. On and after a date to be pre- 
scribed by rule, the commissioner shall require that each 
outdoor advertising company display, in a manner to be pro- 
vided by rule, on each sign under its control or on the building 
or premises where each sign under its control is located or both, 
(i) the name and registration number of such company and, (ii) 
unless a permit is not required, the work permit identification 
number for the installation, alteration or erection of the sign 
pursuant to chapter 1 of this code and, if applicable, for the 
maintenance of the sign pursuant to article 501. 

§28-502.6 Criminal and civil penalties. Outdoor advertising 
companies that violate the zoning resolution, this code, the 
1968 building code or rules of the department shall be subject 
to criminal and civil penalties in accordance with this article. 

§28-502.6.1 General. Notwithstanding any other provision 
of law, an outdoor advertising company shall be liable for a 
civil penalty in accordance with this article if a sign under its 
control has been erected, maintained, attached, affixed, 
painted on, or in any other manner represented on a building 
or premises in violation of any provision of the zoning reso- 
lution, this code, the 1968 building code or rules adopted 
pursuant thereto relating to signs. 

§28-502.6.2 Unlawful for outdoor advertising company 
to sell space on illegal sign. It shall be unlawful for an out- 
door advertising company to sell, lease, market, manage or 
otherwise make available to others for advertising purposes 
space on a sign that has been erected, maintained, attached, 
affixed, painted on or in any other manner represented on a 
building or premises in violation of any provision of the 
zoning resolution, this code, the 1968 building code or rules 
adopted pursuant thereto or to enter into any agreement for 
such purpose. 

§28-502.6.3 Unlawful to transfer sign to unregistered 
outdoor advertising company. On and after a date to be 
provided by rule, it shall be unlawful for an outdoor adver- 
tising company to sell or otherwise transfer control of a sign 
or sign location or of any right of such company to sell, 
lease, market, manage or otherwise make space on a sign or 
at a sign location available to others for advertising purposes 
to an outdoor advertising company that is not registered in 
accordance with this article and the rules of the department. 

§28-502.6.4 Civil penalty. An outdoor advertising com- 
pany that violates any of the provisions of this article shall 
be subject to a civil penalty of, for a first violation, not more 
than fifteen thousand dollars and, for a second or subse- 
quent violation, not more than twenty-five thousand dollars. 
Each day's continuance shall be a separate and distinct vio- 
lation. 

§28-502.6.5 Criminal penalty. Notwithstanding any 
inconsistent provision of law, an. outdoor advertising com- 
pany shall, upon being found guilty, be subject to fines or 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



A-79 



MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 



imprisonment or both pursuant to this code if a sign under its 
control has been erected, maintained, attached, affixed, 
painted on, or in any other manner represented on a building 
or premises in violation of any provision of the zoning reso- 
lution, this code, the 1968 building code or rules adopted 
pursuant thereto relating to signs. 

§28-502.6.6 Activity by unregistered company. On and 
after a date to be provided by rule, an outdoor advertising 
company that engages in the outdoor advertising business 
or, by way of advertisement, promotion or other methods 
holds itself out as engaging in the outdoor advertising busi- 
ness without registering with the department pursuant to 
this chapter, or, after such registration has been revoked or 
not renewed pursuant to this code continues to engage in 
such business beyond a date specified by the commissioner 
in his or her determination to revoke or not renew, shall be 
guilty of a misdemeanor subject to a fine not to exceed five 
thousand dollars or a sentence of imprisonment of not more 
than one year or both such fine and imprisonment for each 
offense. In the case of a continuing violation each day's con- 
tinuance shall be a separate and distinct violation. Such 
company shall also be liable for a civil penalty of, for a first 
violation, not more than fifteen thousand dollars and, for a 
second or subsequent violation, not more than twenty-five 
thousand dollars. Each day's continuance shall be a separate 
and distinct violation. 

§28-502.6.7 Venue. Civil penalties may be recovered in an 
action in any court of appropriate jurisdiction or in a pro- 
ceeding before the environmental control board. Such board 
shall have the power to impose the civil penalties provided 
for in this article. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 
six hundred sixty-six of the charter, a notice of violation 
issued by the department pursuant to this article shall not be 
subject to review by the board of standards and appeals. 

§28-502.7 Signs under control of unregistered outdoor 
advertising company are public nuisance. On and after a 
date to be provided by rule, it shall be unlawful to erect, main- 
tain, attach, affix, paint on, or in any other manner represent on 
a building or premises any sign that is under the control of an 
unregistered outdoor advertising company. In addition to or as 
an alternative to any other remedies or penalties provided under 
any other provision of law, the commissioner may commence a 
proceeding for the removal of such sign or its sign structure or 
both in accordance with the procedures set forth in this code for 
the abatement of a nuisance and any such sign and its sign 
structure is hereby declared to be a public nuisance pursuant 
thereto. All of the provisions of article 503 of this chapter shall 
apply to the removal of a sign pursuant to this article except that 
a sign under the control of an unregistered outdoor advertising 
company may be removed whether or not it is in compliance 
with the zoning resolution, this code, the 1968 building code or 
rules adopted pursuant thereto, and irrespective of whether it 
has a surface area greater than 200 square feet (19 m 2 ). 

§28-502.8 Franchise or concession disqualification. Not- 
withstanding any other provision of law to the contrary, an out- 
door advertising company, or any affiliate thereof, that has 
been found guilty of a misdemeanor or liable for a civil penalty 
pursuant to this article or whose registration has been revoked 
shall be considered ineligible for the award of any city fran- 



chise or concession, and shall be prohibited from administer- 
ing any advertising program on behalf of a city franchisee or 
concessionaire, for a period of five years following judgment 
or decision. 

§28-502.9 Investigations. The department may investigate 
any matter within the jurisdiction conferred by this chapter and 
shall have full power to compel the attendance, examine and 
take testimony under oath of such persons as it may deem nec- 
essary in relation to such investigation, and to require the pro- 
duction of books, accounts, papers and other evidence relevant 
to such investigation. The department of investigation may, at 
the request of the commissioner, assist the department in any 
investigation conducted pursuant to this article. 



ARTICLE 503 
NUISANCE ABATEMENT FOR ILLEGAL SIGNS 

§28-503.1 General. A sign with a surface area greater than 200 
square feet (19 m 2 ) that is erected, maintained, attached, 
affixed, painted on, or in any other manner represented on a 
building or premises in violation of the zoning resolution, this 
code, the 1968 building code or rules adopted pursuant thereto 
is hereby declared to be a public nuisance. The commissioner 
may, after notice and hearing, order the removal of such illegal 
sign or its sign structure or both, as hereinafter provided. 

§28-503.2 Notice. The commissioner shall serve a notice of 
hearing with regard to the proposed nuisance abatement on the 
owner and mortgagee of record of the building or premises and 
other persons having a recorded interest in the property in the 
manner provided in article 2.12 of chapter 2 of this title for the 
service of an order of closure. If the sign is under the control of 
an outdoor advertising company and an address for such com- 
pany is reasonably ascertainable, the notice shall also be served 
on such outdoor advertising company by mail to the last known 
address for such company or, if such company is registered in 
accordance with section 28-502.2, at the address provided to 
the department by the registrant. 

§28-503.3 Hearing. The office of administrative trials and 
hearings shall conduct the hearing. The administrative law 
judge assigned to hear the matter shall submit his or her pro- 
posed findings of fact and recommended disposition to the 
commissioner. If based on such recommended disposition, 
proposed findings of fact and the record of the hearing the com- 
missioner determines (i) that the sign has a surface area greater 
than 200 square feet (19 m 2 ) and, (ii) that the sign has been 
erected, maintained, attached, affixed, painted on, or in any 
other manner represented on the building or premises in viola- 
tion of the zoning resolution, this code, the 1968 building code 
or rules adopted pursuant thereto, he or she may order the 
removal of the illegal sign or its sign structure or both. 

§28-503,3.1 Lack of knowledge no defense. At such hear- 
ing it shall not be a defense that an owner or other person 
having an interest in the property lacked knowledge of or 
did not participate in the erection or maintenance of the ille- 
gal sign. 

§28-503.4 Posting of order. The commissioner's order of 
removal shall be posted, mailed and filed in the manner pro- 
vided in this code for an order of closure. 



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MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS 



§28-503.5 Enforcement of order. On or after the tenth busi- 
ness day after the posting of such order and upon the written 
directive of the commissioner, police officers and authorized 
representatives of the department shall act upon and enforce 
such order by removing, covering, painting over or otherwise 
rendering ineffective the illegal sign or its sign structure or 
both. Such work shall at all times be performed by a licensed 
sign hanger where required by law. Nothing in this article shall 
be construed to prohibit an owner or other person having an 
interest in the property from removing or causing the removal 
of an illegal sign or its sign structure prior to the arrival of such 
enforcement officers. On and after the posting of such removal 
order, no further permits for signs shall be issued for such 
building or premises pursuant to this code and, if the sign struc- 
ture is not removed, no further display shall be exhibited on 
such sign structure unless and until the commissioner rescinds 
such order. 

§28-503.6 Rescission of order. The commissioner may 
rescind the order if the owner or other person having an interest 
in the building or premises provides assurance in a form satis- 
factory to the commissioner that all signs erected or maintained 
at such building or premises will be in compliance with the 
zoning resolution, this code, the 1968 building code or rules 
adopted pursuant to such provisions. If such order is rescinded, 
the commissioner shall, upon request of such owner, mort- 
gagee or other person, provide a certified copy of such rescis- 
sion which may be filed with the county clerk or register of the 
county in which such building or premises is located. 

§28-503.7 Costs, The costs and expenses for painting over, 
covering, rendering ineffective or for the removal and storage 
of such sign and its sign structure may be recovered from the 
owner of the premises or, if the illegal sign is under the control 
of an outdoor advertising company and notice was served on 
such company in accordance with this article, from such out- 
door advertising company. Such amounts may be recovered by 
the city in an action or proceeding in any court of appropriate 
jurisdiction and, with respect to amounts owed by an outdoor 
advertising company, by drawing upon any bond posted or 
other security provided by such company pursuant to section 
28-502.2. Nothing in this article shall be construed to limit the 
ability of an owner to seek recovery of such costs and expenses 
from any other party. 

§28-503.8 Lien. In addition, such costs and expenses shall con- 
stitute a lien on the land and building on which the sign was 
located which may be entered and enforced pursuant to the pro- 
visions of this code in the same manner as an unpaid fee. 

§28-503.9 Storage and disposal. The commissioner shall 
adopt rules to provide for the storage and disposal of any sign 
or sign structure removed pursuant to this article. If the identity 
and address of the owner of such property is reasonably ascer- 
tainable, notice of the removal shall be sent to the owner within 
a reasonable period of time after the removal If such property 
is not claimed within thirty days after its removal, it shall be 
deemed to be abandoned and may be sold at a public auction 
after having been advertised in the City Record and the pro- 
ceeds paid into the general fund or if the commissioner deter- 
mines that the property is not saleable, he or she may turn over 
such property to the department of sanitation for disposal. 
Property removed pursuant to this article shall be released to 



the owner or other person lawfully entitled to possession upon 
payment of the costs of removal and storage as set forth in the 
rules of the department and any fines or civil penalties imposed 
for the violation or, if an action or proceeding for the violation 
is pending in court or before the environmental control board, 
upon the posting of a bond or other form of security acceptable 
to the department in an amount which will secure the payment 
of such costs and any fines or civil penalties which may be 
imposed for the violation. 

§28-503.10 Definitions. For the purposes of this article the 
terms "sign" and "surface area," in reference to a sign, shall be 
as defined under section 12-10 of the zoning resolution. 

§28-503.11 Review of order. An order of the commissioner 
issued pursuant to this article shall be a final determination of 
the commissioner for puiposes of review pursuant to article 
seventy-eight of the civil practice law and rules. Notwithstand- 
ing any inconsistent provision of paragraph (a) of subdivision 
six of section six hundred sixty-six of the New York city char- 
ter, such order shall not be subject to review by the board of 
standards and appeals. 



NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



A-81 



A-82 NEW YORK CITY CONSTRUCTION CODES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 
PLUMBING CODE 



CHAPTER 1 ADMINISTRATION 1 

Section 

PC 101 General 1 

PC 102 Applicability 1 

PC 103 Department of Buildings 1 

PC 104 Duties and Powers of the Commissioner of 

Buildings 1 

PC 105 Permits 2 

PC 106 Construction Documents 2 

PC 107 Inspections and Testing 3 

PC 108 Violations 4 

CHAPTER 2 DEFINITIONS 5 

Section 

PC 201 General 5 

PC 202 General Definitions 5 

CHAPTER 3 GENERAL REGULATIONS 13 

Section 

PC 301 General 13 

PC 302 Exclusion of Materials Detrimental 

to the Sewer System 13 

PC 303 Materials 13 

PC 304 Rodentproofing 13 

PC 305 Protection of Pipes and Plumbing 

System Components 14 

PC 306 Trenching, Excavation and Backfill 14 

PC 307 Structural Safety 15 

PC 308 Piping Support 15 

PC 309 Flood Hazard Resistance 16 

PC 310 Washroom and Toilet Room 

Requirements 16 

PC 31 1 Toilet Facilities for Workers 17 

PC 3 1 2 Tests and Inspections 17 

PC 3 1 3 Equipment Efficiencies 18 

PC 314 Condensate Disposal 18 

CHAPTER 4 FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE 
FITTINGS 21 

Section 

PC 401 General 21 

PC 402 Fixture Materials 21 



PC 403 Minimum Plumbing Facilities 21 

PC 404 Accessible Plumbing Facilities 24 

PC 405 Installation of Fixtures 24 

PC 406 Automatic Clothes Washers 25 

PC 407 Bathtubs 25 

PC 408 Bidets 25 

PC 409 Dishwashing Machines 25 

PC 410 Drinking Fountains 25 

PC 41 1 Emergency Showers and Eyewash 

Stations 26 

PC 41 2 Floor and Trench Drains 26 

PC 413 Food Waste Grinder Units 26 

PC 414 Garbage Can Washers 26 

PC 415 Laundry Trays 26 

PC 416 Lavatories 26 

PC 417 Showers 26 

PC 418 Sinks 27 

PC 419 Urinals 27 

PC 420 Water Closets 27 

PC 421 Whirlpool Bathtubs 27 

PC 422 Health Care Fixtures and Equipment 28 

PC 423 Specialty Plumbing Fixtures 28 

PC 424 Faucets and Other Fixture Fittings 28 

PC 425 Flushing Devices for Water Closets 

and Urinals 29 

PC 426 Manual Food and Beverage 

Dispensing Equipment 29 

PC 427 Floor Sinks 29 

CHAPTER 5 WATER HEATERS 31 

Section 

PC 501 General 31 

PC 502 Installation 31 

PC 503 Connections 31 

PC 504 Safety Devices 31 

PC 505 Insulation 32 

CHAPTER 6 WATER SUPPLY AND 

DISTRIBUTION 33 

Section 

PC 601 General 33 

PC 602 Water Required 33 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PC 603 Water Service 34 

PC 604 Design of Building Water Distribution 

System 34 

PC 605 Materials, Joints and Connections 36 

PC 606 Installation of the Building Water 

Distribution System 38 

PC 607 Hot Water Supply System 41 

PC 608 Protection of Potable Water Supply 41 

PC 609 Health Care Plumbing 46 

PC 610 Disinfection of Potable Water System 46 

PC 61 1 Drinking Water Treatment Units 46 

PC 612 Solar Systems 47 

PC 613 Temperature Control Devices and Valves .... 47 

CHAPTER 7 SANITARY DRAINAGE 49 

Section 

PC 701 General 49 

PC 702 Materials 50 

PC 703 Building Sewer 50 

PC 704 Drainage Piping Installation 51 

PC 705 Joints 52 

PC 706 Connections between Drainage Piping 

and Fittings . 54 

PC 707 Prohibited Joints and Connections 55 

PC 708 Cleanouts 55 

PC 709 Fixture Units 55 

PC 710 Drainage System Sizing 57 

PC 71 1 Offsets in Drainage Piping in Buildings 

of Five Stories or More 57 

PC 712 Ejectors 57 

PC 7 1 3 Health Care Plumbing 59 

PC 714 Computerized Drainage Design 60 

PC 7 15 Backwater Valves 61 

CHAPTER 8 INDIRECT/SPECIAL WASTE 63 

Section 

PC 801 General 63 

PC 802 Indirect Wastes 63 

PC 803 Special Wastes 64 

PC 804 Materials, Joints and Connections 64 

CHAPTER 9 VENTS 65 

Section 

PC 901 General 65 



PC 902 Materials 65 

PC 903 Vent Stacks and Stack Vents 65 

PC 904 Vent Terminals 65 

PC 905 Vent Connections and Grades 66 

PC 906 Fixture Vents 66 

PC 907 Individual Vent 66 

PC 908 Common Vent 66 

PC 909 Wet Venting 66 

PC 910 Waste Stack Vent (RESERVED) 67 

PC 911 Circuit Venting 67 

PC 912 Combination Drain and Vent System 67 

PC 913 Island Fixture Venting 68 

PC 914 Relief Vents— Stacks of More Than 

10 Branch Intervals 68 

PC 915 Vents for Stack Offsets 68 

PC 916 Vent Pipe Sizing 68 

PC 917 Air Admittance Valves (RESERVED) 70 

PC 918 Engineered Vent Systems 70 

PC 919 Computerized Vent Design 70 

CHAPTER 10 TRAPS, INTERCEPTORS AND 

SEPARATORS 73 

Section 

PC 1001 General 73 

PC 1002 Trap Requirements 73 

PC 1003 Interceptors and Separators 73 

PC 1004 Materials, Joints and Connections 75 

CHAPTER 11 STORM DRAINAGE 77 

Section 

PC 1 101 General 77 

PC 1 102 Materials 77 

PC 1103 Traps 78 

PC 1 104 Conductors and Connections 78 

PC 1 105 Roof Drains 78 

PC 1106 Size of Conductors, Leaders and 

Storm Drains 79 

PC 1107 Secondary (Emergency) Roof Drains 79 

PC 1108 Combined Sanitary and Storm System 80 

PC 1 109 Values for Continuous Flow 80 

PC 1110 Controlled Flow Roof Drain Systems 80 

PC 1111 Subsoil Drains 81 

PC 1112 Building Subdrains 81 

PC 1113 Sumps and Pumping Systems 81 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



CHAPTER 12 SPECIAL PIPING AND 

STORAGE SYSTEMS 83 

Section 

PC 1201 General 83 

PC 1202 Medical Gases 83 

PC 1203 Oxygen Systems 83 

PC 1204 Other Cryogenic Systems 83 

CHAPTER 13 REFERENCED STANDARDS 85 

APPENDIX A PLUMBING PERMIT FEE 

SCHEDULE (RESERVED) 93 

APPENDIX B RATES OF RAINFALL FOR 

VARIOUS CITIES (RESERVED). ... 95 

APPENDIX C WATER CONSERVATION 

SYSTEMS 97 

Section 

PC C101 Water Recycling Systems 97 

PC C102 Waterless Urinals 97 

APPENDIX D DEGREE DAY AND DESIGN 

TEMPERATURES (RESERVED) ... 99 

APPENDIX E SIZING OF WATER PIPING 

SYSTEM 101 

Section 

PC ElOl General 101 

PC El 02 Information Required 101 

PC E103 Selection of Pipe Size 101 

PC E201 Selection of Pipe Size (RESERVED) 118 

APPENDIX F STRUCTURAL SAFETY 

(RESERVED) 119 

APPENDIX G VACUUM DRAINAGE SYSTEM 

(RESERVED) 121 

INDEX RESERVED 123 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



CHAPTER 1 

ADMINISTRATION 



SECTION PC 101 
GENERAL 

101.1 Title. This code shall be known and may be cited as the 
"New York City Plumbing Coder "NYCPC" or "PC." All sec- 
tion numbers in this code shall be deemed to be preceded by the 
designation "PC." 

101.2 Scope. The provisions of this code shall apply to the 
erection, installation, alteration, repair, relocation, replace- 
ment, addition to, use or maintenance of plumbing systems. 
This code shall also regulate nonflammable medical gas, inha- 
lation anesthetic, vacuum piping, nonmedical oxygen systems 
and sanitary and condensate vacuum collection systems. The 
installation of fuel-gas distribution piping and equipment, fuel 
gas-fired water heaters, and water heater venting systems shall 
be regulated by the New York City Fuel Gas Code. 

1013 Intent. The purpose of this code is to provide minimum 
standards to safeguard life or limb, health, property and public 
welfare by regulating and controlling the design, construction, 
installation, quality of materials, location, operation and main- 
tenance or use of plumbing systems. 

101.4 Severability. If a section, subsection, sentence, clause or 
phrase of this code is, for any reason, held to be unconstitu- 
tional, such decision shall not affect the validity of the remain- 
ing portions of this code. 



SECTION PC 102 
APPLICABILITY 

102.1 General, The provisions of this code shall apply to all 
matters affecting or relating to structures and premises, as set 
forth in Section PC£ 101. Where, in any specific case, different 
sections of this code specify different materials, methods of 
construction or other requirements, the most restrictive shall 
govern. 

102.2 Existing installations. Plumbing systems lawfully in 
existence at the time of the adoption of this code shall be per- 
mitted to have their use and maintenance continued if the use, 
maintenance or repair is in accordance with the original design 
and no hazard to life, health or property is created by such 
plumbing system. 

102.2.1 Existing buildings. Additions, alterations, renova- 
tions or repairs related to building or structural issues shall 
be governed by Chapter 1 of Title 28 of the Administrative 
Code, the New York City Building Code and the 1968 Build- 
ing Code, as applicable. 

102.3 Maintenance. Installations, both existing and new, and 
parts thereof shall be maintained in proper operating condition 
in accordance with the original design and in a safe and sanitary 
condition. Devices or safeguards that are required by this code 
shall be maintained in compliance with the applicable provi- 
sions under which they were installed. The owner or the 
owner's designated agent shall be responsible for maintenance 



of plumbing systems. To determine compliance with this pro- 
vision, the commissioner shall have the authority to require any 
plumbing system to be inspected. 

102.4 Additions, alterations or repairs. Additions, alter- 
ations, renovations or repairs to installations shall conform to 
that required for new installations without requiring the exist- 
ing installation to comply with all of the requirements of this 
code. Additions, alterations or repairs shall not cause an exist- 
ing installation to become unsafe, hazardous or overloaded. 
Minor additions, alterations, renovations and repairs to exist- 
ing installations shall meet the provisions for new construction, 
unless such work is done in the same manner and arrangement 
as was in the existing system, is not hazardous and is approved. 

102.5 Change in occupancy. Refer to Chapter 1 of Title 28 of 
the Administrative Code. 

102.6 Reserved. 

102.7 Reserved. 

102.8 Referenced standards. The standards referenced in this 
code shall be those that are listed in Chapter 13 and such stan- 
dards shall be considered as part of the requirements of this 
code to the prescribed extent of each such reference. Where dif- 
ferences occur between the provisions of this code and the ref- 
erenced standards, the provisions of this code shall be the 
minimum requirements. Refer to Article 103 of Chapter 1 of 
Title 28 of the Administrative Code for additional provisions 
relating to referenced standards. 

102.9 Requirements not covered by code. Requirements nec- 
essary for the strength, stability or proper operation of an exist- 
ing or proposed plumbing system, or for the public safety, 
health and general welfare, not specifically covered by this 
code, shall be determined by the commissioner. 



SECTION PC 103 

DEPARTMENT OF BUILDINGS 

103.1 Enforcement agency. Refer to the New York City Char- 
ter and Chapter 1 of Title 28 of the Administrative Code. 



SECTION PC 104 

DUTIES AND POWERS OF THE COMMISSIONER 

OF BUILDINGS 

104.1 General. The commissioner shall have the authority to 
render interpretations and to adopt rules establishing policies, 
and procedures to clarify and implement the provisions of this 
code. Such interpretations and rules shall be in compliance 
with the intent and purpose of this code. See the New York City 
Charter and Chapter 1 of Title 28 of the Administrative Code 
for additional provisions relating to the authority of the Com- 
missioner of Buildings. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



ADMINISTRATION 



104.2 Remedies for nonfunctioning storm water disposal 
systems. If the commissioner determines that a system of 
storm water disposal which has been previously approved 
under the provisions of this code or of previous codes is no lon- 
ger providing adequate drainage of storm water from a lot or 
development, the commissioner shall order repair of such sys- 
tem as required by Section 28-301.1 of the Administrative 
Code; or if, in the judgment of the commissioner, repair of such 
system is not sufficient to ensure adequate drainage of storm 
water from such lot or development, the commissioner shall 
order that one of the methods of storm water disposal set forth 
in Chapter 1 1 shall be used to provide such drainage. The com- 
missioner may apply to the Board of Standards and Appeals for 
modification of the Certificate of Occupancy of any building 
constructed on such lot or development to require the use of 
such method. 



SECTION PC 105 
PERMITS 

105.1 General. Permits shall comply with this section, with 
Article 1.05 of Chapter I of Title 28 of the Administrative Code, 
and with requirements found elsewhere in this code. 

105.2 Required. Any owner or authorized agent who intends 
to construct, add to, alter, repair, move, demolish, or change the 
occupancy of a building or structure, or to erect, install, add to, 
alter, repair, remove, convert or replace any gas, mechanical or 
plumbing system, the installation of which is regulated by this 
code, or to cause any such work to be done, shall first make 
application for construction document approval in accordance 
with Chapter .1 of Title 28 of the Administrative Code and this 
chapter and obtain the required permit. 

105.3 Work exempt from permit. Exemptions from permit 
requirements of this code as authorized in Chapter 1 of Title 28 
of the Administrative Code and the rules of the department 
shall not be deemed to grant authorization for any work to be 
done in any manner in violation of the provisions of this code or 
any other laws or rules. 

105.4 Validity of permit. The issuance or granting of a permit 
shall not be construed to be a permit for, or an approval of, any 
violation of any of the provisions of this code or of any other 
law. Permits presuming to give authority to violate or cancel the 
provisions of this code or other law shall not be valid. The issu- 
ance of a permit based on construction documents and other 
data shall not prevent the commissioner from requiring the cor- 
rection of errors in the construction documents and other data. 
The commissioner is also authorized to prevent occupancy or 
use of a structure where in violation of this code or of any other 
law. 

105.5 Mandatory sewer and catch basin work required by 
Section 24-526 of the Administrative Code. An applicant for a 
permit who is required pursuant to Section 24-526 of the 
Administrative Code to construct or repair defects in sewers or 
catch basins that lie outside the property shall submit certifica- 
tion from the Department of Environmental Protection in 
accordance with Section 105.9 of the New York City Building 
Code. 



105.6 Other permits. In addition to any permits required by 
the provisions of this code, the following permits shall also be 
required: 

1. Permits for all water supplies and backflow devices for 
all buildings shall be obtained from the Department of 
Environmental Protection, and the installation of the 
water service system from the street main up to and 
including the meter shall be subject to inspection and 
approval by such department. 

2. Permits for the installation of the building house sewer or 
drain from the street line to, and including, the spur con- 
nection at the street sewer shall be obtained from the 
Department of Environmental Protection, except that, in 
conjunction with the issuance of a permit for the con- 
struction or alteration of a structure within the curb line, 
the commissioner may issue a permit for connection with 
a sewer or drain. 

3. Permits for sidewalk and street openings shall be 
obtained from the Department of Transportation. 



SECTION PC 106 
CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS 

106.1 General. Construction documents shall comply with 
Article 104 of Chapter 1 of Title 28 of the Administrative Code 
and other applicable provisions of this code and its referenced 
standards. Such construction documents shall be coordinated 
with architectural, structural and means of egress plans. 

106.2 Required documents. The applicant shall submit all of 
the documents specified in Sections 106.3 through 106.10 as 
appropriate to the nature and extent of the work proposed. Con- 
struction documents shall indicate the plumbing work to be 
performed, so drawn as to conform to the architectural and 
structural aspects of the building and to show in detail compli- 
ance with this code. 

106.2.1 Composite plans. Composite plans showing com- 
pliance of architectural, structural, and mechanical parts of 
a building may be submitted provided that a clear under- 
standing of each part is not impaired. 

106.3 Lot diagram. The lot diagram shall be provided where 
applicable to the work proposed, including but not limited to, 
street connection locations and increases of impervious sur- 
faces. 

106.4 Building classification statement. Where applicable to 
the proposed work, the statement shall identify: 

1 . The occupancy group or groups that apply to parts of the 
building in accordance with Section 302 of the New York 
City Building Code; 

2. The occupancy group of the main use or dominant occu- 
pancy of the building; 

3 . The construction class of the building in accordance with 
Section 602 of the New York City Building Code; 

4. The structure category in accordance with Table 1604.5 
of the New York City Building Code; 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



ADMINISTRATION 



5. The height of the building as defined in Section 502.1 of 
the New York City Building Code: 

6. The applicable measurements to the highest and lowest 
level of Fire Department access; and 

7. Whether the building is inside or outside of the fire dis- 
tricts. 

106.5 Plumbing plans. Construction documents for plumbing 
work shall contain plans which include the following data and 
information. Such plans shall not be required in connection 
with applications for limited plumbing alterations. 

1. Riser diagrams showing the story heights, all plumbing 
fixtures with diagrammatic arrangement of their connec- 
tions to soil, waste, and vent piping, all soil, waste, and 
vent stacks from the point of connection with the build- 
ing drain to their termination above the roof, all leader 
and storm water piping from the point of connection with 
the building drain to the roof drain, and all risers. 

2. Diagrammatic floor plans showing the location, layout, 
and spacing of all plumbing fixtures, the summation of 
plumbing loads, the size, location, and material for all 
building sewers and drains, and the soil, waste, vent, 
water, and gas distribution piping. 

3. Floor plans showing typical layouts; and stack details 
shown on one drawing, provided that such details are 
clearly identified as to location and stack number. 

4. Plans clearly indicating all appurtenant equipment, 
including, but not limited to, pumps, ejectors, water 
tanks, and piping. 

5. In the case of plans for new plumbing systems, and alter- 
ations of existing plumbing systems, plans indicating: 

5.1. The relative elevation of the lowest fixture 
referred to the city datum provided in Section 
28-104.7.6 of the Administrative Code and the 
approximate inside top of the public sewers; 

5.2. The number, size, and location of all proposed 
sewer connections and relative location and size 
of all water mains, leaders, and risers; and 

5.3. A statement from the Department of Environ- 
mental Protection, giving the minimum water 
pressure in the main serving the building. 

6. Seismic protection and restraint details for piping and 
equipment as required by Chapter 16 of the New York 
City Building Code. 

7. Details showing structural supports for water tanks 
where required. 

8. In areas of special flood hazards, construction docu- 
ments shall comply with Appendix G of the New York 
City Building Code. 

106.6 Sewer adequacy verification. Applications for con- 
struction document approval shall include a house/site connec- 
tion application approved or accepted by the Department of 
Environmental Protection as to the availability of a public 
sewer system, and when not available, alternate provisions for 
disposal of storm water and sanitary sewage. 



106.6.1 Increases in existing impervious surfaces. When- 
ever an alteration increases impervious surfaces on the lotto 
greater than 20 percent of the impervious surfaces existing 
when the structure was constructed, the applicant shall sub- 
mit a house/site connection application approved or 
accepted by the Department of Environmental Protection as 
to the availability of a public sewer system, as well as an 
evaluation of the adequacy of any existing system for the 
disposal of storm water by any means other than storm or 
combined sewers. 

Exception: Where the total area of impervious surfaces 
proposed to be increased by an alteration after the effec- 
tive date of this code is less than or equal to 1 ,000 square 
feet (93 m 2 ). 

106.7 Private sewers. If private sewers are to be constructed 
pursuant to subdivision b of Section 1 403 of the New York City 
Charter, a copy of the sewer plan shall be submitted. 

106.8 Private sewage treatment plant. If a private sewage 
treatment plant is to be constructed, a copy of plans approved 
by the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and the 
Department of Environmental Protection shall be submitted. 

106.9 Private sewage disposal system. If a private sewage dis- 
posal system is to be installed, a site and subsoil evaluation 
indicating that the site and subsoil conditions comply with the 
applicable law and rules shall be submitted in accordance with 
the provisions of Section 1704.20.1 of the New York City Build- 
ing Code. 

106.10 Energy efficiency. Construction documents shall 
include a statement by the registered design professional of 
record that: "To the best of my knowledge, belief and profes- 
sional judgment, these plans and specifications are in compli- 
ance with the Energy Conservation Construction Code of New 
York State!' In addition, the following requirements shall 
apply: 

1. A lead energy professional shall be identified for each 
project, who shall draw the relevant information regard- 
ing envelope, mechanical systems, service water heating 
system and lighting and power systems from construc- 
tion documents into an energy analysis. The energy anal- 
ysis shall balance total energy consumption of all 
systems in accordance with the Energy Conservation 
Construction Code of New York State and shall be signed 
and sealed by the lead energy professional. 

2. The format for the energy analysis shall be as established 
in the Energy Conservation Construction Code of New 
York State, or as approved by the department, and shall 
comprise a sheet within the drawing set. Supporting doc- 
umentation shall be available within the drawing set or 
upon request of the department. 



SECTION PC 107 
INSPECTIONS AND TESTING 

107.1 General. Except as otherwise specifically provided, 
inspections required by this code or by the department during 
the progress of work may be performed on behalf of the owner 
by approved agencies or, if applicable, by special inspectors, i 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



ADMINISTRATION 



However, in the interest of public safety, the commissioner may 
direct that any of such inspections be performed by the depart- 
ment. All inspections shall be performed at the sole cost and 
expense of the owner. Refer to Article 1 16 of Chapter 1 of Title 
28 of the Administrative Code for additional provisions relat- 
ing to inspections. In addition to any inspections otherwise 
required by this code or applicable rules, the holder of the per- 
mit shall be responsible for the scheduling of the following 
required inspections: 

.1. Progress inspections: 

1.1. Underground inspection and/or testing shall be 
made after trenches or ditches are excavated and 
bedded, piping installed, and before backfill is 
put in place. 

1 .2. Rough-in inspection and/or testing shall be made 
after the roof, framing, fireblocking, 
firestopping, draftstopping and bracing is in 
place and all sanitary, storm and water distribu- 
tion piping is roughed-in, and prior to the instal- 
lation of wall or ceiling membranes. 

2. Special inspections. Special inspections shall be per- 
formed in accordance with this code and Chapter 17 of 
the New York City Building Code, and, where applicable, 
Section 107.2. 

3. Final inspection shall be made after the building is com- 
plete, all plumbing fixtures are in place and properly con- 
nected, and the structure is ready for occupancy. Refer to 
Article 1 16 of Chapter 1 of Title 28 of the Administrative 
Code for additional requirements. 

107.1.1 Approved agencies. Refer to Articles 1 14 and 1 15 
of Chapter 1 of Title 28 of the Administrative Code. 

107.1.2 Exposure of work. It shall be the duty of the permit 
holder to cause the work to remain accessible and exposed 
for inspection purposes. Neither the commissioner nor the 
city shall be liable for expense entailed in the removal or 
replacement of any material required to allow inspection. 

107.2 Special inspections of alternative engineered design 
systems. Special inspections of alternative engineered design 
plumbing systems shall be conducted in accordance with Sec- 
tions 107.2.1 and 107.2.2. 

107.2.1 Periodic inspection. The registered design profes- 
sional or designated inspector shall periodically inspect and 
observe the alternative engineered design to determine that 
the installation is in accordance with the approved construc- 
tion documents. All discrepancies shall be brought to the 
immediate attention of the plumbing contractor for correc- 
tion. Records shall be kept of all inspections. 

107.2.2 Written report. The registered design professional 
shall submit a final report in writing to the commissioner 
upon completion of the installation, certifying that the alter- 
native engineered design conforms to the approved con- 
struction documents. 

107.3 Testing. Plumbing work and systems shall be tested as 
required in Section 312 and in accordance with Sections 
107.3.1 through 107.3.3. Tests shall be made by the permit 
holder and observed by the commissioner. 



107.3.1 New, altered, extended or repaired systems. New 
plumbing systems and parts of existing systems that have 
been altered, extended or repaired shall be tested as pre- 
scribed herein to disclose leaks and defects, except that test- 
ing is not required in the following cases: 

1. In any case that does not include addition to, replace- 
ment, alteration or relocation of any water supply, 
drainage or vent piping. 

2. In any case where plumbing equipment is set up tem- 
porarily for exhibition purposes. 

3. For ordinary plumbing work, the department may 
accept written certification from a licensed master 
plumber that the job was performed in compliance 
with the requirements of this code and rules of the 
department in lieu of the inspection requirements oth- 
erwise set forth in this code. 

4. Minor alterations and ordinary repairs. 

107.3.2 Equipment, material and labor for tests. All 
equipment, material and labor required for testing a plumb- 
ing system or part thereof shall be furnished by the permit 
holder. 

107.3.3 Reinspection and testing. Where any work or 
installation does not pass any initial test or inspection, the 
necessary corrections shall be made to comply with this 
code. The work or installation shall then be resubmitted to 
the commissioner for inspection and testing. 

107.4 Sign-off of completed work. Refer to Article 116 of 
Chapter 28 of the Administrative Code. 

107.5 Temporary connection. The commissioner shall have 
the authority to authorize the temporary connection of the 
building or system to the utility source for the purpose of test- 
ing plumbing systems or for use under a temporary Certificate 
of Occupancy. 



SECTION PC 108 
VIOLATIONS 

108.1 General. Refer to Chapters 2 and 3 of Title 28 of the 
Administrative Code. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



CHAPTER 2 

DEFINITIONS 



SECTION PC 201 
GENERAL 

201.1 Scope. Unless otherwise expressly stated, the following 
words and terms shall, for the purposes of this code, have the 
meanings shown in this chapter. 

201.2 Intel-changeability. Words stated in the present tense 
include the future; words stated in the masculine gender 
include the feminine and neuter; the singular number includes 
the plural and the plural the singular. 

201.3 Terms defined in other codes. Where terms are not 
defined in this code and are defined in the New York City Build- 
ing Code, New York City Fire Code, New York City Electrical 
Code, New York City Fuel Gas Code or the New York City 
Mechanical Code, such terms shall have the meanings ascribed 
to them as in those codes. 

201.4 Terms not defined. Where terms are not defined 
through the methods authorized by this section, such terms 
shall have ordinarily accepted meanings such as the context 
implies. 



SECTION PC 202 

GENERAL DEFINITIONS 

ACCEPTED ENGINEERING PRACTICE. That which 
conforms to accepted principles, tests or standards of nation- 
ally recognized technical or scientific authorities. 

ACCESS (TO). That which enables a fixture, appliance or 
equipment to be reached by ready access or by a means that first 
requires the removal or movement of a panel, door or similar 
obstruction (see "Ready access")- 

ACCESS COVER. A removable plate, usually secured by 
bolts or screws, to permit access to a pipe or pipe fitting for the 
purposes of inspection, repair or cleaning. 

ADAPTER FITTING. An approved connecting device that 
suitably and properly joins or adjusts pipes and fittings which 
do not otherwise fit together. 

AIR BREAK (Drainage System). A piping arrangement in 
which a drain from a fixture, appliance or device discharges 
indirectly into another fixture, receptacle or interceptor at a 
point below the flood level rim and above the trap seal. 

AIR GAP (Drainage System). The unobstructed vertical dis- 
tance through the free atmosphere between the outlet of the 
waste pipe and the flood level rim of the receptacle into which 
the waste pipe is discharging. 

AIR GAP (Water Distribution System). The unobstructed 
vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the low- 
est opening from any pipe or faucet supplying water to a tank, 
plumbing fixture or other device and the flood level rim of the 
receptacle. 



ALTERNATIVE ENGINEERED DESIGN. A plumbing 
system that performs in accordance with the intent of Chapters 
3 through 1 2 and provides an equivalent level of performance 
for the protection of public health, safety and welfare. The sys- 
tem design is not specifically regulated by Chapters 3 through 
12. 

ANCHORS. See "Supports." 

ANTISIPHON. A term applied to valves or mechanical 
devices that eliminate siphonage. 

APPROVED. Acceptable to the commissioner. In reference to 
construction documents, the determination by the department 
after full examination that submitted construction documents 
comply with this code and other applicable laws and rules. In 
reference to materials, the determination by the commissioner 
that material is acceptable for its intended use. See Section 
28-101.5 of the Administrative Code. 

APPROVED AGENCY. An established and recognized 
agency, or other qualified person, regularly engaged in con- 
ducting tests or furnishing inspection services, when approved 
pursuant to department rules as qualified to perform or witness 
identified testing or inspection services. See Chapter 1 of Title 
28 of the Administrative Code. 

AREA DRAIN. A receptacle designed to collect surface or 
storm water from an open area. 

ASPIRATOR. A fitting or device supplied with water or other 
fluid under positive pressure that passes through an integral 
orifice or constriction, causing a vacuum. Aspirators are also 
referred to as suction apparatus, and are similar in operation to 
an ejector. 

BACKFLOW. The undesirable reversal of flow of water or 
mixtures of water and other liquids, gases or other substances 
into the distribution pipes of the potable supply of water from 
any source or sources. 

Backpressure, low head. A pressure less than or equal to 
4.33 psi (29.88 kPa) or the pressure exerted by a 10-foot 
(3048 mm) column of water. 

Backsiphonage. The backflow of potentially contaminated 
water into the potable water system as a result of the pres- 
sure in the potable water system falling below atmospheric 
pressure of the plumbing fixtures, pools, tanks or vats con- 
nected to the potable water distribution piping. 

Backwater valve. A device or valve installed in the build- 
ing drain or sewer pipe where a sewer is subject to backflow, 
and which prevents drainage or waste from backing up into 
a low level or fixtures and causing a flooding condition. 

Drainage. A reversal of flow in the drainage system. 

Water supply system. The flow of water or other liquids, 
mixtures or substances into the distribution pipes of a pota- 
ble water supply from any source except the intended 
source. 



2008 NEW YORK CSTY PLUMBING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



BACKFLOW CONNECTION. Any arrangement whereby 
backflow is possible. 

BACKFLOW PREVENTER. A device or means to prevent 
backflow. 

BALL COCK. See "Fill Valve." 

■ BASE FLOOD ELEVATION. Refer to Section G201.2 of 
Appendix G of the New York City Building Code. 

BATHROOM GROUP. A group of fixtures consisting of a 
water closet, lavatory, bathtub or shower, including or exclud- 
ing a bidet, an emergency floor drain or both. Such fixtures are 
1 located together in the same room. 

BEDPAN STEAMER OR BOILER. A fixture utilized for 
scalding bedpans or urinals by direct application of steam or 
boiling water. 

BEDPAN WASHER AND STERILIZER. A fixture 
designed to wash bedpans and to flush the contents into the san- 
itary drainage system. Included are fixtures of this type that 
provide for disinfecting utensils by scalding with steam or hot 
water. 

BEDPAN WASHER HOSE. A device supplied with hot and 
cold water and located adjacent to a water closet or clinical sink 
to be utilized for cleansing bedpans. 

■ BRANCH. Any part of the piping system that extends to fix- 
tures on two or less consecutive floors except a riser, main or 
stack. 

BRANCH INTERVAL. A distance along a soil or waste stack 
corresponding in general to a story height, but not less than 8 
feet (2438 mm), within which the horizontal branches from one 
floor or story of a structure are connected to the stack. 

BRANCH VENT. A vent connecting one or more individual 
vents with a vent stack or stack vent. 

BUILDING. Any structure used or intended for supporting or 
sheltering any use or occupancy. The term shall be construed as 
if followed by the phrase ''structure, premises, lot or part 
thereof unless otherwise indicated by the text. See Section 
28-101.5 of the Administrative Code, 

BUILDING DRAIN. That part of the lowest piping of a drain- 
age system that receives the discharge from soil, waste and 
other drainage pipes inside and that extends 5 feet (1524 mm) 
in developed length of pipe beyond the exterior walls of the 
building and conveys the drainage to the building sewer. 

Combined. A building drain that conveys both sewage and 
storm water or other drainage. 

Sanitary. A building drain that conveys sewage only. 

Storm. A building drain that conveys storm water or other 
drainage, but not sewage. 

BUILDING SEWER. That part of the drainage system that 
extends from the end of the building drain and conveys the dis- 
charge to a public sewer, private sewer, individual sewage dis- 
posal system or other point of disposal. 

Combined. A building sewer that conveys both sewage and 
storm water or other drainage. 

Sanitary. A building sewer that conveys sewage only. 



Storm. A building sewer that conveys storm water or other 
drainage, but not sewage. 

BUILDING SUBDRAIN. That portion of a drainage system 
that does not drain by gravity into the building sewer. 

BUILDING TRAP. A device or fitting, without joints within g 
the water seal, installed in the building drain to prevent circula- 1 
tion of air between the drainage system of the building and the 
building sewer. 

CIRCUIT VENT. A vent that connects to a horizontal drain- 
age branch and vents two traps to a maximum of eight traps or 
trapped fixtures connected into a battery. 

CISTERN. A covered tank for storing rainwater to be utilized 
for purposes other than in the potable water supply. 

CLEANOUT. An access opening in the drainage system uti- 
lized for the removal of obstructions. Types of cleanouts 
include a removable plug or cap, and a removable fixture or fix- 
ture trap. 

CODE. The New York City Plumbing Code, subsequent 
amendments thereto, or any rules of the commissioner adopted 
pursuant thereto. 

COMMISSIONER. The Commissioner of Buildings of the 
City of New York or his or her duly authorized representative. 
See Section 28-101.5 of the Administrative Code. 

COMBINATION FIXTURE. A fixture combining one sink 
and laundry tray or a two- or three-compartment sink or laun- 
dry tray in one unit. 

COMBINATION WASTE AND VENT SYSTEM. A spe- 
cially designed system of waste piping embodying the horizon- 
tal wet venting of one or more sinks or floor drains by means of 
a common waste and vent pipe adequately sized to provide free 
movement of air above the flow line of the drain. 

COMBINED BUILDING DRAIN. See "Building drain, 
combined." 

COMBINED BUILDING SEWER. See "Building sewer, 
combined." 

COMMON VENT. A vent connecting at the junction of two 
fixture drains or to a fixture branch and serving as a vent for 
both fixtures. 

CONCEALED FOULING SURFACE. Any surface of a 
plumbing fixture which is not readily visible and is not scoured 
or cleansed with each fixture operation. 

CONDUCTOR. A pipe inside the building that conveys storm 
water from the roof to a storm or combined building drain. 

CONSTRUCTION DOCUMENTS. Plans and specifica- 
tions and other written, graphic and pictorial documents, pre- 
pared or assembled for describing the design, location and 
physical characteristics of the elements of the project necessary 
for obtaining a building permit. See Section 28-101.5 of the 
A dm in istrative Code . 

CONTAMINATION. An impairment of the quality of the 
potable water that creates an actual hazard to the public health 
through poisoning or through the spread of disease by sewage, 
industrial fluids or waste. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



CRITICAL LEVEL (C-L). An elevation (height) reference 
point that determines the minimum height at which a backflow 
preventer or vacuum breaker is installed above the flood level 
rim of the fixture or receptor served by the device. The critical 
level is the elevation level below which there is a potential for 
backflow to occur. If the critical level marking is not indicated 
on the device, the bottom of the device shall constitute the criti- 
cal level. 

CROSS CONNECTION. Any physical connection or 
arrangement between two otherwise separate piping systems, 
one of which contains potable water and the other either water 
of unknown or questionable safety or steam, gas or chemical, 
whereby there exists the possibility for flow from one system to 
the other, with the direction of flow depending on the pressure 
differential between the two systems (see "Backflow"). 

DEAD END. A branch leading from a soil, waste or vent pipe; 
a building drain; or a building sewer, and terminating at a devel- 
oped length of 2 feet (610 mm) or more by means of a plug, cap 
or other closed fitting. 

DEPTH OF WATER SEAL. The depth of water that would 
have to be removed from a full trap before air could pass 
through the trap. 

■ DESIGN FLOOD ELEVATION. Refer to Section G201 .2 of 
Appendix G of the New York City Building Code. 

DEVELOPED LENGTH. The length of a pipeline measured 
along the centerline of the pipe and fittings. 

DISCHARGE PIPE. A pipe that conveys the discharges from 
plumbing fixtures or appliances. 

DRAIN. Any pipe that carries wastewater or water-borne 
wastes in a building drainage system. 

DRAINAGE FITTINGS. Type of fitting or fittings utilized in 
^ the drainage system. 

DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT 

Drainage (dfu). A measure of the probable discharge into 
the drainage system by various types of plumbing fixtures. 
The drainage fixture-unit value for a particular fixture 
depends on its volume rate of drainage discharge, on the 
time duration of a single drainage operation and on the aver- 
age time between successive operations. 

DRAINAGE SYSTEM. Piping within a public or private 
premise that conveys sewage, rainwater or other liquid wastes 
to a point of disposal. A drainage system does not include the 
mains of a public sewer system or a private or public sewage 
treatment or disposal plant. 

Building gravity. A drainage system that drains by gravity 
into the building sewer. 

Sanitary. A drainage system that carries sewage and 
excludes storm, surface and ground water. 

Storm. A drainage system that carries rainwater, surface 
water, subsurface water and similar liquid wastes. 

EFFECTIVE OPENING. The minimum cross-sectional area 
at the point of water supply discharge, measured or expressed 
in terms of the diameter of a circle or, if the opening is not circu- 
lar, the diameter of a circle of equivalent cross-sectional area. 



For faucets and similar fittings, the effective opening shall be 
measured at the smallest orifice in the fitting body or in the sup- 
ply piping to the fitting. 

EMERGENCY FLOOR DRAIN. A floor drain that does not 
receive the discharge of any drain or indirect waste pipe, and 
that protects against damage from accidental spills, fixture 
overflows and leakage. 

ESSENTIALLY NONTOXIC TRANSFER FLUIDS. Flu- 
ids having a Gosselin rating of 1 , including propylene glycol; 
mineral oil; polydimethylsiloxane; hydrochlorofluorocarbon, 
chlorofluorocarbon and carbon refrigerants; and 
FDA-approved boiler water additives for steam boilers. 

ESSENTIALLY TOXIC TRANSFER FLUIDS. Soil, waste 
or gray water and fluids having a Gosselin rating of 2 or more 
including ethylene glycol, hydrocarbon oils, ammonia refrig- 
erants and hydrazine. 

EXISTING INSTALLATIONS. Any plumbing system regu- 
lated by this code that was legally installed prior to the effective 
date of this code, or for which a permit to install has been 
issued. 

FAUCET. A valve end of a water pipe through which water is 
drawn from or held within the pipe. 

FILL VALVE. A water supply valve, opened or closed by 
means of a float or similar device, utilized to supply water to a 
tank. An antisiphon fill valve contains an antisiphon device in 
the form of an approved air gap or vacuum breaker that is an 
integral part of the fill valve unit and that is positioned on the 
discharge side of the water supply control valve. 

FIXTURE. See "Plumbing fixture." 

FIXTURE BRANCH. A drain serving two or more fixtures 
that discharges to another drain or to a stack. 

FIXTURE DRAIN. The drain from the trap of a fixture to a 
junction with any other drain pipe. 

FIXTURE FITTING 

Supply fitting. A fitting that controls the volume and/or 
directional flow of water and is either attached to or accessi- 
ble from a fixture, or is used with an open or atmospheric 
discharge. 

Waste fitting. A combination of components that conveys 
the sanitary waste from the outlet of a fixture to the connec- 
tion to the sanitary drainage system. 

FIXTURE SUPPLY. The water supply pipe connecting a fix- 
ture to a branch water supply pipe or directly to a main water 
supply pipe. 

FLOOD LEVEL RIM. The edge of the receptacle from which 
water overflows. 

FLOOD HAZARD AREA. Refer to Section G201.2 of 
Appendix G of the New York City Building Code. 

FLOW PRESSURE. The pressure in the water supply pipe 
near the faucet or water outlet while the faucet or water outlet is 
wide open and flowing. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



1 FLUSH TANK. A tank designed with a fill valve and flush 
valve to flush the contents of the bowl or usable portion of the 
fixture. 

FLUSHOMETER TANK. A device integrated within an air 
accumulator vessel that is designed to discharge a predeter- 
mined quantity of water to fixtures for flushing purposes. 

FLUSHOMETER VALVE. A valve attached to a pressurized 
water supply pipe and so designed that when activated it opens 
the line for direct flow into the fixture at a rate and quantity to 
operate the fixture properly, and then gradually closes to reseal 
1 fixture traps and minimize water hammer. 

GREASE INTERCEPTOR. A passive interceptor whose 
rated flow exceeds 50 gpm (1 89 L/m). 

GREASE-LADEN WASTE. Effluent discharge that is pro- 
duced from food processing, food preparation or other sources 
where grease, fats and oils enter automatic dishwater prerinse 
stations, sinks or other appurtenances. 

GREASE TRAP. A passive interceptor whose rated flow is 50 
gpm (189 L/m.) or less. 

HANGERS. See "Supports." 

HORIZONTAL BRANCH DRAIN. A drainage branch pipe 
extending laterally from a soil or waste stack or building drain, 
with or without vertical sections or branches, that receives the 
discharge from two or more fixture drains or branches and con- 
ducts the discharge to the soil or waste stack or to the building 
drain. 

HORIZONTAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle 
of less than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) with the horizontal. 

■f^ HOT WATER. Water at a temperature greater than 110°F 
(43°C). 

HOUSE TRAP. See "Building trap." 

INDIRECT WASTE PIPE. A waste pipe that does not con- 
nect directly with the drainage system, but that discharges into 
the drainage system through an air break or air gap into a trap, 
fixture, receptor or interceptor. 

INDIVIDUAL SEWAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM. A system 
■t for disposal of domestic sewage by means of a septic tank, or 
mechanical treatment, designed for utilization apart from a 
public sewer to serve a single establishment or building. 

INDIVIDUAL VENT. A pipe installed to vent a fixture trap 
and connects with the vent system above the fixture served or 
terminates in the open air. 

INDIVIDUAL WATER SUPPLY. A water supply that serves 
one or more families, and that is not an approved public water 
supply. 

INTERCEPTOR. A device designed and installed to separate 
and retain for removal, by automatic or manual means, delete- 
rious, hazardous or undesirable matter from normal wastes, 
while permitting normal sewage or wastes to discharge into the 
drainage system by gravity. 



JOINT 

Expansion. A loop, return bend, return offset or manufac- 1 
tured device that provides for the expansion and contraction 1 
in a piping system. ^ 

Flexible. Any joint between two pipes that permits one pipe 
to be deflected or moved without movement or deflection of 
the other pipe. 

Mechanical. See "Mechanical joint." 

Slip. A type of joint made by means of a washer or a special 
type of packing compound in which one pipe is slipped into 
the end of an adjacent pipe. 

LEAD-FREE PIPE AND FITTINGS. Containing not more 
than 3.0-percent lead. I 

LEAD-FREE SOLDER AND FLUX. Containing not more 
than 0.2-percent lead. 

LEADER. A drainage pipe for conveying storm water from 1 
roof or gutter drains to an approved means of disposal. 

LOCAL VENT STACK. A vertical pipe to which connections 
are made from the fixture side of traps and through which vapor 
or foul air is removed from the fixture or device utilized on bed- 
pan washers. 

MACERATING TOILET SYSTEMS. An assembly consist- 
ing of a water closet and sump with a macerating pump that is 
designed to collect, grind and pump wastes from the water 
closet and up to two other fixtures connected to the sump. 

MAIN. The principal pipe artery to which branches are con- ■ 
nected. 

MANIFOLD. See "Plumbing appurtenance." 

MECHANICAL JOINT. A connection between pipes, fit- 
tings, or pipes and fittings that is not screwed, caulked, 
threaded, soldered, solvent cemented, brazed or welded. A 
joint in which compression is applied along the centerline of 
the pieces being joined. In some applications, the joint is part of 
a coupling, fitting or adapter. 

MEDICAL GAS SYSTEM. The complete system to convey 
medical gases for direct patient application from central supply 
systems (bulk tanks, manifolds and medical air compressors), 
with pressure and operating controls, alarm warning systems, 
related components and piping networks extending to station 
outlet valves at patient use points. 

MEDICAL VACUUM SYSTEMS. A system consisting of 
central- vacuum-producing equipment with pressure and oper- 
ating controls, shutoff valves, alarm-warning systems, gauges 
and a network of piping extending to and terminating with suit- 
able station inlets at locations where patient suction may be 
required. 

NONPOTABLE WATER. Water not safe for drinking, per- 
sonal or culinary utilization. 

OCCUPANCY. The purpose or activity for which a building 1 
or space is used or is designed, arranged or intended to be used. @ 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



OFFSET, A combination of approved bends that makes two 
changes in direction bringing one section of the pipe out of line 
but into a line parallel with the other section. 

OPEN AIR. Outside the structure. 

PLUMBING. The practice, materials and fixtures utilized in 
the installation, maintenance, extension and alteration of all 
piping, fixtures, plumbing appliances, plumbing appurte- 
nances, gas piping and limited fire protection as defined in Sec- 
tion 28-401.3 of the Administrative Code, within or adjacent to 
any structure, in connection with sanitary drainage or storm 
drainage facilities; venting systems; and public or private water 
supply systems. 

PLUMBING APPLIANCE. Any one of a special class of 
plumbing fixtures intended to perform a special function. 
Included are fixtures having the operation or control dependent 
on one or more energized components, such as motors, con- 
trols, heating elements, or pressure- or temperature-sensing 
elements. Such fixtures are manually adjusted or controlled by 
the owner or operator, or are operated automatically through 
one or more of the following actions: a time cycle, a tempera- 
ture range, a pressure range, a measured volume or weight. 

PLUMBING APPURTENANCE. A manufactured device, 
prefabricated assembly or an on-the-job assembly of compo- 
nent parts that is an adjunct to the basic piping system and 
plumbing fixtures. An appurtenance demands no additional 
water supply and does not add any discharge load to a fixture or 
to the drainage system. 

PLUMBING FIXTURE. A receptacle or device that is either 
permanently or temporarily connected to the water distribution 
system of the premises and demands a supply of water there- 
from; discharges wastewater, liquid-borne waste materials or 
sewage either directly or indirectly to the drainage system of 
the premises; or requires both a water supply connection and a 
discharge to the drainage system of the premises. 

PLUMBING SYSTEM. Includes the water supply and distri- 
bution pipes; plumbing fixtures and traps; water- treating or 
water-using equipment; soil, waste and vent pipes; and sanitary 
and storm sewers and building drains; in addition to their 
respective connections, devices and appurtenances within a 
structure or premises. 

POTABLE WATER. Water free from impurities present in 
amounts sufficient to cause disease or harmful physiological 
effects and conforming to the bacteriological and chemical 
quality requirements of the Public Health Service Drinking 
Water Standards or the regulations of the public health author- 
ity having jurisdiction. 

PRIVATE. In the classification of plumbing fixtures, "private" 
applies to fixtures in residences and apartments, and to fixtures 
in nonpublic toilet rooms of hotels and motels and similar 
installations in buildings where the plumbing fixtures are 
intended for utilization by a family or an individual. 

PUBLIC OR PUBLIC UTILIZATION. In the classification 
of plumbing fixtures, "public" applies to fixtures in general toi- 
let rooms of schools, gymnasiums, hotels, airports, bus and 
railroad stations, public buildings, bars, public comfort sta- 
tions, office buildings, stadiums, stores, restaurants and other 



installations where a number of fixtures are installed so that 
their utilization is similarly unrestricted. 

PUBLIC WATER MAIN. A water supply pipe for public uti- 
lization controlled by public authority. 

QUICK-CLOSING VALVE. A valve or faucet that closes 
automatically when released manually or that is controlled by a 
mechanical means for fast-action closing. 

READY ACCESS. That which enables a fixture, appliance or 
equipment to be directly reached without requiring the removal 
or movement of any panel, door or similar obstruction and 
without the use of a portable ladder, step stool or similar device. 

REDUCED PRESSURE PRINCIPLE BACKFLOW 
PREVENTER. A backflow prevention device consisting of 
two independently acting check valves, internally force-loaded 
to a normally closed position and separated by an intermediate 
chamber (or zone) in which there is an automatic relief means 
of venting to the atmosphere, internally loaded to a normally 
open position between two tightly closing shutoff valves and 
with a means for testing for tightness of the checks and opening 
of the relief means. 

REGISTERED DESIGN PROFESSIONAL. Refer to Chap- | 
ter 1 of Title 28 of the Administrative Code. § 

RELIEF VALVE 

Pressure relief valve. A pressure-actuated valve held 
closed by a spring or other means and designed to relieve 
pressure automatically at the pressure at which such valve is 
set. 

Temperature and pressure relief (T&P) valve. A combi- 
nation relief valve designed to function as both a tempera- 
ture relief and a pressure relief valve. 

Temperature relief valve. A temperature-actuated valve 
designed to discharge automatically at the temperature at 
which such valve is set. 

RELIEF VENT. A vent whose primary function is to provide 
circulation of air between drainage and vent systems. 

RIM. An unobstructed open edge of a fixture. 

RISER. A water supply pipe that extends one full story or more | 
to convey water to branches or to a group of fixtures. 1 

ROOF DRAIN. A drain installed to receive water collecting 
on the surface of a roof and to discharge such water into a leader 
or a conductor. 

ROUGH-IN. Parts of the plumbing system that are installed 
prior to the installation of fixtures. This includes drainage, 
water supply, vent piping and the necessary fixture supports 
and any fixtures that are built into the structure. 

SELF-CLOSING FAUCET. A faucet containing a valve that 
automatically closes upon deactivation of the opening means. 

SEPARATOR. See "Interceptor." 

SEWAGE. Any liquid waste containing animal or vegetable 
matter in suspension or solution, including liquids containing 
chemicals in solution. 

SEWAGE EJECTORS. Mechanical devices used to pump or g 
eject sewage. 1 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



9 



DEFINITIONS 



SEWER 

Building sewer. See "Building sewer." 

Public sewer. A common sewer directly controlled by pub- 
lic authority. 

Sanitary sewer. A sewer that carries sewage and excludes 
storm, surface and ground water. 

Storm sewer. A sewer that conveys rainwater, surface 
water, subsurface water and similar liquid wastes. 

SLOPE. The fall (pitch) of a line of pipe in reference to a hori- 
zontal plane. In drainage, the slope is expressed as the fall in 
units vertical per units horizontal (percent) for a length of pipe. 

SOIL PIPE. A pipe that conveys sewage containing fecal mat- 
ter to the building drain or building sewer. 

STACK. A general term for any vertical line of soil, waste, vent 
or inside conductor piping that extends through at least one 
story with or without offsets. 

STACK VENT. The extension of a soil or waste stack above 
the highest horizontal drain connected to the stack. 

STACK VENTING. A method of venting a fixture or fixtures 
through the soil or waste stack. 

STERILIZER 

Boiling type. A boiling-type sterilizer is a fixture of a 
nonpressure type utilized for boiling instruments, utensils 
or other equipment for disinfection. These devices are por- 
table or are connected to the plumbing system. 

Instrument. A device for the sterilization of various instru- 
ments. 

Pressure (autoclave). A pressure vessel fixture designed to 
utilize steam under pressure for sterilizing. 

Pressure instrument washer sterilizer. A pressure instru- 
ment washer sterilizer is a pressure vessel fixture designed 
to both wash and sterilize instruments during the operating 
cycle of the fixture. 

Utensil. A device for the sterilization of utensils as utilized 
in health care services. 

Water. A water sterilizer is a device for sterilizing water and 
storing sterile water. 

STERILIZER VENT. A separate pipe or stack, indirectly 
connected to the building drainage system at the lower termi- 
nal, that receives the vapors from nonpressure sterilizers, or the 
exhaust vapors from pressure sterilizers, and conducts the 
vapors directly to the open air. Also called vapor, steam, atmo- 
spheric or exhaust vent. 

STORM DRAIN. See "Drainage system, storm." 

STRUCTURE. That which is built or constructed, including 
among others: buildings, stadia, tents, reviewing stands, plat- 
forms, stagings, observation towers, radio towers, tanks, tres- 
tles, open sheds, shelters, fences, and display signs. See 
Section 28-101.5 of the Administrative Code. 

SUBSOIL DRAIN. A drain that collects subsurface water or 
seepage water and conveys such water to a place of disposal. 



SUMP, A tank or pit that receives clear liquid waste, located 
below the normal grade of the gravity system and that must be 
emptied by mechanical means. 

SUMP PUMP. An automatic water pump for the removal of 
drainage, except sewage, from a sump, pit or low point. 

SUMP VENT. A vent from pneumatic sewage ejectors, or sim- 
ilar equipment, that terminates separately to the open air. 

SUPPORTS. Devices for supporting and securing pipe, fix- 
tures and equipment. 

SWIMMING POOL. Any structure, basin, chamber or tank 
containing an artificial body of water for swimming, diving or 
recreational bathing having a depth of 2 feet (6.10 mm) or more 
at any point. 

TEMPERED WATER. Water having a temperature range 
between 85°F (29°C) and 1 10°F (43°C). 

THIRD-PARTY CERTIFICATION AGENCY. An 
approved agency operating a product or material certification 
system that incorporates initial product testing, assessment and 
surveillance of a manufacturer's quality control system. 

THIRD-PARTY CERTIFIED. Certification obtained by the 
manufacturer indicating that the function and performance 
characteristics of a product or material have been determined 
by testing and ongoing surveillance by an approved third-party 
certification agency. Assertion of certification is in the form of 
identification in accordance with the requirements of the 
third-party certification agency. 

THIRD-PARTY TESTED. Procedure by which an approved 
testing laboratory provides documentation that a product, 
material or system conforms to specified requirements. 

TRAP. A fitting or device that provides a liquid sea! to prevent 
the emission of sewer gases without materially affecting the 
flow of sewage or wastewater through the trap. 

TRAP SEAL. The vertical distance between the weir and the 
top of the dip of the trap. 

UNSTABLE GROUND. Earth that does not provide a uni- 
form bearing for the barrel of the sewer pipe between the joints 
at the bottom of the pipe trench. 

VACUUM. Any pressure less than that exerted by the atmo- 
sphere. 

VACUUM BREAKER. A type of backflow preventer 
installed on openings subject to normal atmospheric pressure 
that prevents backflow by admitting atmospheric pressure 
through ports to the discharge side of the device. 

VENT PIPE. See "Vent system." 

VENT STACK. A vertical vent pipe installed primarily for the 
purpose of providing circulation of air to and from any part of 
the drainage system. 

VENT SYSTEM. A pipe or pipes installed to provide a flow of 
air to or from a drainage system, or to provide a circulation of 
air within such system to protect trap seals from siphonage and 
backpressure. 

VERTICAL PIPE. Any pipe or fitting that makes an angle of 
45 degrees (0.79 rad) or more with the horizontal. 



10 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



DEFINITIONS 



WASTE. The discharge from any fixture, appliance, area or 
appurtenance that does not contain fecal matter. 

WASTE PIPE. A pipe that conveys only waste. 

WATER-HAMMER ARRESTOR. A device utilized to 
absorb the pressure surge (water hammer) that occurs when 
water flow is suddenly stopped in a water supply system. 

WATER HEATER. Any heating appliance or equipment that 
heats potable water and supplies such water to the potable hot 
water distribution system. 

WATER MAIN. A water supply pipe or system of pipes, 
installed and maintained by a city, township, county, public 
utility company or other public entity, on public property, in the 
street or in an approved dedicated easement of public or com- 
munity use. 

WATER OUTLET. A discharge opening through which water 
is supplied to a fixture, into the atmosphere (except into an 
open tank that is part of the water supply system), to a boiler or 
heating system, or to any devices or equipment requiring water 
to operate but which are not part of the plumbing system. 

WATER PIPE 

Water distribution pipe. A pipe within the structure or on 
the premises that conveys water from the water service pipe, 
or from the meter when the meter is at the structure, to the 
points of utilization. 

Water service pipe. The pipe from the water main or other 
source of potable water supply, or from the meter when the 
meter is at the public right of way, to the water distribution 
system of the building served. 

WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM. The water service pipe, water 
distribution pipes, and the necessary connecting pipes, fittings, 
control valves and all appurtenances in or adjacent to the struc- 
ture or premises. 

WELL. 

Bored. A well constructed by boring a hole in the ground 
with an auger and installing a casing. 

Drilled. A well constructed by making a hole in the ground 
with a drilling machine of any type and installing casing and 
screen. 

Driven. A well constructed by driving a pipe in the ground. 
The drive pipe is usually fitted with a well point and screen. 

Dug. A well constructed by excavating a large -diameter 
shaft and installing a casing. 

WHIRLPOOL BATHTUB. A plumbing appliance consist- 
ing of a bathtub fixture that is equipped and fitted with a circu- 
lating piping system designed to accept, circulate and 
discharge bathtub water upon each use. 

YOKE VENT. A pipe connecting upward from a soil or waste 
stack to a vent stack for the purpose of preventing pressure 
changes in the stacks. 

2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 1 1 



12 2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



CHAPTER 3 

GENERAL REGULATIONS 



SECTION PC 301 

GENERAL 

301.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
general regulations regarding the installation of plumbing not 
specific to other chapters. 

301.2 System installation. Plumbing shall be installed with 
due regard to preservation of the strength of structural mem- 
bers and prevention of damage to walls and other surfaces 
through fixture usage. 

301.3 Connections to the sanitary drainage system. All 

plumbing fixtures, drains, appurtenances and appliances used 
to receive or discharge liquid wastes or sewage shall be directly 
connected to the sanitary drainage system of the building or 
premises, in accordance with the requirements of this code. 
This section shall not be construed to prevent the indirect waste 
systems required by Chapter 8. 

Exception: Lavatories shall not be required to discharge to 
the sanitary drainage system where such fixtures discharge 
to a water recycling system in accordance with Appendix C 
and that is approved by the commissioner. 

301.4 Connections to water supply. Every building intended 
for human habitation, occupancy or use shall be directly or 
indirectly connected to the water supply system in accordance 
with the provisions of this code. Every plumbing fixture, 
device or appliance requiring or using water for its proper oper- 
ation shall be directly or indirectly connected to the water sup- 
ply system in accordance with the provisions of this code. 

301.5 Pipe, tube and fitting sizes. Unless otherwise specified, 
the pipe, tube and fitting sizes specified in this code are 
expressed in nominal or standard sizes as designated in the ref- 
erenced material standards. 

301.6 Prohibited locations. Plumbing systems shall not be 
located in an elevator shaft or in an elevator equipment room. 

Exception: Sump pumps and floor drains indirectly con- 
nected to the plumbing system shall be permitted at the base 
of the shaft. 

301.7 Conflicts. Where conflicts between this code and the 
conditions of the listing or the manufacturer's installation 
instructions occur, the provisions of this code apply. 

Exception: Where a code provision is less restrictive than 
the conditions of the listing of the equipment or appliance or 
the manufacturer's installation instructions, the conditions 
of the listing and manufacturer's installation instructions 
shall apply. 



SECTION PC 302 

EXCLUSION OF MATERIALS DETRIMENTAL TO 

THE SEWER SYSTEM 

302.1 Detrimental or dangerous materials. Ashes, cinders or 
rags; flammable, poisonous or explosive liquids or gases; oil, 



grease or any other insoluble material capable of obstructing, 
damaging or overloading the building drainage or sewer sys- 
tem, or capable of interfering with the normal operation of the 
sewage treatment processes, shall not be deposited, by any 
means, into such systems. 

302.2 Industrial wastes. Waste products from manufacturing 
or industrial operations shall not be introduced into the public 
sewer until it has been determined by the Department of Envi- 
ronmental Protectiont that the introduction thereof will not 
damage the public sewer system or interfere with the function- 
ing of the sewage treatment plant. 



SECTION PC 303 
MATERIALS 

303.1 Identification. Each length of pipe and each pipe fitting, 
trap, fixture, material and device utilized in a plumbing system 
shall bear the identification of the manufacturer. 

303.2 Installation of materials. All materials used shall be 
installed in strict accordance with the standards under which 
the materials are approved. In the absence of such installation 
procedures, the manufacturer's installation instructions shall 
be followed. Where the requirements of referenced standards 
or manufacturer's installation instructions do not conform to 
minimum provisions of this code, the provisions of this code 
shall apply. 



303.3 Plastic pipe, fittings and components. Where permit- 1 
e, fittings and components shall be 1 

Vermin a tr\ NTQPr 1 Zl 



ted by this code, plastic pipe, ,™. 1&L , ^.^ W »* K 
third-party certified as conforming to NSF 14. 



303.4 Third-party testing and certification. All plumbing 
products and materials shall comply with the referenced stan- 
dards, specifications and performance criteria of this code and 
shall be identified in accordance with Section 303.1. When 
required by Table 303.4, plumbing products and materials shall 
either be tested by an approved third-party testing agency or 
certified by an approved third-party certification agency. 



SECTION PC 304 1 

RODENTPROOFING 

304.1 General. Plumbing systems shall be designed and 
installed in accordance with Sections 304.2 and 304.4 to pre- 1 
vent rodents from entering structures. 

304.2 Strainer plates. All strainer plates on drain inlets shall 
be designed and installed so that all openings are not greater 
than 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) in least dimension. 

304.3 Reserved. 1 

304.4 Openings for pipes. In or on structures where openings 
have been made in walls, floors or ceilings for the passage of 
pipes, such openings shall be closed and protected in an I 
approved manner. I 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



13 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



TABLE 303.4 
PRODUCTS AND MATERIALS REQUIRING THIRD-PARTY TESTING AND THIRD-PARTY CERTIFICATION 



PRODUCT OR MATERIAL 


THIRD-PARTY CERTIFIED 


THIRD-PARTY TESTED 


Portable water supply system components and potable water fixture fittings 


Required 


— 


Sanitary drainage and vent system components 


Plastic pipe, fittings and 
pipe-related components 


AH others 


Waste fixture fittings 


Plastic pipe, fittings and 
pipe-related components 


All others 


Storm drainage system components 


Plastic pipe, fittings and 
pipe-related components 


All others 


Plumbing fixtures 


— 


Required 


Plumbing appliances 


Required 


— 


Backflow prevention devices 


Required 


— 


Water distribution system safety devices 


Required 


— 


Special waste system components 


— 


Required 


Subsoil drainage system components 


— 


Required 



SECTION PC 305 

PROTECTION OF PIPES AND PLUMBING SYSTEM 

COMPONENTS 

305.1 Corrosion. Pipes passing through concrete or cinder 
walls and floors or other corrosive material shall be protected 
against external corrosion by a protective sheathing or wrap- 
ping or other means that will withstand any reaction from the 
lime and acid of concrete, cinder or other corrosive material. 
Sheathing or wrapping shall allow for expansion and contrac- 
tion of piping to prevent any rubbing action. Minimum thick- 
ness of sheathing or wrapping material shall be 0.025 inch 
(0.64 mm). 

305.2 Breakage. Pipes passing through or under walls shall be 
protected from breakage. 

305.3 Stress and strain. Piping in a plumbing system shall be 
installed so as to prevent strains and stresses that exceed the 
structural strength of the pipe. Where necessary, provisions 
shall be made to protect piping from damage resulting from 
expansion, contraction and structural settlement. 

305.4 Sleeves. Annular spaces between sleeves and pipes shall 
be filled or tightly caulked in an approved manner. Annular 
spaces between sleeves and pipes in fire-resistance-rated 
assemblies shall be filled or tightly caulked in accordance with 
the New York City Building Code. 

305.5 Pipes through or under footings or foundation walls. 
Any pipe that passes under a footing or through a foundation 
wall shall be provided with a relieving arch, or a pipe sleeve 
pipe shall be built into the foundation wall The sleeve shall be 
two pipe sizes greater than the pipe passing through the wall. 

305.6 Freezing. Water, soil and waste pipes shall not be 
installed outside of a building, in attics or crawl spaces, con- 
cealed in outside walls, or in any other place subjected to freez- 
ing temperature unless adequate provision is made to protect 
such pipes from freezing by insulation or heat or both. Exterior 



water supply system piping shall be installed not less than 48 I 
inches ( 1 2 1 9 mm) below grade. 1 

305.6.1 Sewer depth. Building sewers that connect to pri- 
vate sewage disposal systems shall be a minimum of 36 
inches (914 mm) below finished grade at the point of septic 
tank connection. Building sewers shall be a minimum of 36 
inches (914 mm) below grade. 

305.7 Waterproofing of openings. Joints at the roof and 
around vent pipes, shall be made water tight by the use of lead, 
copper, galvanized steel, aluminum, plastic or other approved 
flashings or flashing material. Exterior wall openings shall be 
made water tight. 

305.8 Protection against physical damage. In concealed 
locations where piping, other than cast-iron or galvanized steel, 
is installed through holes or notches in studs, joists, rafters or 
similar members less than 1 .5 inches (38 mm) from the nearest 
edge of the member, the pipe shall be protected by shield plates. 
Protective shield plates shall be a minimum of 
0.062-inch-thick (1.6 mm) steel, shall cover the area of the pipe 
where the member is notched or bored, and shall extend a mini- 
mum of 2 inches (51 mm) above sole plates and below top 
plates. 

305.9 Protection of components of plumbing system. Com- 
ponents of a plumbing system installed along alleyways, drive- 
ways, parking garages or other locations exposed to damage 
shall be recessed into the wall or otherwise protected in an 
approved manner. 



SECTION PC 306 
TRENCHING, EXCAVATION AND BACKFILL 

306.1 Support of piping. Buried piping shall be supported 
throughout its entire length. 

306.2 Trenching and bedding. Where trenches are excavated 
such that the bottom of the trench forms the bed for the pipe, 



14 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



solid and continuous load-bearing support shall be provided 
between joints. Bell holes, hub holes and coupling holes shall 
be provided at points where the pipe is joined. Such pipe shall 
not be supported on blocks to grade. In instances where the 
materials manufacturer's installation instructions are more 
restrictive than those prescribed by the code, the material shall 
be installed in accordance with the more restrictive 
requirement. 

306.2.1 Overexcavation. Where trenches are excavated 
below the installation level of the pipe such that the bottom 
of the trench does not form the bed for the pipe, the trench 
shall be backfilled to the installation level of the bottom of 
the pipe with sand or fine gravel placed in layers of 6 inches 
(152 mm) maximum depth and such backfill shall be com- 
pacted after each placement. 

306.2.2 Rock removal. Where rock is encountered in 
trenching, the rock shall be removed to a minimum of 3 
inches (76 mm) below the installation level of the bottom of 
the pipe, and the trench shall be backfilled to the installation 
level of the bottom of the pipe with sand tamped in place so 
as to provide uniform load-bearing support for the pipe 
between joints. The pipe, including the joints, shall not rest 
on rock at any point. 

306.2.3 Soft load-bearing materials. If soft materials of 
poor load-bearing quality are found at the bottom of the 
trench, pipe shall be hung from slab above. 

306.3 Backfilling. Backfill shall be free from discarded con- 
struction material and debris. Loose earth free from rocks, bro- 
ken concrete and frozen chunks shall be placed in the trench in 
6 inch (152 mm) layers and tamped in place until the crown of 
the pipe is covered by 12 inches (305 mm) of tamped earth. The 
backfill under and beside the pipe shall be compacted for pipe 
support. Backfill shall be brought up evenly on both sides of the 
pipe so that the pipe remains aligned. In instances where the 
manufacturer's installation instructions for materials are more 
restrictive than those prescribed by the code, the material shall 
be installed in accordance with the more restrictive 
requirement. 

306.4 Tunneling. Where pipe is to be installed by tunneling, 
jacking or a combination of both, the pipe shall be protected 
from damage during installation and from subsequent uneven 
loading. Where earth tunnels are used, adequate supporting 
structures shall be provided to prevent future settling or caving. 



1 SECTION PC 307 

STRUCTURAL SAFETY 

307.1 General. In the process of installing or repairing any part 
of a plumbing and drainage installation, the finished floors, 
walls, ceilings, tile work or any other part of the building or pre- 
mises that must be changed or replaced shall be left in a safe 
structural condition in accordance with the requirements of the 

§ New York City Building Code. 

307.2 Cutting, notching or bored holes. A framing member 
shall not be cut, notched or bored in excess of limitations speci- 

I fled in the New York City Building Code. 



307.3 Penetrations of floor/ceiling assemblies and 
fire-resistance-rated assemblies. Penetrations of floor/ceil- 
ing assemblies and assemblies required to have a fire-resis- 
tance rating shall be protected in accordance with the New York 
City Building Code, 

307.4 Alterations to trusses. Truss members and components 
shall not be cut, drilled, notched, spliced or otherwise altered in 
any way without written concurrence and approval of a regis- 
tered design professional. Alterations resulting in the addition 
of loads to any member (e.g., HVAC equipment, water heater) 
shall not be permitted without verification that the truss is capa- 
ble of supporting such additional loading. 

307.5 Trench location. Trenches installed parallel to footings 
shall not extend below the 45-degree (0.79 rad) bearing plane 
of the footing or wall. 

307.6 Piping materials exposed within plenums. All piping 
materials exposed within plenums shall comply with the provi- 
sions of the New York City Mechanical Code. 



SECTION PC 308 I 

PIPING SUPPORT 

308.1 General. All plumbing piping shall be supported in 
accordance with this section. 

308.2 Piping seismic supports. Where earthquake loads are 
applicable in accordance with the building code, plumbing pip- 
ing supports shall be designed and installed for the seismic 
forces in accordance with the New York City Building Code. I 

308.3 Materials. Hangers, anchors and supports shall support 
the piping and the contents of the piping. Hangers and strap- 
ping material shall be of approved material that will not pro- 
mote galvanic action. 

308.4 Structural attachment. Hangers and anchors shall be 
attached to the building construction in an approved manner. 

308.5 Interval of support. Pipe shall be supported in accor- 
dance with Table 308.5. 

Exception: The interval of support for piping systems 
designed to provide for expansion/contraction shall con- 
form to the engineered design in accordance with Section 
28-1 13.2.2 of the Administrative Code. 1 

308.6 Sway bracing. Rigid support sway bracing shall be pro- 
vided at changes in direction greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad) 
for pipe sizes 4 inches (102 mm) and larger. 

308.7 Anchorage. Anchorage shall be provided to restrain 
drainage piping from axial movement. 

308.7.1 Location. For pipe sizes greater than 4 inches (102 
mm), restraints shall be provided for drain pipes at all 
changes in direction and at all changes in diameter greater 
than two pipe sizes. Braces, blocks, rodding and other suit- 
able methods as specified by the coupling manufacturer 
shall be utilized. 

308.8 Expansion joint fittings. Expansion joint fittings shall 
be used only where necessary to provide for expansion and 
contraction of the pipes. Expansion joint fittings shall be of the 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



15 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



typical material suitable for use with the type of piping in 
which such fittings are installed. 

308.9 Stacks. Bases of stacks shall be supported by concrete, 
brick laid in cement mortar or metal brackets attached to the 
building or by other approved methods. 

308.10 Parallel water distribution systems. Piping bundles 
for manifold systems shall be supported in accordance with 
Table 308.5. Support at changes in direction shall be in accor- 
dance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Hot 
and cold water piping shall not be grouped in the same bundle. 



! SECTION PC 309 

FLOOD HAZARD RESISTANCE 

309.1 General. Plumbing systems and equipment in structures 
erected in flood hazard areas shall be constructed in accordance 

iwith the requirements of this section and Appendix G of the:}: 
New York City Building Code. 

309.2 Flood hazard. For structures located in flood hazard 
areas, the following systems and equipment shall be located at 
or above the design flood elevation: 

I Exception: In accordance with Appendix G of the New York 
City Building Code, the following systems are permitted to 
be located below the design flood elevation provided that 
the systems are designed and installed to prevent water from 
entering or accumulating within their components and the 
systems are constructed to resist hydrostatic and hydrody- 
namic loads and stresses, including the effects of buoyancy, 
during the occurrence of flooding to the design flood eleva- 
tion. 

1 . All water service pipes. 

2. Pump seals in individual water supply systems where 
the pump is located below the design flood elevation. 



3. Covers on potable water wells shall be sealed, except 
where the top of the casing well or pipe sleeve is ele- 
vated to at least 1 foot (304.8 mm) above the design 
flood elevation. 

4. All sanitary drainage piping. 

5. All storm drainage piping. 

6. Manhole covers shall be sealed, except where ele- 
vated to or above the design flood elevation. 

7. All other plumbing fixtures, faucets, fixture fittings, 
piping systems and equipment. 

8. Water heaters. 

9. Vents and vent systems. 

309.3 Flood hazard areas subject to high-velocity wave 
action. Structures located in flood hazard areas subject to 
high-velocity wave action shall meet the requirements of Sec- 
tion 309.2. The plumbing systems, pipes and fixtures shall not 
be mounted on or penetrate through walls intended to break 
away under flood loads. 



SECTION PC 310 § 

WASHROOM AND TOILET ROOfVf REQUIREMENTS 

310.1 Light and ventilation. Washrooms and toilet rooms 
shall be illuminated and ventilated in accordance with the New I 
York City Building Code and New York City Mechanical Code. I 

310.2 Location of fixtures and piping. Piping, fixtures or 
equipment shall not be located in such a manner as to interfere 
with the normal operation of windows, doors or other means of 
egress openings. 

310.3 Interior finish. Interior finish surfaces of toilet rooms 
shall comply with the New York City Building Code. 1 

310.4 Water closet compartment. Each water closet utilized 
by the public or employees shall occupy a separate compart- 



TABLE 308.5 
HANGER SPACING 



PIPING MATERIAL 


MAXIMUM HORIZONTAL SPACING 
(feet) 


MAXIMUM VERTICAL SPACING 
(feet) 


ABS pipe 


4 


10 b 


Brass pipe 


10 


10 


Cast-iron pipe 


5 a 


At base and at each story height no greater than 20 


Copper or copper- alloy pipe 


12 


At each story height no greater than 12 


Copper or copper-allow tubing, ].V 4 -inch diameter 
and smaller 


6 


At each story height no greater than 1 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing, 1 l / 2 -inch diameter 
and larger 


10 


At each story height no greater than 10 


Steel pipe 


12 


At every story height 


PVC pipe 


4 


10 b 


Stainless steel drainage systems 


10 


10 b 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. The maximum horizontal spacing of cast-iron pipe hangers shall be increased to 10 feet where 10-foot lengths of pipe are installed. 

b. Midstory guide for sizes 2 inches and smaller. 



16 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



merit with walls or partitions and a door enclosing the fixtures 
to ensure privacy. 

Exceptions: 

1. Water closet compartments shall not be required in a 
single-occupant toilet room with a lockable door. 

2. Toilet rooms located in day care and child-care facili- 
ties and containing two or more water closets shall be 
permitted to have one water closet without an enclos- 
ing compartment. 



SECTION PC 311 
TOILET FACILITIES FOR WORKERS 

311.1 General. Toilet facilities shall be provided for construc- 
tion workers and such facilities shall be maintained in a sani- 
tary condition. Construction worker toilet facilities of the 
nonsewer type shall conform to ANSI Z4.3. 



1 SECTION PC 312 

TESTS AND INSPECTIONS 

I 312.1 Required tests. The licensed master plumber shall make 
the applicable tests prescribed in Sections 3 12.2 through 3 1 2.9 
to determine compliance with the provisions of this code. The 

■ licensed master plumber shall give two days, notice to the com- 
missioner when the plumbing work is ready for tests. The 
equipment, material, power and labor necessary for the inspec- 

Ition and test shall be furnished by the licensed master plumber 
and the licensed master plumber shall be responsible for deter- 
mining that the work will withstand the test pressure prescribed 
in the following tests. All plumbing system piping shall be 
tested with either water or, for piping systems other than plas- 
tic, by air. After the plumbing fixtures have been set and their 
traps filled with water, the entire drainage system shall be sub- 
I mitted to final tests. The commissioner shall require the 
removal of any cleanouts if necessary to ascertain whether the 
pressure has reached all parts of the system. 

Exception: The repair, replacement or alteration to existing 
water waste, vent or storm water piping or the addition of no 
more than three (3) plumbing fixtures or roof drains to an 
existing floor of an existing building shall require only a 
visual inspection of waste, vent and storm water pipe rough- 
ing and finish in addition to a pressure test of water piping at 
available building water pressure. 

312.1.1 Test gauges. Gauges used for testing shall be as fol- 
lows: 

1 . Tests requiring a pressure of 1.0 psi or less shall utilize 
a testing gauge having increments of 0. 1 psi or less. 

2. Tests requiring a pressure of greater than 10 psi but 
less than or equal to 100 psi shall utilize a testing 
gauge having increments of 1 psi or less. 

3. Tests requiring a pressure of greater than 100 psi shall 
utilize a testing gauge having increments of 2 psi or 
less. 

312.1.2 Witnessing tests. Tests in accordance with this 
code shall be witnessed by department plumbing inspectors 



or approved agencies. The department shall prescribe quali- 
fications for individuals who are authorized to witness such 
tests on behalf of approved agencies, including but not lim- 
ited to the requirement that such individuals shall be 
licensed master plumbers or registered design professionals 
with not less than 5 years experience in the inspection and 
testing of piping systems. Such tests may be conducted 
without any verifying inspection or tests by the department, 
provided that verified statements and supporting 
inspectorial and test reports are filed with the department 
within one working day of such tests. 

312.2 Drainage and vent water test. A water test shall be 
applied to the drainage system either in its entirety or in sec- 
tions. If applied to the entire system, all openings in the piping 
shall be tightly closed, except the highest opening, and the sys- 
tem shall be filled with water to the point of overflow. If the sys- 
tem is tested in sections, each opening shall be tightly plugged 
except the highest openings of the section under test, and each 
section shall be filled with water, but no section shall be tested 
with less than a 10 foot (3048 mm) head of water. In testing suc- 
cessive sections, at least the upper 10 feet (3048 mm) of the 
next preceding section shall be tested so that no joint or pipe in 
the building, except the uppermost 10 feet (3048 mm) of the 
system, shall have been submitted to a test of less than a 10 foot 
(3048 mm) head of water. This pressure shall be held for at least 
15 minutes. The system shall then be tight at all points. 

312.3 Drainage and vent air test. An air test shall be made by 
forcing air into the system until there is a uniform gauge pres- 
sure of 5 pounds per square inch (psi) (34.5 kPa). This pressure ^ 
shall be held for a test period of at least 15 minutes. Any adjust- 
ments to the test pressure required because of changes in ambi- 
ent temperature or the seating of gaskets shall be made prior to 
the beginning of the test period. 

312.4 Drainage and vent final test. The final test of the com- 
pleted drainage and vent system shall be visual and in sufficient 
detail to determine compliance with the provisions of this code 
except that the plumbing shall be subjected to a smoke test 
where necessary for cause. Where the smoke test is utilized, it 
shall be made by filling all traps with water and then introduc- 
ing into the entire system a pungent, thick smoke produced by 
one or more smoke machines. When the smoke appears at stack 
openings on the roof, the stack openings shall be closed and a 
pressure equivalent to a 1-inch water column (248.8 Pa) shall 
be held for a test period of not less than 15 minutes. 

312.5 Water supply system test. Upon completion of a sec- 
tion of or the entire water supply system, the system, or portion 
completed, shall be tested and proved tight under a water pres- 
sure of 50 psi above its normal working pressure but not less 1 
than 150 psi. The water utilized for tests shall be obtained from I 
a potable source of supply. The required tests shall be per- 
formed in accordance with this section and Section PC 107. 

312.5.1 Water service pipe. In addition to any require- 
ments of Section 312.5, tests for water service pipes shall 
comply with the following: 

1. In the presence of the tapper or inspector of the 
Department of Environmental Protection, each new 
service pipe or repaired service pipe shall be sub- 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



17 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



jected to a water test made under the street main pres- 
sure. 

2. All such pipes and appurtenances shall remain uncov- 
ered for the duration of the test and shall show no sign 
of leakage. 

3. When any question arises as to the installation con- 
forming with these regulations, an internal hydro- 
static test as specified for materials may be applied, 
subject to the approval of the Department of Environ- 
mental Protection. 

312.6 Gravity sewer test. Gravity sewer tests shall consist of 
plugging the end of the building sewer at the point of connec- 
tion with the public sewer, filling the building sewer with water, 
testing with not less than a 10-foot (3048 mm) head of water 
and maintaining such pressure for 15 minutes. 

312.7 Forced sewer test. Forced sewer tests shall consist of 
plugging the end of the building sewer at the point of connec- 
tion with the public sewer and applying a pressure of 5 psi (34.5 
kPa) greater than the shut off pump rating, and maintaining 
such pressure for 15 minutes. 

312.8 Storm drainage system test. Storm drain systems 
within a building shall be tested by water or air in accordance 
with Section 312.2 or 312.3. 

312.9 Inspection and testing of backflow prevention assem- 
blies. Inspection and testing shall comply with Sections 
312.9.1 and 3 12.9.2. 

312.9.1 Inspections. Annual inspections shall be made of 
all backflow prevention assemblies and air gaps to deter- 
mine whether they are operable. 

312.9.2 Testing. Reduced pressure principle backflow 
preventer assemblies, double check- valve assemblies, pres- 
sure vacuum breaker assemblies, reduced pressure detector 
fire protection backflow prevention assemblies, double 
check detector fire protection backflow prevention assem- 
blies, hose connection backflow preventers, and spill-proof 
vacuum breakers shall be tested at the time of installation, 
immediately after repairs or relocation. Refer to Section 
608.13 and the}: Department of Environmental Protection 
for additional testing requirements. The testing procedure 
shall be performed in accordance with one of the following 
standards: ASSE 5013, ASSE 5015, ASSE 5020, ASSE 
5047, ASSE 5048, ASSE 5052, ASSE 5056, CAN/CSA, 
B64.10 



I SECTION PC 313 

EQUIPMENT EFFICIENCIES 

313.1 General. Equipment efficiencies shall be in accordance 
1 with the New York State Energy Conservation Construction 



Code. 



SECTION PC 314 
CONDENSATE DISPOSAL 

314.1 Fuel-burning appliances. Liquid combustion by-prod- 
ucts of condensing appliances shall be collected and dis- 
charged to an approved plumbing fixture or disposal area in 



accordance with the manufacturer's installation instructions. 
Condensate piping shall be of approved corrosion-resistant 
material and shall not be smaller than the drain connection on 
the appliance. Such piping shall maintain a minimum horizon- 
tal slope in the direction of discharge of not less than 
one-eighth unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (1 -percent 
slope). 

314.2 Evaporators and cooling coils. Condensate drain sys- 
tems shall be provided for equipment and appliances contain- 
ing evaporators or cooling coils. Condensate drain systems 
shall be designed, constructed and installed in accordance with 
Sections 314.2.1 through 314.2.3. 

314.2.1 Condensate disposal. Condensate from all cooling 
coils and evaporators shall be conveyed from the drain pan 
outlet to an approved place of disposal. Condensate shall not 
discharge into a street, alley or other areas so as to cause a 
nuisance. 

314.2.2 Drain pipe materials and sizes. Components of 
the condensate disposal system shall be cast iron, galva- 
nized steel, copper, ABS, or PVC pipe. All components < 
shall be selected for the pressure and temperature rating of 
the installation. Condensate waste and drain line size shall 
not be less than 3 / 4 inch (19 mm) internal diameter and shall 
not decrease in size from the drain pan connection to the 
place of condensate disposal. Where the drain pipes from 
more than one unit are manifolded together for condensate 
drainage, the pipe or tubing shall be sized in accordance 
with an approved method. All horizontal sections of drain 
piping shall be installed in uniform alignment at a uniform 
slope. 

314.2.3 Auxiliary and secondary drain systems. In addi- 
tion to the requirements of Section 314.2.1, a secondary 
drain or auxiliary drain pan shall be required for each cool- 
ing or evaporator coil where damage to any building compo- 
nents will occur as a result of overflow from the equipment 
drain pan or stoppage in the condensate drain piping. One of 
the following methods shall be used: 

1. An auxiliary drain pan with a separate drain shall be 
provided under the coils on which condensation will 
occur. The auxiliary pan drain shall discharge to a 
conspicuous point of disposal to alert occupants in the 
event of a stoppage of the primary drain. The pan shall 
have a minimum depth of 1.5 inches (38 mm), shall 
not be less than 3 inches (76 mm) larger than the unit 
or the coil dimensions in width and length and shall be 
constructed of corrosion-resistant material. Metallic 
pans shall have a minimum thickness of not less than 
0.0276 inch (0.7 mm) galvanized sheet metal. Non- 
metallic pans shall have a minimum thickness of not 
less than 0.0625 inch (1.6 mm). 

2. A separate overflow drain line shall be connected to 
the drain pan provided with the equipment. Such 
overflow drain shall discharge to a conspicuous point 
of disposal to alert occupants in the event of a stop- 
page of the primary drain. The overflow drain line 
shall connect to the drain pan at a higher level than the 
primary drain connection. 



18 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



GENERAL REGULATIONS 



3. An auxiliary drain pan without a separate drain line 
shall be provided under the coils on which condensate 
will occur. Such pan shall be equipped with a water 
level detection device that will shut off the equipment 
served prior to overflow of the pan. The auxiliary 
drain pan shall be constructed in accordance with 
Item 1 of Section* 314.2.3. 

314.2.4 Traps. Condensate drains shall be trapped as 
required by the equipment or appliance manufacturer. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 19 



20 2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



CHAPTER 4 

FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



SECTION PC 401 
GENERAL 

401.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the materials, design 
and installation of plumbing fixtures, faucets and fixture fit- 
tings in accordance with the type of occupancy, and shall pro- 
vide for the minimum number of fixtures for various types of 
occupancies. 

401.2 Prohibited fixtures and connections. Water closets 
having a concealed trap seal or an unventilated space or having 
walls that are not thoroughly washed at each discharge in 
accordance with ASME Al 12.19.2M shall be prohibited. Any 
water closet that permits siphonage of the contents of the bowl 
back into the tank shall be prohibited. Trough urinals shall be 
prohibited. 

401.3 Water conservation. The maximum water flow rates 
and flush volume for plumbing fixtures and fixture fittings 
shall comply with 604.4. 



SECTION PC 402 
FIXTURE MATERIALS 

402.1 Quality of fixtures. Plumbing fixtures shall be con- 
structed of approved materials, with smooth, impervious sur- 
faces, free from defects and concealed fouling surfaces, and 
shall conform to standards cited in this code. All porcelain 
enameled surfaces on plumbing fixtures shall be acid resistant. 

402.2 Materials for specialty fixtures. Materials for specialty 
fixtures not otherwise covered in this code shall be of stainless 
steel, soapstone, chemical stoneware or plastic, or shall be 
lined with lead, copper-base alloy, nickel-copper alloy, corro- 
sion-resistant steel or other material especially suited to the 
application for which the fixture is intended. 

402.3 Sheet copper. Sheet copper for general applications 
shall conform to ASTM B 152 and shall not weigh less thanl2 
ounces per square foot (3.7 kg/m 2 ). 

402.4 Sheet lead. Sheet lead for pans shall not weigh less than 
4 pounds per square foot (19.5 kg/m 2 ) coated with an asphalt 
paint or other approved coating. 



SECTION PC 403 
MINIMUM PLUMBING FACILITIES 

403.1 Minimum number of fixtures. Plumbing fixtures shall 
be provided for the type of occupancy and in the minimum 
number shown in Table 403. 1 . Types of occupancies not shown 
in Table 403.1 shall be considered individually by the commis- 
sioner. The number of occupants shall be determined by the 
New York City Building Code. Occupancy classification shall 



be determined in accordance with the New York City Building I 
Code. 1 

403.1.1 Unisex toilet and bath fixtures. Fixtures located 
within unisex toilet and bathing rooms complying with Sec- 
tion 404 are permitted to be included in determining the 
minimum required number of fixtures for assembly and 
mercantile occupancies. 

403.2 Separate facilities. Where plumbing fixtures are 
required, separate facilities shall be provided for each sex. 

Exceptions: 

1. Separate facilities shall not be required for private 
facilities. 

2. Separate employee facilities shall not be required in 
occupancies in which 1 5 or less people are employed. 

3. Separate facilities shall not be required in structures 
or tenant spaces with a total occupant load, including 
both employees and customers, of 15 or less. 

403.3 Number of occupants of each sex. The required water 
closets, lavatories, and showers or bathtubs shall be distributed 
equally between the sexes based on the percentage of each sex 
anticipated in the occupant load. The occupant load shall be 
composed of 50 percent of each sex, unless statistical data 
approved by the commissioner indicate a different distribution 1 
of the sexes. 

403.4 Location of employee toilet facilities in occupancies 
other than assembly or mercantile. Access to toilet facilities 
in occupancies other than mercantile and assembly occupan- 
cies shall be from within the employees' working area. 
Employee facilities shall be either separate facilities or com- 
bined employee and public facilities. 

Exception: Facilities that are required for employees in 
storage structures or kiosks, and are located in adjacent 
structures under the same ownership, lease or control, shall 
be a maximum travel distance of 500 feet (1 52 m) from the 
employees' working area. 

403.4.1 Travel distance. The required toilet facilities in 
occupancies other than assembly or mercantile shall be 
located not more than one story above or below the 
employee's working area and the path of travel to such facil- 
ities shall not exceed a distance of 500 feet (152 m). 

Exception: The location and maximum travel distances 
to required employee toilet facilities in factory and 
industrial occupancies are permitted to exceed that 
required in Section 403.4.1, provided the location and 
maximum travel distance are approved by the commis- § 
sioner. 1 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



21 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



TABLE 403.1 

MINIMUM NUMBER OF REQUIRED PLUMBING FIXTURES 3 

(See Sections 403.2 and 403.3) 



NO. 



CLASSIFICATION 



Assembly 

(see Sections 

403.2, 403.5 and 

403.6) 



Business 

(see Sections 

403.2, 403.4 and 

403.6)'{ 



OCCUPANCY' 



A-l 



A-2 



A-3 



A-4 



A-5 



WATER CLOSETS 
URINALS (SEE SECTION 419.2) 



DESCRIPTION 



MALE 



Theaters usually with 
fixed seats and other 
buildings for the 
performing arts and 
motion pictures 



1. per 70 for 

the first 210 
and ] per 1.25 
for the 
remainder 
exceeding 
210 



Nightclubs, bars 8 . 
taverns, dance halls 
and buildings for 
similar purposes 



.1 per 75 J 



Restaurants h , banquet 
halls and food courts 



I per 75 



Auditoriums without 
permanent seating, art 
galleries, exhibition 
halls, museums, 
lecture halls, libraries, 
arcades and 
gymnasiums 



1 per 70 for 
the first 210 
and 1 per 125 
for the 
remainder 
exceeding 
210 



Passenger terminals 
and transportation 
facilities 



1 per 500 



Places of worship and 
other religious 
services. Churches 
without assembly 
halls 



1 per 150 



Coliseums, arenas, 
skating rinks, pools 
and tennis courts for 
indoor sporting events 
and activities 



Stadiums, amusement 
parks, bleachers and 
grandstands for 
outdoor sporting 
events and activities 



Buildings for the 
transaction of 
business, professional 
services, other 
services including 
merchandise, office 
buildings, banks, light 
industrial and similar 
uses 



1 per 75 for 
the first 1,500 
and 1 per 120 
for the 
remainder 
exceeding 
1,500 



1 per 75 for 
the first 1,500 
and 1 per 120 
for the 
remainder 
exceeding 
1,500 



FEMALE 



1 per 35 for 

the first 210 
and 1 per 65 
for the 
remainder 
exceeding 210 



1 per 40 J 



1 per 75 



1 per 35 for 
the first 210 
and I per 65 
for the 
remainder 
exceeding 210 



1 per 500 



1 per 75 



1 per 40 for 
the first .1 ,500 
and 1 per 60 
for the 
remainder 
exceeding 
1,500 



1 per 40 for 
the first 1,500 
and 1 per 60 
for the 
remainder 
exceeding 
1,500 



No. of persons 
for each sex 
1-20 

21-45 

46-70 

71-100 

101-140 

141-190 



No. of 
fixtures 
1 

2 
3 
4 
5 
6 



1 fixture for each additional 
50 persons 



LAVATORIES 



MALE FEMALE 



1 per 200 



1 per 75 



1 per 200 



1 per 200 



per 750 



I per 200 



1 per 200 



per 200 



1 per 1.50 



1 per 150 



No. of persons 


No. of 


for each sex 


fixtures 


1-25 


1 


26-50 


2 


51-75 


3 


76-115 


4 


116-160 


5 



1 fixture for each additional 
60 persons 



BATHTUBS/ 
SHOWERS 



DRINKING 
FOUNTAIN 

(SEE 

SECTION 

410.1) 



1 per 500 



OTHER 



1 service 
sink 



1 per 500 



I per 500 



per 500 



I per 
1,000 



service 
sink 



1 service 
sink 



1 service 
sink 



1 service 
sink 



1 per 
1,000 



1 per 

1,000 



1 per 100 



1 per 100 



1 service 

sink 



1 service 
sink 



1 service 
sink 



1 service 
sink 



Educational 



Educational facilities 



1 per 50 



1 per 50- 



1 per 100 



1 service 
sink 



Factory and 
industrial 



F-landF-2 



Structures in which 
occupants are engaged 
in work fabricating, 
assembly or 
processing of products 
or materials 



per 100 



1 per 100 



(see Section 
411) 



1 per 400 



I service 
sink 



(continued) 



22 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



TABLE 403.1— continued 

MINIMUM NUMBER OF REQUIRED PLUMBING FIXTURES 3 

(See Sections 403.2 and 403.3) 



NO. 


CLASSIFICATION 


OCCUPANCY* 


DESCRIPTION 


WATER CLOSETS 
URINALS (SEE 
SECTION 419.2) 


LAVATORIES 


BATHTUBS/ 
SHOWERS 


DRINKING 
FOUNTAIN (SEE 
SECTION 410.1) 


OTHER 


MALE 


FEMALE 


MALE 


FEMALE 


5 


Institutional 


1-1 


Residential care 


1 per 10 


1 per 10 


1 per 8 


I per 1 00 


1 service 
sink 


1-2 


Hospital ambulatory 
nursing home patients 


1 perroom c 


1 per room 


1 per 15 


l per 1 00 


1 service 
sink per floor 


Employees, other than 

residential care b 


1 per 25 


1 per 35 


— 


I per 1 00 


Visitors, other than 
residential care 


1 per 75 


1 per 100 


— 


I per 500 


1 service sink 


1-3 


Prisons 13 


1 per cell 


1 per cell 


1 per 15 


l per 1 .00 


1-3 


Reformatories^, 

detention centers and 
correctional centers 


1 per 1 5 


1 per 15 


1 per 15 


I per 1 00 


1 service 
sink 


1-4 


Adult day care and 

childcare b 


1 per 15 


1 per 15 


1 per 1 5 d 


i per 1 .00 


1 service sink 


6 


Mercantile (see 
Sections 403.2, 
403.5 and 403.6) 


M 


Retail stores, service 
stations, shops, 
salesrooms, markets 
and shopping centers 


1 per 500 


1 per 750 


— 


1 per 1 ,000 


1 service sink 


7 


Residential 


R-l 


Hotels, motels, 
boarding houses 
(transient) 


1 per guestroom 


1 per guestroom 


1 per 

guestroom 


— 


1 service sink 


R-l 


Dormitories, 
fraternities, sororities 
and boarding houses 
(not transient) 


1 per 10 


1 per 10 


1 per 8 


1 per 100 


1 service sink 


R-2 


Apartment house 


1 per dwelling unit 


1 per dwelling unit 


1 per 

dwelling 
unit 


— 


1 kitchen sink per 
dwelling unit; 1 
automatic clothes 
washer connection 
per 20 dwelling 
units 


R-3 


One- and two-family 
dwellings 


1 per dwelling unit 


1 per dwelling unit 


1 per 

dwelling 

unit 


— 


1 kitchen sink per 
dwelling unit; 1 
automatic clothes 
washer connector 
per dwelling unit e 


8 


Storage (see 

Sections 403.2 

and .403.4) 


S-l andS-2 


Structures for the 
storage of goods, 
warehouses, 
storehouse and freight 
depots. Low and 
moderate hazard 


1 per 100 


1 per 100 


1 per 1 ,000 


See Section 41 1 


1 service sink 



a. The fixtures shown are based on one fixture being the minimum required for the number of persons indicated. Any fraction of the number of persons requires an 
additional fixture. The number of occupants shall be determined by the New York City Building Code. 

b. Toilet facilities for employees shall be separate from facilities for inmates or patients. 

c. A single-occupant toilet room with one water closet and one lavatory serving not more than two adjacent patient rooms shall be permitted where such room is pro- 
vided with direct access from each patient room and with provisions for privacy. 

d. For day nurseries, a maximum of one bathtub shall be required. 

e. For attached one- and two-family dwellings, one automatic clothes washer connection shall be required per 20 dwelling units. 

f. Use a calculation based on 1 person/ 125 net square feet. 

g. For the purposes of this table only, "Bar" shall mean a business establishment or a portion of a nonprofit entity devoted primarily to the selling and serving of alco- 
holic beverages for consumption by the public, guests, patrons, or members on the premises and in which the serving of food is only incidental. 

h. The total number of occupants for a single establishment comprising^ of a restaurant with an accessory bar shall be considered as a restaurant for the purposes of 

determining the minimum number of plumbing fixtures, 
i. As per the New York City Building Code. 
j. The requirements for the number of water closets for a total occupancy of 150 persons or fewer shall not apply to bars except that there shall be at least one water 

closet for men and at least one water closet for women or at least two unisex toilet rooms. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



23 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



403.5 Location of employee toilet facilities in mercantile 
and assembly occupancies. Employees shall be provided with 
toilet facilities in building and tenant spaces utilized as restau- 
rants, nightclubs, places of public assembly and mercantile 
occupancies. The employee facilities shall be either separate 
facilities or combined employee and public facilities. The 
required toilet facilities shall be located not more than one story 
above or below the employees' work area and the path of travel 
to such facilities, in other than covered malls, shall not exceed a 
distance of 500 feet (152,440 m). The path of travel to required 
facilities in covered malls shall not exceed a distance of 300 
feet (91,440 m). 

Exception: Employee toilet facilities shall not be required 
in tenant spaces where the travel distance from the main 
entrance of the tenant space to a central toilet area does not 
exceed 300 feet (91,440 m) and such central toilet facilities 
are located not more than one story above or below the ten- 
ant space. 

403.6 Public facilities. Customers, patrons and visitors shall 
be provided with public toilet facilities in structures and tenant 
spaces intended for public utilization. Public toilet facilities 
shall be located not more than one story above or below the 
space required to be provided with public toilet facilities and 
the path of travel to such facilities shall not exceed a distance of 
500 feet (152 m). 

Exception: Public utilization of toilet facilities shall not be 
required for establishments less than 10,000 square feet 
(929 m 2 )t in Occupancy Group $ B or M. 

403.6.1 Covered malls. In covered mall buildings, the path 
of travel to required toilet facilities shall not exceed a dis- 
tance of 300 feet (91 440 mm). Facilities shall be installed in 
each individual store or in a central toilet area located in 
accordance with this section. The maximum travel distance 
to the central toilet facilities in covered mall buildings shall 
be measured from the main entrance of any store or tenant 
space. 

403.6.2 Pay facilities. Where pay facilities are installed, 
such facilities shall be in excess of the required minimum 
facilities. Required facilities shall be free of charge. 

403.7 Signage. Required public facilities shall be designated 
by a legible sign for each sex. Signs shall be readily visible and 
located near the entrance to each toilet facility. 



1 SECTION PC 404 

ACCESSIBLE PLUMBING FACILITIES 

404.1 Where required. Accessible plumbing facilities and fix- 

Itures shall be provided in accordance with the New York City 
Building Code. 



SECTION PC 405 
INSTALLATION OF FIXTURES 

405.1 Water supply protection. The supply lines and fittings 
for every plumbing fixture shall be installed so as to prevent 
backflow. 



405.2 Access for cleaning. Plumbing fixtures shall be installed 
so as to afford easy access for cleaning both the fixture and the 
area around the fixture. 

405.3 Setting. Fixtures shall be set level and in proper align- 
ment with reference to adjacent walls. 

405.3.1 Water closets, urinals, lavatories and bidets. A 
water closet, urinal, lavatory or bidet shall not be set closer 
than 15 inches (381 mm) from its center to any side wall, 
partition, vanity or other obstruction, or closer than 30 
inches (762 mm) center-to-center between water closets, 
urinals or adjacent fixtures. There shall be at least a 21 inch 
(533 mm) clearance in front of the water closet, urinal or 
bidet to any wall, fixture or door. Water closet compart- 
ments shall not be less than 30 inches (762 mm) wide or 60 
inches (1524 mm) deep. There shall be at least a 21 inch 
(533 mm) clearance in front of a lavatory to any wall, fixture 
or door (see Figure 405.3.1). 



15 IN. h ~7~ 

\ i 



30 IN. 

"cleafT 



21 IN. CLEARANCE 



21 IN.- 
CLEARANCE 



|l_l 1113 

_0 

wc WC 


1 1 



wc 


o 




1 1 

Qi 

WC 1 




( TUB 



COMPARTMENT 



21 IN. -, 
CLEARANCE i 



E3 c=3 m qu 

_ ur ur Q 



WC 21 IN. 

L 



FIGURE 405.3.1 
FIXTURE CLEARANCE 



4053.2 Public lavatories. In employee and public toilet 
rooms, the required lavatory shall be located in the same 
room as the required water closet. 

405,4 Floor and wall drainage connections. Connections 
between the drain and floor outlet plumbing fixtures shall be 
made with a floor flange. The flange shall be attached to the 
drain and anchored to the structure. Connections between the 
drain and wall-hung water closets shall be made with an 
approved extension nipple or horn adapter. The water closet 
shall be bolted to the hanger with corrosion-resistant bolts or 
screws. Joints shall be sealed with an approved elastomeric 
gasket, flange-to-fixture connection complying with ASME 
Al 1 2.4.3 or setting compound conforming to FS TT-P- 1 5 36 A. 

405.4.1 Floor flanges. Floor flanges for water closets or 
similar fixtures shall not be less than 0.125 inch (3.2 mm) 



24 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



thick for brass, 0.25 inch (6.4 mm) thick for plastic, and 0.25 
inch (6.4 mm) thick and not less than a 2 inch (51 mm) 
caulking depth for cast-iron or galvanized malleable iron. 

Floor flanges of hard lead shall weigh not less than 1 
pound, 9 ounces (0.7 kg) and shall be composed of lead 
alloy with not less than 7.75 percent antimony by weight. 
Closet screws and bolts shall be of brass. Flanges shall be 
secured to the building structure with corrosion-resistant 
screws or bolts. 

405.4.2 Securing floor outlet fixtures. Floor outlet fixtures 
shall be secured to the floor or floor flanges by screws or 
bolts of corrosion-resistant material. 

405.4.3 Securing wall-hung water closet bowls. 
Wall-hung water closet bowls shall be supported by a con- 
cealed metal carrier that is attached to the building structural 
members so that strain is not transmitted to the closet con- 
nector or any other part of the plumbing system. The carrier 
shall conform to ASME Al 12.6.1M or ASME Al 12.6.2. 

405.5 Water-tight joints. Joints formed where fixtures come 
in contact with walls or floors shall be sealed. 

405.6 Plumbing in mental health centers. In mental health 
centers, pipes or traps shall not be exposed, and fixtures shall 
be bolted through walls. 

405.7 Design of overflows. Where any fixture is provided with 
an overflow, the waste shall be designed and installed so that 
standing water in the fixture will not rise in the overflow when 
the stopper is closed, and no water will remain in the overflow 
when the fixture is empty. 

405.7.1 Connection of overflows. The overflow from any 
fixture shall discharge into the drainage system on the inlet 
or fixture side of the trap. 

Exception: The overflow from a flush tank serving a 
water closet or urinal shall discharge into the fixture 
served. 

405.8 Slip joint connections. Slip joints shall be made with an 
approved elastomeric gasket and shall only be installed on the 
trap outlet, trap inlet and within the trap seal. Fixtures with con- 
cealed slip-joint connections shall be provided with an access 
panel or utility space at least 12 inches (305 mm) in its smallest 
dimension or other approved arrangement so as to provide 
access to the slip joint connections for inspection and repair. 

405.9 Design and installation of plumbing fixtures. Integral 
fixture fitting mounting surfaces on manufactured plumbing 
fixtures or plumbing fixtures constructed on site, shall meet the 
design requirements of ASME A112.19.2M or ASME 
A112.19.3M. 



1 SECTION PC 406 

AUTOMATIC CLOTHES WASHERS 

1 406.1 Approval. All automatic clothes washers shall conform 
to ASSE 1007 

406.2 Water connection. The water supply to an automatic 
clothes washer shall be protected against backflow by an air 
gap installed integrally within the machine conforming to 



ASSE 1007 or with the installation of a backflow preventer in 
accordance with Section PC 608. § 

4063 Waste connection. The waste from an automatic clothes 
washer shall discharge through an air break into a standpipe in 
accordance with Section 802.4 or into a laundry sink. The trap 
and fixture drain for an automatic clothes washer standpipe 
shall be a minimum of 2 inches (5 1 mm) in diameter. The auto- 
matic clothes washer fixture drain shall connect to a branch 
drain or drainage stack a minimum of 3 inches (76 mm) in 
diameter. 



SECTION PC 407 1 

BATHTUBS 

407.1 Approval. Bathtubs shall conform to ANSI Z124.1, 
ASME A112.19.1M, ASME A112.19.4M, ASME 
A112.19.9M, CSA B45.2, CSA B45.3 or CSA B45.5. 

407.2 Bathtub waste outlets. Bathtubs shall have waste out- 
lets a minimum of 1 .5 inches (38 mm) in diameter. The waste 
outlet shall be equipped with an approved stopper. 

407.3 Glazing. Windows and doors within a bathtub enclosure 
shall conform to the safety glazing requirements of the New 1 
York City Building Code. § 

407.4 Bathtub enclosure. Doors within a bathtub enclosure 
shall conform to ASME Al 12.19.15. 



SECTION PC 408 1 

BIDETS 

408.1 Approval. Bidets shall conform to ASME Al 12. 19.2M, 
ASME A112.19.9M or CSA B45.1. 

408.2 Water connection. The water supply to a bidet shall be 
protected against backflow by an air gap or backflow preventer 

in accordance with Section^ 608.13.1, 608.13.2, 608.13.3, 1 
608.13.5, 608.13.6 or 608.13.8. 



SECTION PC 409 1 

DISHWASHING MACHINES 

409.1 Approval. Domestic dishwashing machines shall con- 
form to ASSE 1006. Commercial dishwashing machines shall 
conform to ASSE 1004 and NSF 3. 

409.2 Water connection. The water supply to a dishwashing 
machine shall be protected against backflow by an air gap or 
backflow preventer in accordance with Section PC 608. 1 



409.3 Waste connection. The waste connection of a 
dishwashing machine shall comply with Sections 802.1.6 or 
802.1.7, as applicable. 



SECTION PC 410 
DRINKING FOUNTAINS 

410.1 Approval. Drinking fountains shall conform to ASME 
A112.19.1M, ASME A112.19.2M or ASME A112.19.9M, 
and water coolers shall conform to AR1 1010. Drinking foun- 
tains and water coolers shall conform to NSF 61, Section 9. 



1 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



25 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



Where water is served in restaurants, drinking fountains shall 
not be required. In other occupancies, where drinking foun- 
tains are required, bottled water dispensers shall be permitted 
to be substituted for not more than 50 percent of the required 
drinking fountains, 

410.2 Prohibited location. Drinking fountains shall not be 
installed in public restrooms. 



backflow preventer in accordance with Section 608.13.1, 
608.13.2, 608.13.3, 608.13.5, 608.13.6 or 608.13.8. 

414.2 Waste connection. Garbage can washers shall be 
trapped separately. The receptacle receiving the waste from the 
washer shall have a removable basket or strainer to prevent the 
discharge of large particles into the drainage system. 



SECTION PC 411 

EMERGENCY SHOWERS AND EYEWASH 

STATIONS 

411.1 Approval. Emergency showers and eyewash stations 
shall conform to ISEA Z358. 1. 

411.2 Waste connection. Waste connections shall not be 
required for emergency showers and eyewash stations. 



SECTION PC 412 
FLOOR AND TRENCH DRAINS 

412.1 Approval. Floor drains shall conform to ASME 
A 1 12.6.3, ASME A 1 12.3.1 or CSA B79. Trench drains shall 
comply with ASME A 1 .12.6.3. 

412.2 Floor drain trap and strainer. Floor drain traps shall 
have removable strainers. The strainer shall have a waterway 
area of not less than the area of the tailpiece. The floor drain 
shall be constructed so that the drain is capable of being 
cleaned. Access shall be provided to the drain inlet. 

412.3 Size of floor drains. Floor drains shall have a minimum 
3-inch (76 mm) diameter drain outlet. 

412.4 Public laundries and central washing facilities. In 
public coin-operated laundries and in the central washing facil- 
ities of multiple-family dwellings, the rooms containing auto- 
matic clothes washers shall be provided with floor drains 
located to readily drain the entire floor area. Such drains shall 
have a minimum 3 inch (76 mm) diameter drain outlet and be 
provided with lint strainers. 



SECTION PC 415 
LAUNDRY TRAYS 

415.1 Approval. Laundry trays shall conform to ANSI 
Z124.6, ASME A112.19.1M, ASME A112.19.3M, ASME 
A112.19.9M, CSA B45.2 or CSA B45.4. 

415.2 Waste outlet. Each compartment of a laundry tray shall 
be provided with a waste outlet a minimum of 1.5 inches (38 
mm) in diameter and a strainer or crossbar to restrict the clear 
opening of the waste outlet. 



SECTION 416 
LAVATORIES 

416.1 Approval. Lavatories shall conform to ANSI Z 124.3, 
ASME A112.19.1M, ASME A112.19.2M, ASME 
A112.19.3M,ASMEA112.19.4M, ASME A112.19.9M, CSA 
B45.1, CSAB45.2, CSAB45.3 or CSAB45.4. Group wash-up 
equipment shall conform to the requirements of Section PC 
402. Every 20 inches (508 mm) of rim space shall be consid- 
ered as one lavatory. 

416.2 Cultured marble lavatories. Cultured marble vanity 
tops with an integral lavatory shall conform to ANSI Z 124.3 or 
CSAB45.5. 

416.3 Lavatory waste outlets. Lavatories shall have waste 
outlets not less than 1.25 inches (32 mm) in diameter. A 
strainer, pop-up stopper, crossbar or other device shall be pro- 
vided to restrict the clear opening of the waste outlet. 

416.4 Moveable lavatory systems. Moveable lavatory sys- 
tems shall comply with ASME Al 12.19.12. 



SECTION PC 413 
FOOD WASTE GRINDER UNITS 

413.1 Approval. Domestic food waste grinders shall conform 
to ASSE 1008. Food waste grinders shall not increase the 
drainage fixture unit load on the sanitary drainage system. 

413.2 Domestic food waste grinder waste outlets. Domestic 
food waste grinders shall be connected to a drain of not less 
than 2 inches (5.1 mm) in diameter. 

413.3 Reserved. 

413.4 Water supply required. All food waste grinders shall be 
provided with a supply of cold water. 



SECTION PC 414 
GARBAGE CAN WASHERS 

414.1 Water connection. The water supply to a garbage can 
washer shall be protected against backflow by an air gap or a 



SECTION PC 417 
SHOWERS 



I 



417.1 Approval. Prefabricated showers and shower compart- 
ments shall conform to ANSI Z124.2, ASME Al 12.19.9M or 
CSA B45.5. Shower valves for individual showers shall con- 
form to the requirements of Section 424.3. § 

417.2 Water supply riser. Every water supply riser from the 
shower valve to the shower head outlet, whether exposed or 
not, shall be attached to the structure in an approved manner. 

417.3 Shower waste outlet. Waste outlets serving showers 
shall be at least 2 inches (5 1 mm) in diameter and, for other than 1 
waste outlets in bathtubs, shall have removable strainers not 
less than 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter with strainer openings 
not less than 0.25 inch (6.4 mm) in minimum dimension. 
Where each shower space is not provided with an individual 
waste outlet, the waste outlet shall be located and the floor 
pitched so that waste from one shower does not flow over the 



26 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



floor area serving another shower. Waste outlets shall be fas- 
tened to the waste pipe in an approved manner. 

417.4 Shower compartments. All shower compartments shall 
have a minimum of 900 square inches (0.58 m 2 ) of interior 
cross-sectional area. Shower compartments shall not be less 
than 30 inches (762 mm) in minimum dimension measured 
from the finished interior dimension of the compartment, 
exclusive of fixture valves, showerheads, soap dishes, and 

| safety grab bars or rails. Except as required in Section PC 404, 
the minimum required area and dimension shall be measured 
from the finished interior dimension at a height equal to the top 
of the threshold and at a point tangent to its centerline and shall 
be continued to a height not less than 70 inches (1778 mm) 
above the shower drain outlet. 

417.4.1 Wall area. The wall area above built-in tubs with 
installed shower heads and in shower compartments shall be 
constructed of smooth, noncorrosive and nonabsorbent 
waterproof materials to a height not less than 6 feet (1829 
mm) above the room floor level, and not less than 70 inches 
(1778 mm) where measured from the compartment floor at 
the drain. Such walls shall form a water-tight joint with each 
other and with either the tub, receptor or shower floor. 

417.5 Shower floors or receptors. Floor surfaces shall be con- 
structed of impervious, noncorrosive, nonabsorbent and water- 
proof materials. 

417.6 Glazing. Windows and doors within a shower enclosure 

I shall conform to the safety glazing requirements of the New 
York City Building Code. 



I SECTION PC 418 

SINKS 

418.1 Approval. Sinks shall conform to ANSI Z124.6, ASME 
A112.19.1M, ASME A112.19.2M, ASME A112.19.3M, 
ASME Al 12.19.4M, ASME A112.19.9M, CSA B45.1, CSA 
B45.2, CSA B45.3 or CSA B45.4. 

418.2 Sink waste outlets. Sinks shall be provided with waste 
i outlets a minimum of 2 inches (5 1 mm) in diameter. A strainer 

or crossbar shall be provided to restrict the clear opening of the 
waste outlet. 

418.3 Moveable sink systems. Moveable sink systems shall 
comply with ASME Al 12.19.12. 



SECTION PC 419 
URINALS 

419.1 Approval. Urinals shall conform to ASME 
A112.19.2M, CSA B45.1 or CSA B45.5. Urinals shall con- 
form to the water consumption requirements of Section 604.4. 
Urinals shall conform to the hydraulic performance require- 
ments of ASME Al 12.19.6, CSA B45.1 or CSA B45.5. 

419.2 Substitution for water closets. In each bathroom or toi- 
let room, urinals shall not be substituted for more than 50 per- 
cent of the required water closets. 

419.3 Surrounding material. Wall and floor space to a point 2 
feet (610 mm) in front of a urinal lip and 4 feet (1219 mm) 
above the floor and at least 2 feet (610 mm) to each side of the 



urinal shall be waterproofed with a smooth, readily cleanable, 
nonabsorbent material. 



SECTION PC 420 
WATER CLOSETS 

420.1 Approval. Water closets shall conform to the water con- 
sumption requirements of Section 604.4 and shall conform to 
ANSI Z124.4, ASME A112.19.2M, CSA B45.1, CSA B45.4 
or CSA B45.5. Water closets shall conform to the hydraulic 
performance requirements of ASME Al. 12.19.6. Water closet 
tanks shall conform to ANSI Z124.4, ASME A 112.19.2, 
ASME Al 12.19.9M, CSA B45. 1 , CSA B45.4 or CSA B45.5. 
Electro-hydraulic water closets shall comply with ASME 
A112.19.13. 

420.2 Water closets for public or employee toilet facilities. 
Water closet bowls for public or employee toilet facilities shall 
be of the elongated type. 

420.3 Water closet seats. Water closets shall be equipped with 
seats of smooth, nonabsorbent material. All seats of water clos- 
ets provided for public or employee toilet facilities shall be of 
the hinged open-front type. Integral water closet seats shall be 
of the same material as the fixture. Water closet seats shall be 
sized for the water closet bowl type. 

420.4 Water closet connections. A 4-inch by 3-inch (102 mm 
by 76 mm) closet bend shall be acceptable. Where a 3-inch (76 
mm) bend is utilized on water closets, a 4- inch by 3-inch (1 02 
mm by 76 mm) flange shall be installed to receive the fixture 
horn. 

420.5 Water closets for children's use. In nurseries, schools, 
and similar places where plumbing fixtures are provided for the 
use of children under 6 years of age, such water closets shall be 
of a size and height suitable for the children's use. 



SECTION PC 421 
WHIRLPOOL BATHTUBS 

421.1 Approval. Whirlpool bathtubs shall comply with ASME 
Al 12.19.7M or with CSA B45.5 and CSA B45 (Supplement 
1). 

421.2 Installation. Whirlpool bathtubs shall be installed and 
tested in accordance with the manufacturer's installation 
instructions. The pump shall be located above the weir of the 
fixture trap. Access shall be provided to the pump. 

421.3 Drain. The pump drain and circulation piping shall be 
sloped to drain the water in the volute and the circulation piping 
when the whirlpool bathtub is empty. 

421.4 Suction fittings. Suction fittings for whirlpool bathtubs 
shall comply with ASME Al 12.19.8M. 

421.5 Whirlpool enclosure. Doors within a whirlpool enclo- 
sure shall conform to ASME A 1 1 2. 1 9. 1 5 . 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



27 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



1 SECTION PC 422 

HEALTH CARE FIXTURES AND EQUIPMENT 

422.1 Scope. This section shall govern those aspects of health 
care plumbing systems that differ from plumbing systems in 
other structures. Health care plumbing systems shall conform 
to the requirements of this section in addition to the other 
requirements of this code. The provisions of this section shall 
apply to the special devices and equipment installed and main- 
tained in the following occupancies: nursing homes, homes for 
the aged, orphanages, infirmaries, first aid stations, psychiatric 
facilities, clinics, professional offices of dentists and doctors, 
mortuaries, educational facilities, surgery, dentistry, research 
and testing laboratories, establishments manufacturing phar- 
maceutical drugs and medicines, and other structures with sim- 
ilar apparatus and equipment classified as plumbing. 

422.2 Approval. All special plumbing fixtures, equipment, 
devices and apparatus shall be of an approved type. 

422.3 Protection. All devices, appurtenances, appliances and 
apparatus intended to serve some special function, such as ster- 
ilization, distillation, processing, cooling, or storage of ice or 
foods, and that connect to either the water supply or drainage 
system, shall be provided with protection against backflow, 
flooding, fouling, contamination of the water supply system 
and stoppage of the drain. 

422.4 Materials. Fixtures designed for therapy, special cleans- 
ing or disposal of waste materials, combinations of such pur- 
poses, or any other special purpose, shall be of smooth, 
impervious, corrosion-resistant materials and, where subjected 
to temperatures in excess of 180°F (82°C), shall be capable of 
withstanding, without damage, higher temperatures. 

422.5 Access. Access shall be provided to concealed piping in 
connection with special fixtures where such piping contains 
steam traps, valves, relief valves, check valves, vacuum break- 
ers or other similar items that require periodic inspection, ser- 
vicing, maintenance or repair. Access shall be provided to 
concealed piping that requires periodic inspection, mainte- 
nance or repair. 

422.6 Clinical sink. A clinical sink shall have an integral trap 
in which the upper portion of a visible trap seal provides a water 
surface. The fixture shall be designed so as to permit complete 
removal of the contents by siphonic or blowout action and to 
reseal the trap. A flushing rim shall provide water to cleanse the 
interior surface. The fixture shall have the flushing and cleans- 
ing characteristics of a water closet. 

422.7 Prohibited usage of clinical sinks and service sinks. A 
clinical sink serving a soiled utility room shall not be consid- 
ered as a substitute for, or be utilized as, a service sink. A ser- 
vice sink shall not be utilized for the disposal of urine, fecal 
matter or other human waste. 

422.8 Ice prohibited in soiled utility room. Machines for 
manufacturing ice, or any device for the handling or storage of 
ice, shall not be located in a soiled utility room. 

422.9 Sterilizer equipment requirements. The approval and 
installation of all sterilizers shall conform to the requirements 

I of the New York City Mechanical Code. 



422.9.1 Sterilizer piping. Access for the purposes of 
inspection and maintenance shall be provided to all steril- 
izer piping and devices necessary for the operation of steril- 
izers. 

422.9.2 Steam supply. Steam supplies to sterilizers, includ- 
ing those connected by pipes from overhead mains or 
branches, shall be drained to prevent any moisture from 
reaching the sterilizer. The condensate drainage from the 
steam supply shall be discharged by gravity. 

422.9.3 Steam condensate return. Steam condensate 
returns from sterilizers shall be a gravity return system. 

422.9.4 Condensers. Pressure sterilizers shall be equipped 
with a means of condensing and cooling the exhaust steam 
vapors. Nonpressure sterilizers shall be equipped with a 
device that will automatically control the vapor, confining 
the vapors within the vessel. 

422.10 Special elevations. Control valves, vacuum outlets and 
devices protruding from a wall of an operating, emergency, 
recovery, examining or delivery room, or in a corridor or other 
location where patients are transported on a wheeled stretcher, 
shall be located at an elevation that prevents bumping the 
patient or stretcher against the device. 



SECTION PC 423 | 

SPECIALTY PLUMBING FIXTURES 

423.1 Water connections. Baptisteries, ornamental and lily 
pools, aquariums, ornamental fountain basins, swimming 
pools, and similar constructions, where provided with water 
supplies, shall be protected against backflow in accordance 
with Section PC 608. § 

423.2 Approval. Specialties requiring water and waste con- 
nections shall be submitted for approval. 



SECTION PC 424 1 

FAUCETS AND OTHER FIXTURE FITTINGS 

424.1 Approval. Faucets and fixture fittings shall conform to 
ASME Al 12.18.1 or CSA B125. Faucets and fixture fittings 
that supply drinking water for human ingestion shall conform 

to the requirements of NSF 61, section 9. Flexible water con- | 
nectors exposed to continuous pressure shall conform to the 
requirements of Section 605.6. 

424.1.1 Faucets and supply fittings. Faucets and supply 
fittings shall conform to the water consumption require- 
ments of Section 604.4. 

424.1.2 Waste fittings. Waste fittings shall conform to one 
of the standards listed in Tables 702.1 and 702.4 for 
above-ground drainage and vent pipe and fittings, or the 
waste fittings shall be constructed of tubular stainless steel 
with a minimum wall thickness of 0.012 inch (0.30 mm), 
tubular copper alloy having a minimum wall thickness of 
0.027 inch (0.69 mm) or tubular plastic complying with 
ASTM F 409. 

424.2 Hand showers. Hand-held showers shall conform to 
ASSE 1014 or CSA B 125. 



28 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



FIXTURES, FAUCETS AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



424.3 Shower and tub valves. Shower, tub and shower-tub 
combination valves shall be balanced pressure, thermostatic or 
combination balanced-pressure/thermostatic valves that con- 
form to the requirements of ASSE 1016 or CSA B125. Multi- 
ple (gang) showers supplied with a single tempered water 
supply pipe shall have the water supply for such showers con- 
trolled by a master thermostatic mixing valve complying with 
ASSE 1017. Shower, tub and shower-tub combination valves 
and master thermostatic mixing valves required by this section 
shall be equipped with a means to limit the maximum setting of 
the valve to 120°F (49°C), which shall be field adjusted in 
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

424.4 Hose-connected outlets. Faucets and fixture fittings 
with hose-connected outlets shall conform to ASME 
A112.18.3M. 

424.5 Temperature-actuated, flow reduction valves for 
Individual fixture fittings. Temperature-actuated, flow reduc- 
tion devices, where installed for individual fixture fittings, 
shall conform to ASSE 1062. Such valves shall not be used 
alone as a substitute for the balanced pressure, thermostatic or 
combination shower valves required in Section 424.3. 

424.6 Transfer valves. Deck-mounted bath/shower transfer 
valves containing an integral atmospheric vacuum breaker 
shall conform to the requirements of ASME Al 12.18.7. 



matic flushing shall be controlled with a timing device or 
sensor control devices. 

425.3.1 Fill valves. All flush tanks shall be equipped with 
an antisiphon fill valve conforming to ASSE 1002 or CSA 
B 125. The fill valve backilow preventer shall be located at 
least 1 inch (25 mm) above the full opening of the overflow 
pipe. 

425.3.2 Overflows in flush tanks. Flush tanks shall be pro- 
vided with overflows discharging to the water closet or uri- 
nal connected thereto and shall be sized to prevent flooding 
the tank at the maximum rate at which the tanks are supplied 
with water according to the manufacturer's design condi- 
tions. The opening of the overflow pipe shall be located 
above the flood level rim of the water closet or urinal or 
above a secondary overflow in the flush tank. 

425.3.3 Sheet copper. Sheet copper utilized for flush tank 
linings shall conform to ASTM B 152 and shall not weigh 
less than 10 ounces per square foot (0.03 kg/m 2 ). 

425.3.4 Access required. All parts in a flush tank shall be 
accessible for repair and replacement. 

425.4 Flush pipes and fittings. Flush pipes and fittings shall 
be of nonferrous material and shall conform to ASME 
Al 12.19.5 or CSA B125. 



§ SECTION PC 425 

FLUSHING DEVICES FOR WATER CLOSETS AND 
URINALS 

425.1 Flushing devices required. Each water closet, urinal, 
clinical sink and any plumbing fixture that depends on trap 
siphonage to discharge the fixture contents to the drainage sys- 
tem shall be provided with a flushometer valve, flushometer 
tank or a flush tank designed and installed to supply water in 
quantity and rate of flow to flush the contents of the fixture, 
cleanse the fixture and refill the fixture trap. 

425.1.1 Separate for each fixture. A flushing device shall 
not serve more than one fixture. 

425.2 Flushometer valves and tanks. Flushometer valves and 
tanks shall comply with ASSE 1037. Vacuum breakers on 
flushometer valves shall conform to the performance require- 
ments of ASSE 1001 or CAN/CSA-B64.1.1. Access shall be 
provided to vacuum breakers. Flushometer valves shall be of 
the water-conservation type and shall not be utilized where the 
water pressure is lower than the minimum required for normal 
operation. When operated, the valve shall automatically com- 
plete the cycle of operation, opening fully and closing posi- 
tively under the water supply pressure. Each flushometer valve 
shall be provided with a means for regulating the flow through 
the valve. The trap seal to the fixture shall be automatically 
refilled after each valve flushing cycle. 

425.3 Flush tanks. Flush tanks equipped for manual flushing 
shall be controlled by a device designed to refill the tank after 
each discharge and to shut off completely the water flow to the 
tank when the tank is filled to operational capacity. The trap 
seal to the fixture shall be automatically refilled after each 
flushing. The water supply to flush tanks equipped for auto- 



SECTION PC 426 

MANUAL FOOD AND BEVERAGE DISPENSING 

EQUIPMENT 

426.1 Approval. Manual food and beverage dispensing equip- 
ment shall conform to the requirements of NSF 18. 



SECTION PC 427 
FLOOR SINKS 

427.1 Approval. Sanitary floor sinks shall conform to the 
requirements of ASME Al 12.6.7. 



2008 NEW YORK CSTY PLUMBING CODE 



29 



30 2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



CHAPTER 5 

WATER HEATERS 



SECTION PC 501 
GENERAL 



501.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
materials, design and installation of water heaters and the 
related safety devices and appurtenances. 

501.2 Water heater as space heater. Where a combination 
potable water heating and space heating system requires water 
for space heating at temperatures higher than 140°F (60°C), a 
master thermostatic mixing valve complying with ASSE 1017 
shall be provided to limit the water supplied to the potable hot 
water distribution system to a temperature of 140°F (60°C) or 
less. The potability of the water shall be maintained throughout 
the system. 

501.3 Drain valves. Drain valves for emptying shall be 
installed at the bottom of each tank-type water heater and hot 
water storage tank. Drain valves shall conform to ASSE 1005. 

501.4 Location. Water heaters and storage tanks shall be 
located and connected so as to provide access for observation, 
maintenance, servicing and replacement. 

501.5 Water heater labeling. All water heaters shall be 
third-party certified. 

501.6 Water temperature control in piping from tankiess 
heaters. The temperature of water from tankiess water heaters 
shall be a maximum of 140°F (60°C) when intended for 
domestic uses. This provision shall not supersede the require- 
ment for protective shower valves in accordance with Section 
424.3. 

501.7 Pressure marking of storage tanks. Storage tanks and 
water heaters installed for domestic hot water shall have the 
maximum allowable working pressure clearly and indelibly 
stamped in the metal or marked on a plate welded thereto or 
otherwise permanently attached. Such markings shall be in an 
accessible position outside of the tank so as to make inspection 
or reinspection readily possible. 

501.8 Temperature controls. All hot water supply systems 
shall be equipped with automatic temperature controls capable 
of adjustments from the lowest to the highest acceptable tem- 
perature settings for the intended temperature operating range. 



SECTION PC 502 
INSTALLATION 

502.1 General. Water heaters shall be installed in accordance 
with the manufacturer's installation instructions. Oil-fired 
water heaters shall conform to the requirements of this code 
and the New York City Mechanical Code. Electric water heaters 
shall conform to the requirements of this code and provisions 
of the New York City Electrical Code. Gas-fired water heaters 
shall conform to the requirements of the New York City Fuel 
Gas Code. 



502.2 Rooms used as a plenum. Water heaters using solid, liq- 
uid or gas fuel shall not be installed in a room containing 
air-handling machinery when such room is used as a plenum. 

502.3 Water heaters installed in attics. Electric water heaters 1 
only shall be installed in attics. An attic containing a water 1 
heater shall be provided with an opening and unobstructed pas- 
sageway large enough to allow removal of the water heater. The 
passageway shall not be less than 30 inches (762 mm) high and 
22 inches (559 mm) wide and not more than 20 feet (6096 mm) 

in length when measured along the centerline of the passage- 
way from the opening to the water heater. The passage way 
shall have continuous solid flooring not less than 24 inches 
(610 mm) wide. A level service space at least 30 inches (762 
mm) deep and 30 inches (762 mm) wide shall be present at the 
front or service side of the water heater. The clear access open- 
ing dimensions shall be a minimum of 20 inches by 30 inches 
(508 mm by 762 mm) where such dimensions are large enough 
to allow removal of the water heater. 

502.4 Seismic supports. Where earthquake loads are applica- 
ble in accordance with the New York City Building Code, water 1 
heater supports shall be designed and installed for the seismic 
forces in accordance with the New York City Building Code. ■ 



SECTION PC 503 
CONNECTIONS 

503.1 Cold water line valve. The cold water branch line from 
the main water supply line to each hot water storage tank or 
water heater shall be provided with a valve, located near the 
equipment and serving only the hot water storage tank or water 
heater. The valve shall not interfere or cause a disruption of the 
cold water supply to the remainder of the cold water system. 
The valve shall be provided with access on the same floor level 
as the water heater served. 

503.2 Water circulation. The method of connecting a circulat- 
ing water heater to the tank shall provide proper circulation of 
water through the water heater. The pipe or tubes required for 
the installation of appliances that will draw from the water 
heater or storage tank shall comply with the provisions of this 
code for material and installation. 



SECTION PC 504 
SAFETY DEVICES 

504.1 Antisiphon devices. An approved means, such as a cold 
water "dip" tube with a hole at the top or a vacuum relief valve 
installed in the cold water supply line above the top of the 
heater or tank, shall be provided to prevent siphoning of any 
storage water heater or tank. 

504.2 Vacuum relief valve. Bottom fed water heaters and bot- 
tom fed tanks connected to water heaters shall have a vacuum 
relief valve installed. The vacuum relief valve shall comply 
with ANSI Z2 1.22. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



31 



WATER HEATERS 



504.3 Shutdown. A means for disconnecting an electric hot 
water supply system from its energy supply shall be provided 
in accordance with the New York City Electrical Code. A sepa- 
rate valve shall be provided to shut off the energy fuel supply to 
all other types of hot water supply systems. 

504.4 Relief valve. All storage water heaters operating above 
atmospheric pressure shall be provided with an approved, 
self-closing (levered) pressure relief valve and temperature 
relief valve or combination thereof. The relief valve shall con- 
form to ANSI Z2 1 .22. The relief valve shall not be used as a 
means of controlling thermal expansion. 

504.4.1 Installation. Such valves shall be installed in the 
shell of the water heater tank. Temperature relief valves 
shall be so located in the tank as to be actuated by the water 
in the top 6 inches (152 mm) of the tank served. For installa- 
tions with separate storage tanks, the valves shall be 
installed on the tank and there shall not be any type of valve 
installed between the water heater and the storage tank. 
There shall not be a check valve or shutoff valve between a 
relief valve and the heater or tank served. 

504.5 Relief valve approval. Temperature and pressure relief 
valves, or combinations thereof, and energy cutoff devices 
shall bear the label of an approved agency and shall have a tem- 
perature setting of not more than 210°F (99°C) and a pressure 
setting not exceeding the tank or water heater manufacturer's 
rated working pressure or 150 psi (1035 kPa), whichever is 
less. The relieving capacity of each pressure relief valve and 
each temperature relief valve shall equal or exceed the heat 
input to the water heater or storage tank. 

504.6 Relief outlet waste. The outlet of a pressure, tempera- 
ture or other relief valve shall not be directly connected to the 
drainage system. 

504.6.1 Discharge. The relief valve shall discharge full size 
to a safe place of disposal such as the floor, outside the 
building, or an indirect waste receptor. The discharge pipe 
shall not have any trapped sections and shall have a visible 
air gap or air gap fitting located in the same room as the 
water heater. The outlet end of the discharge pipe shall not 
be threaded and such discharge pipe shall not have a valve or 
tee installed. Relief valve piping shall be piped independent 
of other equipment drains or relief valve discharge piping to 
the disposal point. Such pipe shall be installed in a manner 
that does not cause personal injury to occupants in the 
immediate area or structural damage to the building. 

504.6.2 Materials. Relief valve discharge piping shall be of 
those materials listed in Section 605.4 or shall be tested, 
rated and approved for such use in accordance with ASME 
A 112.4.1. Piping from safety pan drains shall be of those 
materials listed in Table 605.4. 

504.7 Required pan. Where water heaters or hot water storage 
tanks are installed in locations where leakage of the tanks or 
connections will cause damage, the tank or water heater shall 
be installed in a galvanized steel pan having a minimum thick- 
ness of 24 gage, or other pans approved for such use. 

504.7.1 Pan size and drain. The pan shall be not less than 
1.5 inches (38 mm) deep and shall be of sufficient size and 
shape to receive all dripping or condensate from the tank or 



water heater. The pan shall be drained by an indirect waste 
pipe having a minimum diameter of V 4 inch (19 mm). 

504.7.2 Pan drain termination. The pan drain shall extend 
full-size and terminate over a suitably located indirect waste 
receptor or floor drain or extend to the exterior of the build- 
ing and terminate not less than 6 inches (152 mm) and not 
more than 24 inches (610 mm) above the adjacent ground 
surface. 

504.8 Flow-sensing switch. On copper fin tube, gas-fired 
domestic hot water heaters, a flow switch shall be provided to 
interrupt the gas supply to the heater in the event water flow 
through the coil is interrupted. 



SECTION PC 505 
INSULATION 

505.1 Unfired vessel insulation. Unfired hot water storage 
tanks shall be insulated so that heat loss is limited to a maxi- 
mum of 15 British thermal units per hour (Btu/h) per square 
foot (47 W/m 2 ) of external tank surface area. For purposes of 
determining this heat loss, the design ambient temperature 
shall not be higher than 65°F (1 8°C). 



32 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



CHAPTER 6 

WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



SECTION PC 601 

GENERAL 

601.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the materials, design 
and installation of water supply systems, both hot and cold, for 
utilization in connection with human occupancy and habitation 
and shall govern the installation of individual water supply sys- 
tems. 

601.2 Solar energy utilization. Solar energy systems used for 
heating potable water or using an independent medium for 
heating potable water shall comply with the applicable require- 
ments of this code. The use of solar energy shall not compro- 
mise the requirements for cross connection or protection of the 
potable water supply system required by this code. 

601.3 Existing piping used for grounding. Existing metallic 
water service piping used for electrical grounding shall not be 
replaced with nonmetallic pipe or tubing until other approved 
means of grounding is provided. 

601.4 Tests. The potable water distribution system shall be 
tested in accordance with Section 312.5. 

601.5 Water supply. The water distribution system shall be 
connected to a public water main if available. Where a public 
water main is not available, an individual potable water supply 
shall be provided. Any such private system shall be provided 
subject to the approval of the commissioner and of any other 
agency or agencies having jurisdiction. 

601.5.1 Extensions of public water mains. Extensions of 
public water mains shall be made in accordance with the 
regulations of the Department of Environmental Protection. 

601.5.2 Availability of public water main to other than 
one- or two-family dwellings. A public water main shall be 
deemed available to a building, other than a one- or 
two-family dwelling, if a property line of such building is 
within 500 feet (152 m), measured along a street, alley, or 
right-of-way, of the public water supply system. The exten- 
sion and connection shall be made in accordance with the 
applicable standards of the Department of Environmental 
Protection. 

Exception: Where a substantial improvement of a build- 
ing is contemplated on a tract of land, the public water 
supply system may be declared available thereto by the 
agencies having jurisdiction thereon even though the 
specified distance is exceeded. 

601.5.3 Availability of public water main to one- or 
two-family dwellings. A public water main shall be 
deemed available to a one- and two-family dwelling if a 
property line of such dwelling is within 100 feet (30 480 
mm), measured along a street, alley, or right-of-way, of the 
public water supply system. The extension and connection 



shall be made in accordance with the applicable standards of 
the Department of Environmental Protection. 

Exception: Where two or more one- or two-family 
dwellings are to be constructed on a tract of land, the 
public water supply system may be declared available 
thereto by the agencies having jurisdiction thereon even 
though the specified distance is exceeded. 

601.6 Destruction of abandoned corporation stops and wet 
connections. All driven corporation stops, when abandoned, 
shall be removed and replaced by plugs. AH wet connections or 
screw corporation stops, when abandoned, shall be destroyed 
in place, and all exposed portions of the service pipe shall be 
cut and removed. Where a corporation stop or wet connection 
is destroyed and the connecting service pipe is one that is 
equipped with a curb valve and box, the curb box shall be 
removed. The expense in connection with the abandonment or 
destruction of a corporation stop or wet connection shall be 
chargeable to the owner of the property into which the service 
pipe entered. 



SECTION PC 602 
WATER REQUIRED 

602.1 General. Every structure equipped with plumbing fix- 
tures and utilized for human occupancy or habitation shall be 
provided with a potable supply of water in the amounts and at 
the pressures specified in this chapter. 

602.2 Potable water required. Only potable water shall be 
supplied to plumbing fixtures that provide water for drinking, 
bathing or culinary purposes, or for the processing of food, 
medical or pharmaceutical products. Unless otherwise pro- 
vided in this code, potable water shall be supplied to all plumb- 
ing fixtures. 

602.3 Individual water supply. Where a potable public water 
supply is not available, individual sources of potable water sup- 
ply shall be utilized. No well or individual water supply shall be 
installed for any purpose without approval of the commis- 
sioner, the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and the 
Department of Environmental Protection. 

602.3.1 Sources. Dependent on geological and soil condi- 
tions and the amount of rainfall, individual water supplies 
are of the following types: drilled well, driven well, dug 
well, bored well, or cistern. Surface bodies of water and land - 
cisterns shall not be sources of individual water supply 
unless properly treated by approved means to prevent con- 
tamination. 

602.3.2 Minimum quantity. The combined capacity of the 
source and storage in an individual water supply system 
shall supply the fixtures with water at rates and pressures as 
required by this chapter. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



33 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



602.33 Water quality. Water from an individual water sup- 
ply shall be approved as potable by the authority having 
jurisdiction prior to connection to the plumbing system. 

602.3.4 Disinfection of system. After construction or 
major repair, the individual water supply system shall be 
purged of deleterious matter and disinfected in accordance 
with Section PC 610. 

602.3.5 Pumps. Pumps shall be rated for the transport of 
potable water. Pumps in an individual water supply system 
shall be constructed and installed so as to prevent contami- 
nation from entering a potable water supply through the 
pump units. Pumps shall be sealed to the well casing or cov- 
ered with a water-tight seal. Pumps shall be designed to 
maintain a prime and installed such that ready access is pro- 
vided to the pump parts of the entire assembly for repairs. 

602.3.5.1 Pump enclosure. The pump room or enclo- 
sure around a well pump shall be drained and protected 
from freezing by heating or other approved means. 
Where pumps are installed in basements, such pumps 
shall be mounted on a block or shelf not less than 18 
inches (457 mm) above the basement floor. Well pits 
shall be prohibited. 



SECTION PC 603 

WATER SERVICE 

603.1 Size of water service pipe. The water service pipe shall 
be sized to supply water to the structure in the quantities and at 
the pressures required in this code. The minimum diameter of 
water service pipe shall be 1 inch (25 mm). 

603.2 Separation of water service and building sewer. Water 
service pipe and the building sewer shall be separated by 5 feet 
(1524 mm) of undisturbed or compacted earth. 

Exceptions: 

1. The required separation distance shall not apply 
where the bottom of the water service pipe within 5 
feet (1524 mm) of the sewer is a minimum of 12 
inches (305 mm) above the top of the highest point of 
the sewer and the pipe materials conform to Section 
703.1. 

2. Water service pipe is permitted to be located in the 
same trench with a building sewer, provided such 
sewer is constructed of materials listed in Table 
702.2. 

3. The required separation distance shall not apply 
where a water service pipe crosses a sewer pipe pro- 
vided the water service pipe is sleeved to at least 5 feet 
(1524 mm) horizontally from the sewer pipe center- 
line, on both sides of such crossing with pipe materi- 
als listed in Table 605.3, Table 702.2 or Table 702.3. 

603.2.1 Water service near sources of pollution. Potable 
water service pipes shall not be located in, under or above 
cesspools, septic tanks, septic tank drainage fields or seep- 
age pits (see Section 605.1 for soil and groundwater condi- 
tions) and shall be separated by a minimum of 10 feet (3048 



mm) and shall meet all Department of Environmental Pro- 
tection requirements $. 

603.3 Installation of service pipe. Each new service pipe shall 
be installed in accordance with the rules of the Department of 
Environmental Protection. 

603.4 Location of meters. The service pipe between the house 
control valve and the meter shall be kept exposed. All meter 
locations shall be subject to approval by the Department of 
Environmental Protection. 

603.5 Connections to city water mains. Connections to city 
water mains shall comply with the rules of the Department of 
Environmental Protection. 

603.5.1 Separate supply. A separate tap and service shall 
be installed for each building fronting on a street in which 
there is a city (street) water main, and no consumer will be 
allowed to supply water to other persons or premises, except 
in a project where more than one building under a single 
ownership is supplied from a common house tank or booster 
system located in or on one of the buildings. 

603.5.2 Connections. Corporation stops, wet connections, 
or other connections to a street main shall be made only by 
employees of the Department of Environmental Protection. 
The cost of the installation shall be borne by the owner of the 
property for which the connection is made. 



SECTION PC 604 
DESIGN OF BUILDING WATER DISTRIBUTION 

SYSTEM 

604.1 General. The design of the water distribution system 
shall conform to accepted engineering practice. Methods uti- 
lized to determine pipe sizes shall be approved. 

604.2 System interconnection. At the points of interconnec- 
tion between the hot and cold water supply piping systems and 
the individual fixtures, appliances or devices, provisions shall 
be made to prevent flow between such piping systems. 

604.3 Water distribution system design criteria. The water 
distribution system shall be designed, and pipe sizes shall be 
selected such that under conditions of peak demand, the capac- 
ities at the fixture supply pipe outlets shall not be less than 
shown in Table 604.3. The minimum flow rate and flow pres- 
sure provided to fixtures and appliances not listed in Table 

604.3 shall be in accordance with the manufacturer's installa- 
tion instructions. 

604.4 Maximum flow and water consumption. The maxi- 
mum water consumption flow rates and quantities for all 
plumbing fixtures and fixture fittings shall be in accordance 
with Table 604.4. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Blowout design water closets [3.5 gallons (13 L) per 
Hushing cycle] 4 

2. Vegetable sprays. 

3. Clinical sinks [4.5 gallons (17 L) per flushing 
cycle] 4 



34 



2008 NEW YORK CSTY PLUMBING CODE 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



4. Service sinks. 

5. Emergency showers. 

604.5 Size of fixture supply. The minimum size of a fixture 
supply pipe shall be as shown in Table 604.5. The fixture sup- 
ply pipe shall not terminate more than 24 inches (610 mm) 
from the point of connection to the fixture. Each fixture supply 
shall have a stop valve. A reduced-size flexible water connector 
installed between the supply pipe and the fixture shall be of an 
approved type. The connector shall be used singularly. Cou- 
pling of two or more connectors shall not be allowed. The sup- 
ply pipe shall extend to the floor or wall adjacent to the fixture. 
The minimum size of individual distribution lines utilized in 
parallel water distribution systems shall be as shown in Table 
604.5. 

604.6 Variable street pressures. Where street water main 
pressures fluctuate, the building water distribution system shall 
be designed for the minimum pressure available. 



TABLE 604.3 

WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM DESIGN CRITERIA 

REQUIRED CAPACITY AT FIXTURE SUPPLY PIPE OUTLETS 



TABLE 604.4 

MAXIMUM FLOW RATES AND CONSUMPTION FOR 

PLUMBING FIXTURES AND FIXTURE FITTINGS 



FIXTURE SUPPLY 
OUTLET SERVING 


FLOW RATE 3 

(gpm) 


FLOW 
PRESSURE 15 

(psi) 


Bathtub 


4 


8 


Bidet 


2 


4 


Combination fixture 


4 


8 


Dishwasher, residential 


2.75 


8 


Drinking fountain 


0.75 


8 


Laundry tray 


4 


8 


Lavatory 


2 


8 


Shower 


3 


8 


Shower, temperature controlled 


3 


20 


Sillcock, hose bibb 


5 


8 


Sink, residential 


2.5 


8 


Sink, service 


3 


8 


Urinal, valve 


15 


15 


Water closet, blow out, 
flushometer valve 


35 


25 


Water closet, flushometer tank 


1.6 


15 


Water closet, siphonic, 
flushometer valve 


25 


15 


Water closet, tank, close 
coupled 


3 


8 


Water closet, tank, one piece 


6 


20 



PLUMBING FIXTURE 
OR FIXTURE FITTING 


MAXIMUM FLOW RATE 
OR QUANTITY 6 


Lavatory, private 


2.2 gpm at 60 psi 


Lavatory, public, (metering) 


0.25 gallon per metering cycle 


Lavatory, public 

(other than metering) 


0.5 gpm at 60 psi 


Shower head a 


2.5 gpm at 80 psi 


Sink faucet 


2.2 gpm at 60 psi 


Urinal 


1.0 gallon per flushing cycle 


Water closet 


1.6 gallons per flushing cycle 



For SI: 1 gallon = 3.785 L, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 
1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa. 

a. A hand-held shower spray is a shower head. 

b. Consumption tolerances shall be determined from referenced standards. 

TABLE 604.5 
MINIMUM SIZES OF FIXTURE WATER SUPPLY PIPES 



For SI: 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa, 
1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m. 

a. For additional requirements for flow rates and quantities, see Section 604.4. 

b. Minimum pressures as per manufacturer's recommendations. 



FIXTURE 


MINIMUM PIPE SIZE 
(inch) 


Bathtubs^ (60 "x 32" and smaller 


'A 


Bathtubs^ (larger than 60" x 32") 


'A 


Bidet 


% 


Combination sink and tray 


'A 


Dishwasher, domestic:): 


'A 


Drinking fountain 


% 


Hose bibbs 


'A 


Kitchen sinkt 


'A 


Laundry, 1, 2 or 3 compartments^ 


'A 


Lavatory 


% 


Shower, single headt 


'A 


Sinks, flushing rim 


3 U 


Sinks, service 


'A 


Urinal, flush tank 


'A 


Urinal, flush valve 


% 


Wall hydrant 


'A 


Water closet, flush tank 


% 


Water closet, flush valve 


1 


Water closet, flushometer tank 


% 


Water closet, one pieced 


'A 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 
1 pound per square inch - 6.895 kPa. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



35 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



604.7 Inadequate water pressure. Wherever water pressure 
from the street main or other source of supply is insufficient to 
provide flow pressures at fixture outlets as required under 
Table 604.3, a water pressure booster system conforming to 
Section 606.5 shall be installed on the building water supply 
system. 

604.8 Water- pressure reducing valve or regulator. Where 
water pressure within a building exceeds 85 psi (586 kPa) 
static, an approved water-pressure reducing valve conforming 
to ASSE 1003 with strainer shall be installed to reduce the pres- 
sure in the building water distribution piping to 85 psi (586 
kPa) static or less. 

Exception: Service lines to sill cocks and outside hydrants, 
and main supply risers where pressure from the mains is 
reduced to 85 psi (586 kPa) or less at individual fixtures. 

604.8.1 Valve design. The pressure-reducing valve shall be 
designed to remain open to permit uninterrupted water flow 
in case of valve failure. 

604.8.2 Repair and removal. All water-pressure reducing 
valves, regulators and strainers shall be so constructed and 
installed as to permit repair or removal of parts without 
breaking a pipeline or removing the valve and strainer from 
the pipeline. 

604.9 Water hammer. The flow velocity of the water distribu- 
tion system shall be controlled to reduce the possibility of 
water hammer. A water-hammer arrestor shall be installed 
where quick-closing valves are utilized. Water-hammer 
arrestors shall be installed in accordance with the manufac- 
turer's specifications. Water-hammer arrestors shall conform to 
ASSE 1010 and PDIWH 201. 

604.10 Parallel water distribution system manifolds. Hot 
water and cold water manifolds installed with parallel con- 
nected individual distribution lines to each fixture or fixture fit- 
ting shall be designed in accordance with Sections 604.10.1 
through 604.10.3. 

604.10.1 Manifold sizing. Hot water and cold water mani- 
folds shall be sized in accordance with Table 604.10.1. The 
total gallons per minute is the demand of all outlets sup- 
plied. 

TABLE 604.10.1 
MANIFOLD SIZING 



NOMINAL SIZE 

INTERNAL DIAMETER 

(inches) 


MAXIMUM DEMAND (gpm) 


Velocity at 4 feet 
per second 


Velocity at 8 feet 
per second 


'/ 2 


2 


5 


% 


6 


11 


l 


10 


20 


l'/ 4 


15 


31 


l'/ 2 


22 


44 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 
1 foot per second = 0.305 m/s. 

604.10.2 Valves. Individual fixture shutoff valves installed 
at the manifold shall be identified as to the fixture being sup- 
plied. 



604.10.3 Access. Access shall be provided to manifolds. 

604.11 Individual pressure balancing in-line valves for 
individual fixture fittings. Where individual pressure balanc- 
ing in-line valves for individual fixture fittings are installed, 
such valves shall comply with ASSE 1066. Such valves shall be 
installed in an accessible location and shall not be utilized 
alone as a substitute for the balanced pressure, thermostatic or 
combination shower valves required in Section 424.3. 



SECTION PC 605 1 

MATERIALS, JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 

605.1 Soil and ground water. The installation of a water ser- 
vice or water distribution pipe shall be prohibited in soil and 
groundwater contaminated with solvents, fuels, organic com- 
pounds or other detrimental materials causing permeation, cor- 
rosion, degradation or structural failure of the piping material. 
Where detrimental conditions are suspected, a chemical analy- 
sis of the soil and ground water conditions shall be required to 
ascertain the acceptability of the water service or water distri- 
bution piping material for the specific installation. Where detri- 
mental conditions exist, approved alternative materials or 
routing shall be required. 

605.2 Reserved. | 

605.3 Water service pipe. Water service pipe shall conform to 
NSF 6.1 and shall conform to one of the standards listed in 
Table 6053. All ductile iron water pipe shall be cement mortar 1 
lined in accordance with AWWA CI 04. 1 

6053.1 Dual check-valve-type backflow preventer. 
Where a dual check- valve backflow preventer is installed on 
the water supply system, it shall comply with ASSE 1024. 

605.4 Water distribution pipe. Water distribution pipe shall 
conform to NSF 61 and shall conform to one of the standards 
listed in Table 605.4. «■ 

605.5 Fittings. Pipe fittings shall be approved for installation 
with the piping material installed and shall conform to the 
respective pipe standards or one of the standards listed in Table 
605.5. All pipe fittings utilized in water supply systems shall 
also conform to NSF 61. The fittings shall not have ledges, 
shoulders or reductions capable of retarding or obstructing 
flow in the piping. Ductile and gray iron pipe fittings shall be 
cement mortar lined in accordance with AWWA CI 04. 

605.5.1 Mechanically formed tee fittings. Mechanically 
extracted outlets shall have a height not less than three times 
the thickness of the branch tube wall. 

605.5.1.1 Full flow assurance. Branch tubes shall not 
restrict the flow in the run tube. A dimple/depth stop shall 
be formed in the branch tube to ensure that penetration 
into the collar is of the correct depth. For inspection pur- 
poses, a second dimple shall be placed 0.25 inch (6.4 
mm) above the first dimple. Dimples shall be aligned 
with the tube run. 

605.5.1.2 Brazed joints. Mechanically formed tee fit- 
tings shall be brazed in accordance with Section 
605.14.1. 



36 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



605.6 Flexible water connectors. Flexible water connectors 
exposed to continuous pressure shall conform to IAPMO PS 74 
95 and PS 48 92, shall not exceed 24 inches (6 10 mm), shall be 
used in exposed locations only and shall be used singularly; 
that is, two connectors cannot be joined. 

605.7 Valves. All valves shall be of the approved type and com- 
patible with the type of piping material installed in the system. 

605.8 Manufactured pipe nipples. Manufactured pipe nip- 
ples shall conform to the standard listed in Table 605.8. 

TABLE 605.8 
MANUFACTURED PSPE NIPPLES 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Brass-, copper-, chromium-plated 


ASTM B 687 



605.9 Prohibited joints and connections. The following 
types of joints and connections shall be prohibited: 

1 . Cement or concrete joints. 



2. Joints made with fittings not approved for the specific 
installation. 

3. Solvent-cement joints between different types of plastic 
pipe. 

4. Saddle-type fittings. 

605.10 Reserved. ■ 

605.11 Reserved. i 

605.12 Brass. Joints between brass pipe or fittings shall com- 
ply with Sections 605.12.1 through 605.12.3. 1 

605.12.1 Brazed joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint 
shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWSA5.8. 

605.12.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 



TABLE 605.3 
WATER SERVICE PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Brass pipe 


ASTM B 43 


Copper or copper-alloy pipe 


ASTM B 42; ASTM B 302 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K) 


ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 25 1 ; ASTM B 447 


Ductile iron water pipe 


AWW A C 151; A WW A C 1 1 5 


Stainless steel pipe (Type 304/304L) 


ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778 


Stainless steel pipe (Type 316/316L) 


ASTM: A 312; ASTM A 778 



TABLE 605.4 
WATER DISTRIBUTION PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Brass pipe 


ASTM B 43 


Copper or copper-alloy pipe 


ASTM B 42; ASTM B 302 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing (Type K, L) 


ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; ASTM B 251; ASTM B 447 


Stainless steel pipe (Type 304/304L) 


ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778 


Stainless steel pipe (Type 316/316L) 


ASTM A 312; ASTM A 778 



TABLE 605.5 
PSPE FITTINGS 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Cast-iron 


ASME B 1 6.4; ASME B 16. 12 


Copper or copper alloy 


ASMEB16.15; ASMEB16.18; ASMEB 16.22; ASME B 16.23; | 
ASME B 16.26; ASME B 16.29 


Gray iron and ductile iron 


AWWA CI 10; AWWA CI 53 


Stainless steel (Type 304/304L) 


ASTM A 3 12; ASTM A 778 ■ 


Stainless steel (Type 316/316L) 


ASTM A 312; ASTM. A 778 


Steel 


ASME Bl 6.9; ASME B 16. 1 1 ; ASME B 1 6.28 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



37 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



605.12.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be 
applied on the male threads only. 

605.13 Gray iron and ductile iron joints. Joints for gray and 
ductile iron pipe and fittings shall comply with AWWA CI 11 
and shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's 
installation instructions. 

605.14 Copper pipe. Joints between copper or copper-alloy 
pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections 605.14.1 through 

i 605.14.4. 

605.14.1 Brazed joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint 
shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5.8. 

605.14.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

605.14.3 Soldered joints. Solder joints shall be made in 
accordance with the methods of ASTM B 828. All cut tube 
ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube 
end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming 
to ASTM B 8.1.3 shall be applied. The joint shall be soldered 
with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32. The joining of 
water supply piping shall be made with lead-free solder and 
fluxes. "Lead free" shall mean a chemical composition 
equal to or less than 0.2-percent lead. 

605.14.4 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be 
applied on the male threads only. 

605.15 Copper tubing. Joints between copper or copper-alloy 
tubing or fittings shall comply with Sections 605.15.1 through 
605.15.4. 

605.15.1 Brazed joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint 
shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5.8. 

605.15.2 Flared joints. Flared joints for water pipe shall be 
made by a tool designed for that operation. 

605.15.3 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

605.15.4 Soldered joints. Solder joints shall be made in 
accordance with the methods of ASTM B 828. All cut tube 
ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube 
end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming 
to ASTM B 8 1 3 shall be applied. The joint shall be soldered 
with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32. The joining of 
water supply piping shall be made with lead-free solders 
and fluxes. "Lead free" shall mean a chemical composition 
equal to or less than 0.2-percent lead. 

1 605.16 Reserved. 

I 605.17 Reserved. 

§ 605.18 Reserved. 

1 605.19 Reserved. 

1 605.20 Reserved. 

I 605.21 Reserved. 



605.22 Stainless steel. Joints between stainless steel pipe and 
fittings shall comply with Sections 605.22.1 and 605.22,2. 

605.22.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

605.22.2 Welded joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
The joint shall be welded autogenously or with an approved 
filler metal as referenced in ASTM A 3 12. 

605.23 Joints between different materials. Joints between 
different piping materials shall be made with a mechanical 
joint of the compression or mechanical-sealing type, or as per- 
mitted in Sections 605.23.1 and 605.23.3. Connectors or adapt- ^- 
ers shall have an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM D 1 869 

or ASTM F 477. Joints shall be installed in accordance with the 
manufacturer's instructions. 

605.23.1 Copper or copper-alloy tubing to galvanized 
steel pipe. Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing 
and galvanized steel pipe shall be made with a brass fitting 
or dielectric fitting. The copper tubing shall be soldered to 
the fitting in an approved manner, and the fitting shall be 
screwed to the threaded pipe. 

605.23.2 Reserved. 1 

605.23.3 Stainless steel. Joints between stainless steel and 
different piping materials shall be made with a mechanical 
joint of the compression or mechanical sealing type or a 
dielectric fitting. 



SECTION PC 606 | 

INSTALLATION OF THE BUILDING WATER 
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 

606.1 Location of full-open valves. Full-open valves shall be 
installed in the following locations: 

1 . On the building water service pipe from the public water 
supply near the curb. 

2. On the water distribution supply pipe at the entrance into 
the structure. 

3. On the discharge side of every water meter. 

4. On the base of every water riser pipe in occupancies 
other than multiple-family residential occupancies that 
are two stories or less in height and in one- and two-fam- 
ily residential occupancies. 

5. On the top of every water down -feed pipe in occupancies 
other than one- and two-family residential occupancies. 

6. On the entrance to every water supply pipe to a dwelling 
unit, except where supplying a single fixture equipped 
with individual stops. 

7. On the water supply pipe to and from a gravity or pres- 1 
surized water tank. 

8. On the water supply pipe to every water heater. 

606.2 Location of shutoff valves. Shutoff valves shall be 
installed in the following locations: 

1 . On the fixture supply to each plumbing fixture other than 
bathtubs and showers in one- and two-family residential 
occupancies, and other than in individual guestrooms 



38 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



that are provided with unit shutoff valves in hotels, 
motels, boarding houses and similar occupancies. 

2. On the water supply pipe to each sillcock. 

3. On the water supply pipe to each appliance or mechani- 
cal equipment. 

606.3 Access to valves. Access shall be provided to all 
required full-open valves and shutoff valves. 

606.4 Valve identification. Service and hose bibb valves shall 
be identified. All other valves installed in locations that are not 
adjacent to the fixture or appliance shall be identified, indicat- 
ing the fixture or appliance served. 

606.5 Water pressure booster systems. Water pressure 
booster systems shall be provided as required by Sections 
606.5.1 through 606.5.10. 

606.5.1 Water pressure booster systems required. Where 
the water pressure in the public water main or individual 
water supply system is insufficient to supply the minimum 
pressures and quantities specified in this code, the supply 
shall be supplemented by an elevated water tank, a 
hydropneumatic pressure booster system or a water pres- 
sure booster pump installed in accordance with 606.5.5. 

606.5.2 Support. All water supply tanks shall be supported 
in accordance with the New York City Building Code. 

606.5.3 Covers. All water supply tanks shall be covered to 
keep out unauthorized persons, dirt and vermin. The covers 
of gravity tanks shall be vented with a return bend vent pipe 
with an area not less than the area of the down-feed riser 
pipe, and the vent shall be screened with a corrosion-resis- 
tant screen of not less than 16 by 20 mesh per inch (6 by 8 
mesh per cm). 

606.5.4 Overflows. Each gravity or suction water supply 
tank shall be provided with an overflow not smaller than 
shown in Table 606.5.4(1) and/or Table 606.5.4(2). The gal- 
lons per minute listed in the tables shall be the total auto- 
matic pump capacity connected to the tank. The overflow 
outlet shall discharge within 6 inches (152 mm) of a roof or 
roof drain, or over an open water supplied fixture. The over- 
flow discharge shall be provided with durable screening 
with openings of not more than 7 8 inch (3.18 mm). 

606.5.4.1 Water piping control and location. Water 
inlets to gravity house tanks shall be controlled by a ball 
cock or other automatic supply valve or emergency elec- 
trical cut-off so installed as to prevent the overflow of the 
tank in the event that the pumps filling the tanks do not 
shut off at the predetermined level or the street pressure 
rises to a point where it can fill the tank. The water inlet to 
a suction tank shall be controlled by a ball cock or other 
automatic supply valve. The inlet shall be terminated so 
as to provide an accepted air gap but in no case shall it be 
less than 4 inches (102 mm) above the top of the over- 
flow. The outlet from a gravity tank to the distribution 
system shall be equipped with a strainer located at least 2 
inches (5 1 mm) above the tank bottom to prevent solids 
from entering the piping system. All down-feed supplies 
from a tank cross connected in any manner with distribu- 
tion supply piping in a building supplied by direct street 



or pump pressure shall be equipped with a check valve on 
the main cold water down supply to prevent backflow of 
water into the roof tank. 

TABLE 606.5.4(1) 

SIZE OF OVERFLOWS FOR GRAVITY AND SUCTION TANKS 

[See Figure 606.5.4 (Single Orifice/Multiple Orifice)] 



OVERFLOW 
PIPE SIZE 
(Inches) 


MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE 

GPM FOR EACH ORIFICE 

OPENING INTO TANK 


MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE 
GPM FOR VERTICAL 
OVERFLOW (PIPING 

CONNECTING ORIFICES) 


2 


19 


25 


3 


43 


75 


4 


90 


163 


5 


159 


296 


6 


257 


472 


8 


505 


1,020 


10 


890 


1 ,870 


12 


1,400 


2,967 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

TABLE 606.5.4(2) 

SIZE OF WESRS FOR GRAVITY AND SUCTION TANKS 

[See Figure 606.5.4 (Overflow Weir)] 



SLOTTED WEIR OPENING INTO TANK 

BETWEEN OVERFLOW CHAMBER AND 

WATER COMPARTMENT 3 


MAXIMUM GPM 
ALLOWABLE FOR WEIR 


3 inches x 24 inches 


381 


3'/ 2 inches x 24 inches 


475 


4'/ 2 inches x 24 inches 


685 


4 'A, inches x 36 inches 


1 ,037 


6 inches x 36 inches 


1 ,569 


6 inches x 48 inches 


2,100 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Bottom of the overflow chamber must be at least 6 inches below weir. 

4 

606.5.4.2 Drain pipes for emptying tanks. Each tank or 
tank compartment shall be provided, at its lowest point, 
with a valved pipe to permit emptying the tank. The drain 
pipe shall discharge as required for the overflow pipe, 
and shall be at least 4 inches (102 mm) in diameter. 

606.5.43 Prohibited location. Potable water gravity 
tanks or manholes of potable water pressure tanks shall 
not be located directly under any soil or waste piping. 

606.5.4.4 Design. The gravity house supply tank shall be 
built of wood, steel, or equivalent materials. Subject to 
the approval of the commissioner, additional linings may 
be installed in the tank, provided the lining material does 
not have a toxic or otherwise objectionable effect on the 
potable water. Steel tanks shall be painted both inside 
and outside. If a tank with a dividing partition is installed, 
the total capacity of the combined compartments shall be 
considered as the capacity of a single tank for the pur- 
pose of determining storage capacities of the tank. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



39 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



LONG TURN FITTING 



INVERT OF ORIFICEx 



-L 



i 1 



1 ,D3r- 



FILL PIPE 
4" MIN. 
ORIFICE 



- TANK OR COMRARTMENT OF TANK 



VERTICAL L 
OVERFLOW I 
SIZES OF ORIFICE IN 
ACCORDANCE WITH 
TABLE RS 16-8 



SIZES OF ORIFICE IN 
] ACCORDANCE WITH 

TABLE 606.5.4(1)3: 



A. SINGLE ORIFICE 



FLOOD LEVEL RIM 




SIZES OF ORIFICE 
ORIFICE IN ACCORDANCE 

| WITH TABLE 606.5.4(1)$ 



VERTICAL OVERFLOW 
SIZE IN ACCORDANCE 
WITH TABLE 606.5.4(1)* 



B. MULTIPLE ORIFICE 



METHOD OF CONNECTING OVERALL 
OVERFLOW FROM GRAVITY HOUSE AND SUCTION 
WATER SUPPLY TANKS 



FLOOD LEVEL, 
RIM 



EL/I I 



• REMOVABLE COVER 



■i 




.-OVERFLOW CHAMBER 

SLOT AS PER TABLE 606.5.4(2)* 
OVERFLOW WEIR 



VERTICAL OVERFLOW 

SIZED IN ACCORDANCE 
WITH TABLE 606.5.4(2)* 



C. OVERFLOW WEIR 



2. After the tank has been cleaned or painted, it shall 
be disinfected according to the following proce- 
dure before it is put back in service: 

2.1. The underside of the top, the bottom, and 
the walls shall be washed with a 
hypochlorite solution containing 100 or 
more parts per million of available chlo- 
rine. 

2.2. The tank shall be filled with water to which 
hypochlorite solution is added during the 
filling in sufficient quantity so that the 
treated water in the tank will contain at 
least 1 parts per million of available chlo- 
rine. 

2.3. The chlorinated water shall be allowed to 
remain in the tank for two hours. 

2.4. Finally, the tank shall be drained com- 
pletely before refilling. 

3. House and suction tanks shall be drained and 
cleaned at least once a year. 

606.5.5 Low-pressure cutoff required on booster pumps. 
A low-pressure cutoff shall be installed on all booster 
pumps in a water pressure booster system to prevent cre- 
ation of a vacuum or negative pressure on the suction side of 
the pump when a positive pressure of 10 psi (68.94 kPa) or 
less occurs on the suction side of the pump. 

606.5.6 Reserved. 

606.5.7 Reserved. 

606.5.8 Prohibited location of potable supply tanks. 
Potable water gravity tanks or manholes of potable water 
pressure tanks shall not be located directly under any soil or 
waste piping or any source of contamination. 



FIGURE 606.5.4 

METHODS OF CONNECTING OVERFLOW FROM GRAVITY 

HOUSE AND SUCTION WATER SUPPLY TANKS* 

606.5.4.5 Cleaning or painting. Water tanks shall be 
cleaned and painted in accordance with the following: 

1 . No water tank of any kind that is part of a building 
water supply system used for potable purposes 
shall be cleaned with any material or painted on the 
inside with any material that will have a toxic or 
otherwise objectionable effect on the potability of 
the water supply when the tank is put into service. 
No lead paint shall be used. The water supply con- 
nections to and from a tank shall be disconnected 
or plugged while the tank is being cleaned or 
painted to prevent any foreign fluid or substance 
from entering the distribution piping. Where the 
air in a tank may be insufficient to sustain human 
life, or may contain an injurious gas, adequate 
measures shall be taken for the protection of the 
workers. 



606.5.9 Pressure tanks, vacuum relief. All water pressure 
tanks shall be provided with a vacuum relief valve at the top 
of the tank that will operate up to a maximum water pressure 
of 200 psi (1380 kPa) and up to a maximum temperature of 
200°F (93 °C). The minimum size of such vacuum relief 
valve shall be 0.50 inch (12.7 mm). 

Exception: This section shall not apply to pressurized 
captive air diaphragm/bladder tanks. 

606.5.10 Pressure relief for tanks. Every pressure tank in a 
hydropneumatic pressure booster system shall be protected 
with a pressure relief valve. The pressure relief valve shall 
be set at a maximum pressure equal to the rating of the tank. 
The relief valve shall be installed on the supply pipe to the 
tank or on the tank. The relief valve shall discharge by grav- 
ity to a safe place of disposal. 

606.6 Water supply system test. Upon completion of a sec- 
tion of or the entire water supply system, the system, or portion 
completed, shall be tested in accordance with Section PC 3 1 2. 



40 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



1 



1 SECTION PC 607 

HOT WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM 

607.1 Where required. In residential occupancies, hot water 
shall be supplied to all plumbing fixtures and equipment uti- 
lized for bathing, washing, culinary purposes, cleansing, laun- 
dry or building maintenance. In nonresidential occupancies, 
hot water shall be supplied to all plumbing fixtures and equip- 
ment utilized for culinary purposes, cleansing, laundry or 
building maintenance. In nonresidential occupancies, hot 
water or tempered water shall be supplied for bathing and 
washing purposes. Tempered water shall be delivered for 
accessible hand-washing facilities. 

607.2 Hot water supply temperature maintenance. Where 
the developed length of hot water piping from the source of hot 

I water supply to the farthest fixture exceeds 20 feet (6096 mm), 
the hot water supply system shall be provided with a method of 

I maintaining the temperature in accordance with the New York 
State Energy Conservation Construction Code. 

607.2.1 Piping insulation. Circulating hot water system 
piping shall be insulated in accordance with the New York 
State Energy Conservation Construction Code. 

607.2.2 Hot water system controls. Automatic circulating 
hot water system pumps or heat trace shall be arranged to be 
conveniently turned off, automatically or manually, when 
the hot water system is not in operation, 

607.2.3 Recirculating pump. Where a thermostatic mixing 
valve is used in a system with a hot water recirculating 
pump, the hot water or tempered water return line shall be 
routed to the cold water inlet pipe of the water heater and the 
cold water inlet pipe or the hot water return connection of 
the thermostatic mixing valve. 

607.3 Thermal expansion control. A means of controlling 
increased pressure caused by thermal expansion shall be pro- 
vided where required in accordance with Sections 607.3.1 and 
607.3.2. 

607.3.1 Pressure-reducing valve. For water service system 
sizes up to and including 2 inches (5 1 mm), a device for con- 
trolling pressure shall be installed where, because of ther- 
mal expansion, the pressure on the downstream side of a 
pressure-reducing valve exceeds the pressure-reducing 
valve setting. 

607.3.2 Backflow prevention device or check valve. 
Where a backflow prevention device, check valve or other 
device is installed on a water supply system utilizing storage 
water heating equipment such that thermal expansion 
causes an increase in pressure, a device for controlling pres- 
sure shall be installed. 

607.4 Flow of hot water to fixtures. Fixture fittings, faucets 
and diverters shall be installed and adjusted so that the flow of 
hot water from the fittings corresponds to the left-hand side of 
the fixture fitting. 

Exception: Shower and tub/shower mixing valves con- 
forming to ASSE 1016, where the flow of hot water corre- 
sponds to the markings on the device. 



SECTION PC 608 
PROTECTION OF POTABLE WATER SUPPLY 

608.1 General. A potable water supply system shall be 
designed, installed and maintained in such a manner so as to 
prevent contamination from nonpotable liquids, solids or gases 
being introduced into the potable water supply through 
cross-connections or any other piping connections to the sys- 
tem. Backflow preventer applications shall conform to Table 
608.1, except as specifically stated in Sections 608.2 through 
608.16.9. 

608.2 Plumbing fixtures. The supply I ines or fittings for every 
plumbing fixture shall be installed so as to prevent backflow. 

608.3 Devices, appurtenances, appliances and apparatus. 
All devices, appurtenances, appliances and apparatus intended 
to serve some special function, such as sterilization, distilla- 
tion, processing, cooling, or storage of ice or foods, and that 
connect to the water supply system, shall be provided with pro- 
tection against backflow and contamination of the water supply 
system. Water pumps, filters, softeners, tanks and all other 
appliances and devices that handle or treat potable water shall 
be protected against contamination. 

608.3.1 Special equipment, water supply protection. The 
water supply for hospital fixtures shall be protected against 
backflow with a reduced pressure principle backflow 
preventer, an atmospheric or spill-proof vacuum breaker, or 
an air gap. Vacuum breakers for bedpan washer hoses shall 
not be located less than 5 feet (1524 mm) above the floor. 
Vacuum breakers for hose connections in health care or lab- 
oratory areas shall not be less than 6 feet (1 829 mm) above 
the floor. 

608.4 Water service piping. Water service piping shall be pro- 
tected in accordance with Sections 603.2 and 603.2. 1 . 

608.5 Chemicals and other substances. Chemicals and other 
substances that produce either toxic conditions, taste, odor or 
discoloration in a potable water system shall not be introduced 
into, or utilized in, such systems. 

608.6 Cross-connection control. Cross connections shall be 
prohibited, except where approved protective devices are 
installed. 

608.6.1 Private water supplies. Cross connections 
between a private water supply and a potable public supply 
shall be prohibited. 

608.7 Stop-and-waste valves prohibited. Combination 
stop-and-waste valves or cocks shall not be installed under- 
ground. 

608.8 Identification of potable and nonpotable water. In all 
buildings where two or more water distribution systems, one 
potable water and the other nonpotable water, are installed, 
each system shall be identified either by color marking or metal 
tags in accordance with Sections 608.8.1 through 608.8.3. 

608.8.1 Information. Pipe identification shall include the 
contents of the piping system and an arrow indicating the 
direction of flow. Hazardous piping systems shall also con- 
tain information addressing the nature of the hazard. Pipe 
identification shall be repeated at maximum intervals of 25 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



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feet (7620 mm) and at each point where the piping passes 
through a wall, floor or roof. Lettering shall be readily 
observable within the room or space the piping is located. 

608.8.2 Color. The color of the pipe identification shall be 
discernable and consistent throughout the building. 

608.83 Size. The size of the background color field and let- 
tering shall comply with Table 608.8.3. 

TABLE 608.8.3 
SIZE OF PIPE IDENTIFICATION 



PIPE DIAMETER (inches) 


LENGTH BACKGROUND 
COLOR FIELD (inches) 


SIZE OF 
LETTERS 
(inches) 


3 / 4 to 1 l / 4 


8 


0.5 


1 7 2 to 2 


8 


0.75 


27 2 to6 


12 


1.25 


8 to 10 


24 


2.5 


over 10 


32 


3.5 



For SJ: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

608.9 Reutilization prohibited. Water utilized for the cooling 
of equipment or other processes shall not be returned to the 
potable water system. Such water shall be discharged into a 
drainage system through an air gap or shall be utilized for 
nonpotable purposes. 

608.10 Reuse of piping. Piping that has been utilized for any 
purpose other than conveying potable water shall not be uti- 
lized for conveying potable water. 

608.11 Painting of water tanks. The interior surface of a pota- 
ble water tank shall not be lined, painted or repaired with any 
material that changes the taste, odor, color or potability of the 
water supply when the tank is placed in, or returned to, service. 

608.12 Pumps and other appliances. Water pumps, filters, 
softeners, tanks and all other devices that handle or treat pota- 
ble water shall be protected against contamination. 

608.13 Backflow protection. Means of protection against 
backflow shall be provided, maintained and inspected in accor- 
dance with Sections 608.13.1 through 608.13.9. 

608.13.1 Air gap. The minimum required air gap shall be 
measured vertically from the lowest end of a potable water 
outlet to the flood level rim of the fixture or receptacle into 
which such potable water outlet discharges. Air gaps shall 
comply with ASME A 1 1 2.1.2 and air gap fittings shall com- 
ply with ASME A 112. 1.3. 

608.13.2 Reduced pressure principle backflow 
preventers. Reduced pressure principle backflow 
preventers shall conform to ASSE 1013, AWWA C511 or 
CAN/CSA B64.4. Reduced pressure detector assembly 
backflow preventers shall conform to ASSE 1047. These 
devices shall be permitted to be installed where subject to 
continuous pressure conditions. The relief opening shall 
discharge by air gap and shall be prevented from being sub- 



merged. These devices shall be tested annually by a certified I 
tester. 1 

608.13.3 Backflow preventer with intermediate atmo- 
spheric vent. Backflow preventers with intermediate atmo- 
spheric vents shall conform to ASSE 1012 or CAN/CSA 
B64.3. These devices shall be permitted to be installed 
where subject to continuous pressure conditions. The relief 
opening shall discharge by air gap and shall be prevented 
from being submerged. 

608.13.4 Barometric loop. Barometric loops shall precede 
the point of connection and shall extend vertically to a 
height of 35 feet (10 668 mm). A barometric loop shall only 
be utilized as an atmospheric-type or pressure-type vacuum 
breaker. 

608.13.5 Pressure-type vacuum breakers. Pressure-type 
vacuum breakers shall conform to ASSE 1020 and 
spillproof vacuum breakers shall comply with ASSE 1056. 
These devices are designed for installation under continu- 
ous pressure conditions when the critical level is installed at 
the required height. Pressure-type vacuum breakers shall 
not be installed in locations where spillage could cause 
damage to the structure. 

608.13.6 Atmospheric-type vacuum breakers. 
Pipe-applied atmospheric-type vacuum breakers shall con- 
form to ASSE 1001 or CAN/CSA B64.1.1. Hose-connec- 
tion vacuum breakers shall conform to ASSE 101 1, ASSE 
1019, ASSE 1035, ASSE 1052, CAN/CSA B64.2, 
CAN/CSA B64.2.2 or CSA B64.7. These devices shall 
operate under normal atmospheric pressure when the criti- 
cal level is installed at the required height. 

608.13.7 Double check-valve assemblies. Double 
check-valve assemblies shall conform to ASSE 1015 or 
AWWA C510. Double-detector check- valve assemblies 
shall conform to ASSE 1 048. These devices shall be capable 
of operating under continuous pressure conditions. These § 
devices shall be tested annually by a certified tester. 1 

608.13.8 Spillproof vacuum breakers. Spillproof vacuum 
breakers (S VB) shall conform to ASSE 1056. These devices 
are designed for installation under continuous-pressure 
conditions when the critical level is installed at the required 
height. 

608.13.9 Chemical dispenser backflow devices. 
Backflow devices for chemical dispensers shall comply 
with ASSE 1 055 or shall be equipped with an air gap fitting. 

608.14 Location of backflow preventers. Access shall be pro- 
vided to backflow preventers as specified by the installation 
instructions of the approved manufacturer. 

608.14.1 Outdoor enclosures for backflow prevention 
devices. Outdoor enclosures for backflow prevention 
devices shall comply with ASSE 1060. 

608.15 Protection of potable water outlets. All potable water 
openings and outlets shall be protected against backflow in 
accordance with Section 608.15.1, 608.15.2, 608.15.3, 
608.15.4, 608.15.4.1, or 608.15.4.2. 1 



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TABLE 608.1 
APPLICATION OF BACKFLOW PREVENTERS 



DEVICE 


DEGREE OF HAZARD 3 


APPLICATION* 3 


APPLICABLE STANDARDS 


Air gap 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage or backpressure 


ASMEA1 12.1.2 


Air gap fittings for use with plumbing 
fixtures, appliances and appurtenances 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage or backpressure 


ASMEA1 12.1.3 


Antisiphon-type fill valves for gravity 
water closet flush tanks 


High hazard 


Backsiphonage only 


ASSE 1002, CSA-B 125 


Barometric loop 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage only 


(See Section 608.13.4) 


Reduced pressure principle backflow 
preventer and reduced pressure principle 
fire protection backflow preventer 


High or low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
Sizes 3 / 8 "- 16" 


ASSE 1.013, A WW A C5 11, 

CAN/CSA B64.4 


Reduced pressure detector fire protection 
backflow prevention assemblies 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage or backpressure 
(Fire sprinkler systems) 


ASSE 1047 


Double check backflow prevention 
assembly and double check fire 
protection backflow prevention assembly 


Low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
Sizes V- 16" 


ASSE 1015,AWWAC510 


Double check detector fire protection 
backflow prevention assemblies 


Low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
(Fire sprinkler systems) 
Sizes 2" - 16" 


ASSE 1048 


Dual-check-valve-type backflow preventer 


Low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
Sizes 7 4 "- 1" 


ASSE 1024 


Backflow preventer with intermediate 
atmospheric vents 


Low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
Sizes 7 4 " - 3 / 4 " 


ASSE 1012, CAN/CSA-B64.3 


Backflow preventer for carbonated 
beverage machines 


Low hazard 


Backpressure or backsiphonage 
Sizes 7 4 "- 3 / 8 " 


ASSE 1022 


Pipe-applied atmospheric-type vacuum 
breaker 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage only 
Sizes 7 4 " - 4" 


ASSE 1001, CAN/CSA-B64.1.1 


Pressure vacuum breaker assembly 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage only 
Sizes 7 2 " - 2" 


ASSE 1020 


Hose-connection vacuum breaker 


High or low hazard 


Low head backpressure or 
backsiphonage 
Sizes 7 2 ", 3 / 4 ", 1" 


ASSE 1011, CAN/CSA-B64.2 


Vacuum breaker wall hydrants, 

frost-resistant, automatic draining type 


High or low hazard 


Low head backpressure or 
backsiphonage 
Sizes 3 / 4 ", r 


ASSE 1019, CAN/CSA-B64.2.2 


Laboratory faucet backflow preventer 


High or low hazard 


Low head backpressure and 
backsiphonage 


ASSE 1035,CSAB64.7 


Hose connection backflow preventer 


High or low hazard 


Low head backpressure, rated 
working pressure backpressure 
or backsiphonage 
Sizes 7 2 "-l" 


ASSE 1052 


Spillproof vacuum breaker 


High or low hazard 


Backsiphonage only 
Sizes 7 4 "-2" 


ASSE 1056 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Low hazard. 

High hazard-See Contamination (Section 202). 

b. See Backpressure (Section 202). 

See Backpressure, low head (Section 202). 
See Backsiphonage (Section 202). 



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608.15.1 Protection by air gap. Openings and outlets shall 
be protected by an air gap between the opening and the fix- 
ture flood level rim as specified in Table 608. 15.1 . Openings 
and outlets equipped for hose connection shall be protected 
by means other than an air gap. 

608.15.2 Protection by a reduced pressure principle 
backflow preventer. Openings and outlets shall be pro- 
tected by a reduced pressure principle backtlow preventer. 

608.15.3 Protection by a backflow preventer with inter- 
mediate atmospheric vent. Openings and outlets shall be 
protected by a backflow preventer with an intermediate 
atmospheric vent. 

608.15.4 Protection by a vacuum breaker. Openings and 
outlets shall be protected by atmospheric-type or pres- 
sure-type vacuum breakers. The critical level of the vacuum 
breaker shall be set a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) above 
the flood level rim of the fixture or device. Fill valves shall 
be set in accordance with Section 425.3. 1 . Vacuum breakers 
shall not be installed under exhaust hoods or similar loca- 
tions that will contain toxic fumes or vapors. Pipe-applied 
vacuum breakers shall be installed not less than 6 inches 
(152 mm) above the flood level rim of the fixture, receptor 
or device served. 

608.15.4.1 Deck-mounted and integral vacuum 
breakers. Approved deck-mounted or equip- 
ment-mounted vacuum breakers and faucets with inte- 
gral atmospheric or spillproof vacuum breakers shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions and the requirements for labeling with the critical 
level not less than 1 inch (25 mm) above the flood level 
rim. 

608.15.4.2 Hose connections. Sillcocks, hose bibbs, 
wall hydrants and other openings with a hose connection 
shall be protected by an atmospheric-type or pres- 
sure-type vacuum breaker or a permanently attached 
hose connection vacuum breaker. 



Exceptions: 

1 . This section shall not apply to water heater and 
boiler drain valves that are provided with hose 
connection threads and that are intended only 
for tank or vessel draining. 

2. This section shall not apply to water supply 
valves intended for connection of clothes wash- 
ing machines where backflow prevention is 
otherwise provided or is integral with the 
machine, 

608.16 Connections to the potable water system. Connec- 
tions to the potable water system shall conform to Sections 
608.16.1 through 608.16.9. 

608.16.1 Beverage dispensers. The water supply connec- 
tion to carbonated beverage dispensers shall be protected 
against backflow by a backflow preventer conforming to 
ASSE 1022 or by an air gap. The backflow preventer device 
and the piping downstream therefrom shall not be affected 
by carbon dioxide gas. 

608.16.2 Connections to boilers. The potable supply to the 
boiler shall be equipped with a backflow preventer with an 
intermediate atmospheric vent complying with ASSE 1012 
or CAN/CSA B64.3. Where conditioning chemicals are 
introduced into the system, the potable water connection 
shall be protected by an air gap or a reduced pressure princi- 
ple backflow preventer, complying with ASSE 1.013, 
CAN/CSA B64.4 or AWWA C5 11. 

608.16.3 Heat exchangers. Heat exchangers utilizing an 
essentially toxic transfer fluid shall be separated from the 
potable water by double-wall construction. An air gap open 
to the atmosphere shall be provided between the two walls. 
Heat exchangers utilizing an essentially nontoxic transfer 
fluid shall be permitted to be of single-wall construction. 

608.16.4 Connections to automatic fire sprinkler sys- 
tems and standpipe systems. The potable water supply to 
automatic fire sprinkler and standpipe systems shall be pro- 



TABLE 608.15.1 
MINIMUM REQUBRED AIR GAPS 



FIXTURE 


MINIMUM AIR GAP 


Away from a wall 3 (inches) 


Close to a wall (inches) 


Lavatories and other fixtures with effective opening not greater than V 2 inch 
in diameter 


1 


17 2 


Sink, laundry trays, gooseneck back faucets and other fixtures with effective 
openings not greater than V 4 inch in diameter 


1.5 


2.5 


Over-rim bath fillers and other fixtures with effective openings not greater 
than 1 inch in diameter 


2 


3 


Drinking water fountains, single orifice not greater than 7 / l6 inch in diameter 
or multiple orifices with a total area of 0.150 square inch (area of circle 7 / !6 
inch in diameter) 


1 


1V 2 


Effective openings greater than 1 inch 


Two times the diameter 
of the effective opening 


Three times the diameter 
of the effective opening 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Applicable where walls or obstructions are spaced from the nearest inside-edge of the spout opening a distance greater than three times the diameter of the effective 
opening for a single wall, or a distance greater than four times the diameter of the effective opening for two intersecting walls. 



44 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



tected against backflow by a double check-valve assembly 
or a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer. 

Exceptions: 

1. Where systems are installed as a portion of the 
water distribution system in accordance with the 
requirements of this code and are not provided 
with a fire department connection, isolation of the 
water supply system shall not be required. 

2. Isolation of the water distribution system is not 
required for deluge, preaction or dry pipe systems. 

608.16.4.1 Additives or nonpotable source. Where 
systems under continuous pressure contain chemical 
additives or antifreeze, or where systems are connected 
to a nonpotable secondary water supply, the potable 
water supply shall be protected against backflow by a 
reduced pressure principle backflow preventer. Where 
chemical additives or antifreeze are added to only a por- 
tion of an automatic fire sprinkler or standpipe system, 
the reduced pressure principle backflow preventer shall 
be permitted to be located so as to isolate that portion of 
the system. Where systems are not under continuous 
pressure, the potable water supply shall be protected 
against backflow by an air gap or a pipe applied atmo- 
spheric vacuum breaker conforming to ASSE lOOlor 
CAN/CSAB64.1.1. 

608.16.5 Connections to lawn irrigation systems. The 
potable water supply to lawn irrigation systems shall be pro- 
tected against backflow by an atmospheric-type vacuum 
breaker, a pressure-type vacuum breaker or a reduced pres- 
sure principle backflow preventer. A valve shall not be 
installed downstream from an atmospheric vacuum breaker. 
Where chemicals are introduced into the system, the potable 
water supply shall be protected against backflow by a 
reduced pressure principle backflow preventer. 

608.16.6 Connections subject to backpressure. Where a 
potable water connection is made to a nonpotable line, fix- 
ture, tank, vat, pump or other equipment subject to 
back-pressure, the potable water connection shall be pro- 
tected by a reduced pressure principle backflow preventer. 

608.16.7 Chemical dispensers. Where chemical dispens- 
ers connect to the potable water distribution system, the 
water supply system shall be protected against backflow in 
accordance with Section 608.13.1, 608.13.2, 608.13.5, 
608.13.6, 608.13.8 or 608.13.9. 

608.16.8 Portable cleaning equipment. Where the porta- 
ble cleaning equipment connects to the water distribution 
system, the water supply system shall be protected against 
backflow in accordance with Section 608.13.1, 608.13.2, 
608.13.3, 608.13.7 or 608.13.8. 

608.16.9 Dental pump equipment. Where dental pumping 
equipment connects to the water distribution system, the 
water supply system shall be protected against backflow in 
accordance with Section 608.13.1, 608.13.2, 608.13.5, 
608.13.6 or 608.13.8. 

608.17 Protection of individual water supplies. An individ- 
ual water supply shall be located and constructed so as to be 



safeguarded against contamination in accordance with Sec- 
tions 608.17.1 through 608.17.8. 

608.17.1 Well locations. A potable ground water source or 
pump suction line shall not be located closer to potential 
sources of contamination than the distances shown in Table 
608. 17. 1 . In the event the underlying rock structure is lime- 
stone or fragmented shale, the local or state health depart- 
ment shall be consulted on well site location. The distances 
in Table 608.17.1 constitute minimum separation and shall 
be increased in areas of creviced rock or limestone, or where 
the direction of movement of the ground water is from 
sources of contamination toward the well. 

TABLE 608.17.1 

DISTANCE FROM CONTAMINATION TO 

PRIVATE WATER SUPPLIES AND PUMP SUCTION LINES 



SOURCE OF CONTAMINATION 


DISTANCE (feet) 


Barnyard 


100 


Farm silo 


25 


Pasture 


100 


Pumphouse floor drain of cast iron draining 
to ground surface 


2 


Seepage pits 


50 


Septic tank 


25 


Sewer 


10 


Subsurface disposal fields 


50 


Subsurface pits 


50 



For SI: 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

608.17.2 Elevation. Well sites shall be positively drained 
and shall be at higher elevations than potential sources of 
contamination. 

608.17.3 Depth. Private potable well supplies shall not be 
developed from a water table less than 10 feet (3048 mm) 
below the ground surface. 

608.17.4 Water-tight casings. Each well shall be provided 
with a water-tight casing to a minimum distance of 10 feet 
(3048 mm) below the ground surface. All casings shall 
extend at least 6 inches (152 mm) above the well platform. 
The casing shall be large enough to permit installation of a 
separate drop pipe. Casings shall be sealed at the bottom in 
an impermeable stratum or extend several feet into the 
water-bearing stratum. 

608.17.5 Drilled or driven well casings. Drilled or driven 
well casings shall be of steel or other approved material. 
Where drilled wells extend into a rock formation, the well 
casing shall extend to and set firmly in the formation. The 
annular space between the earth and the outside of the cas- 
ing shall be filled with cement grout to a minimum distance 
of 10 feet (3048 mm) below the ground surface. In an 
instance of casing to rock installation, the grout shall extend 
to the rock surface. 

608.17.6 Dug or bored well casings. Dug or bored well 
casings shall be of water-tight concrete, tile, or galvanized 
or corrugated metal pipe to a minimum distance of 10 feet 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



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WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



(3048 mm) below the ground surface. Where the water table 
is more than 10 feet (3048 mm) below the ground surface, 
the water-tight casing shall extend below the table surface. 
Well casings for dug wells or bored wells constructed with 
sections of concrete, tile, or galvanized or corrugated metal 
pipe shall be surrounded by 6 inches (152 mm) of grout 
poured into the hole between the outside of the casing and 
the ground to a minimum depth of 10 feet (3048 mm). 

608.17.7 Cover. Every potable water well shall be equipped 
with an overlapping water-tight cover at the top of the well 
casing or pipe sleeve such that contaminated water or other 
substances are prevented from entering the well through the 
annular opening at the top of the well casing, wall or pipe 
sleeve. Covers shall extend downward at least 2 inches (51 
mm) over the outside of the well casing or wall. A dug well 
cover shall be provided with a pipe sleeve permitting the 
withdrawal of the pump suction pipe, cylinder or jet body 
without disturbing the cover. Where pump sections or dis- 
charge pipes enter or leave a well through the side of the cas- 
ing, the circle of contact shall be water tight. 

608.17.8 Drainage. All potable water wells and springs 
shall be constructed such that surface drainage will be 
diverted away from the well or spring. 



SECTION PC 609 
HEALTH CARE PLUMBING 

609.1 Scope. This section shall govern those aspects of health 
care plumbing systems that differ from plumbing systems in 
other structures. Health care plumbing systems shall conform 
to the requirements of this section in addition to the other 
requirements of this code. The provisions of this section shall 
apply to the special devices and equipment installed and main- 
tained in the following occupancies: nursing homes, homes for 
the aged, orphanages, infirmaries, first aid stations, psychiatric 
facilities, clinics, professional offices of dentists and doctors, 
mortuaries, educational facilities, surgery, dentistry, research 
and testing laboratories, establishments manufacturing phar- 
maceutical drugs and medicines, and other structures with sim- 
ilar apparatus and equipment classified as plumbing. 

609.2 Water service. All hospitals shall have two water service 
pipes installed in such a manner so as to minimize the potential 
for an interruption of the supply of water in the event of a water 
main or water service pipe failure. 

609.3 Hot water. Hot water shall be provided to supply all of 
the hospital fixture, kitchen and laundry requirements. Special 
fixtures and equipment shall have hot water supplied at a tem- 
perature specified by the manufacturer. The hot water system 
shall be installed in accordance with Section PC 607. 

609.4 Vacuum breaker installation. Vacuum breakers shall 
be installed a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood 
level rim of the fixture or device in accordance with Section PC 
608. The flood level rim of hose connections shall be the maxi- 
mum height at which any hose is utilized. 

609.5 Prohibited water closet and clinical sink supply. Jet or 
water-supplied orifices, except those supplied by the flush con- 
nections, shall not be located in or connected with a water 



closet bowl or clinical sink. This section shall not prohibit an 
approved bidet installation. 

609.6 Clinical, hydrotherapeutic and radiological equip- 
ment. All clinical, hydrotherapeutic, radiological or any equip- 
ment that is supplied with water or that discharges to the waste 
system shall conform to the requirements of this section and 
Section PC 608. 



1 



609.7 Condensate drain trap seal. A water supply shall be 
provided for cleaning, flushing and resealing the condensate 
trap, and the trap shall discharge through an air gap in accor- 
dance with Section PC 608. | 

609.8 Valve leakage diverter. Each water sterilizer filled with 
water through directly connected piping shall be equipped with 
an approved leakage diverter or bleed line on the water supply 
control valve to indicate and conduct any leakage of unsterile 
water away from the sterile zone. 



SECTION PC 610 
DISINFECTION OF POTABLE WATER SYSTEM 

610.1 General. New or repaired potable water systems shall be 
purged of deleterious matter and disinfected prior to utiliza- 
tion. The method to be followed shall be that prescribed by the 
health authority or water purveyor having jurisdiction or, in the 
absence of a prescribed method, the procedure described in 
either AWWA C651 or AWWA C652, or as described in this 
section. This requirement shall apply to "on-site" or "in-plant" 
fabrication of a system or to a modular portion of a system. 

1. The pipe system shall be flushed with clean, potable 
water until dirty water does not appear at the points of 
outlet. 

2. The system or part thereof shall be filled with a 
water/chlorine solution containing at least 50 parts per 
million (50 mg/L) of chlorine, and the system or part 
thereof shall be valved off and allowed to stand for 24 
hours; or the system or part thereof shall be filled with a 
water/chlorine solution containing at least 200 parts per 
million (200 mg/L) of chlorine and allowed to stand for 3 
hours. 

3. Following the required standing time, the system shall be 
flushed with clean potable water until the chlorine is 
purged from the system. 

4. The procedure shall be repeated where shown by a bacte- 
riological examination that contamination remains pres- 
ent in the system. 



SECTION PC 611 
DRINKING WATER TREATMENT UNITS 

611.1 Design. Drinking water treatment units shall meet the 
requirements of NSF 42, NSF 44, NSF 53 or NSF 62. 

611.2 Reverse osmosis systems. The discharge from a reverse 
osmosis drinking water treatment unit shall enter the drainage 
system through an air gap or an air gap device that meets the 
requirements of NSF 58. 



46 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



WATER SUPPLY AND DISTRIBUTION 



611.3 Connection tubing. The tubing to and from drinking 
water treatment units shall be of a size and material as recom- 
mended by the manufacturer. The tubing shall comply with 

NSF 14, NSF 42, NSF 44, NSF 53, NSF 58 or NSF 61. 



SECTION PC 612 
SOLAR SYSTEMS 

612.1 Solar systems. The construction, installation, alterations 
and repair of systems, equipment and appliances intended to 
utilize solar energy for space heating or cooling, domestic hot 
water heating, swimming pool heating or process heating shall 
be in accordance with the New York City Mechanical Code. 



SECTION PC 613 
TEMPERATURE CONTROL DEVICES AND VALVES 

613.1 Temperature-actuated mixing valves. Temperature 
actuated mixing valves, which are installed to reduce water 
temperatures to defined limits, shall comply with ASSE 1016 
andASSE 1017. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



47 



48 2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



CHAPTER 7 

SANITARY DRAINAGE 



SECTION PC 701 
GENERAL 

701.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
materials, design, construction and installation of sanitary 
drainage systems. 

701.2 Sewer required. Every building in which plumbing fix- 
tures are installed and all premises having drainage piping shall 
be connected to a public sewer, where available and where the 
department determines that connection thereto is feasible. 
Where neither a sanitary nor a combined sewer is available to 
which the department determines that connection is feasible, a 
private sewer or private sewage disposal system shall be pro- 
vided. All such private systems shall be provided subject to the 
approval of the Commissioner of Environmental Protection 
and of any other agency or agencies having jurisdiction. 

701.2.1 Extensions of public sewers. Extensions of public 
sewers shall be made in accordance with the regulations of 
the Department of Environmental Protection. 

701.2.2 Availability of public sewer to other than one- or 
two-family dwellings. A public sanitary or combined sewer 
shall be deemed available to a building if a property line of 
such building is within 500 feet (152 m), measured along a 
street, alley, or right-of-way of the public sewer. The con- 
nection shall be made in accordance with the applicable 
standards of the Department of Environmental Protection. 

Exception: Where a substantial improvement of a build- 
ing or buildings is contemplated on a tract of land, the 
public sanitary or combined sewer may be declared 
available thereto by the agencies having jurisdiction 
thereon even though the specified distance is exceeded. 

701.2.3 Availability of public sewer to one- or two-family 
dwellings. A public sanitary or combined sewer shall be 
deemed available to a one- and two-family dwelling if a 
property line of such dwelling is within 100 feet (30 480 
mm), measured along a street, alley, or right-of-way, of the 
public sewer. The extension and connection shall be made in 
accordance with the applicable standards of the Department 
of Environmental Protection. 

Exception: Where two or more one- or two-family 
dwellings are to be constructed on a tract of land, the 
public sanitary or combined sewer may be declared 
available thereto by the agencies having jurisdiction 
thereon even though the specified distance is exceeded. 

701.2.4 Feasibility of connecting to an available public 
sewer. The department shall determine that connection to an 
available public sewer is feasible if: 

1 . The sewer is of adequate capacity to receive all sew- 
age flowing from the building; 

2. The sewer is in adequate physical condition to receive 
such sewage; 



3. No physical obstacles exist between the boundaries of 
the lot or tract of land on which the building is located 
and the sewer, which would make connection to the 
sewer impracticable; 

4. The elevation of the sewer in relation to the lot or tract 
of land on which the building is located is such that 
conveyance of the sewage from the building to the 
sewer is not impracticable; 

5. The sewer is located in the same drainage area as all or 
most of the lot or tract of land on which the building is 
located; and 

6. No other factor reasonably related to the conveyance 
of sewage from the building to the sewer would make 
such connection impracticable or undesirable as a 
proper means of sewage disposal. 

701.2.5 Where public sewers are made available to pre- 
mises with private sewage disposal system. When public 
sewers are made available to premises with individual on- 
site private disposal systems, such private sewage disposal 
system shall be abandoned in a manner prescribed by the 
commissioner, and the owner shall connect the building 
house sewer to the available public sewer within 6 months of 
the date of notification that the sewer has been accepted to 
receive flow by the agency or agencies having jurisdiction. 

701.2.6 Abandonment of existing building sewer con- 
nections. AH abandoned building sewers shall be securely 
sealed at a point inside the curb line and as close thereto as 
practicable. 

701.3 Separate sewer connection. Every building having 
plumbing fixtures installed and intended for human habitation, 
occupancy or use on premises abutting on a street, alley or 
easement in which there is a public sewer shall have a separate 
connection with the sewer. Where located on the same lot, mul- 
tiple buildings shall not be prohibited from connecting to a 
common building sewer that connects to the public sewer. 

701.4 Sewage treatment. Sewage or other waste shall not be 
discharged into surface or subsurface water unless it has been 
discharged by a method subject to the approval of the commis- 
sioner and of the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene 
and the Department of Environmental Protection. 

701.5 Damage to drainage system or public sewer. Wastes 
detrimental to the public sewer system or to the functioning of 
the sewage-treatment plant shall be treated and disposed of in 
accordance with applicable rules of the Department of Envi- I 
ronmental Protection £. 1 

701.6 Tests. The sanitary drainage system shall be tested in 
accordance with Section PC 31.2. 1 

701.7 Connections. Direct connection of a steam exhaust, 
blowoff or drip pipe shall not be made with the building drain- 
age system. Wastewater when discharged into the building 
drainage system shall be at a temperature not higher than 150°F 1 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



49 



SANITARY DRAINAGE 



1 (65.6°C). When higher temperatures exist, approved cooling 
methods shall be provided. 

701.8 Engineered systems. Engineered sanitary drainage sys- 

I terns shall conform to the provisions of Section 28-1 13.2.2 of 
the Administrative Code and Section PC it 714 of this code. 

701.9 Drainage piping in food service areas. Exposed soil or 
waste piping shall not be installed above any working, storage 
or eating surfaces in food service establishments. 

701.10 Plastic pipe. Plastic piping and fittings shall not be 
used. 

Exception: Plastic piping and fittings may be used in resi- 
dential buildings five stories or less in height. 



SECTION PC 702 
MATERIALS 

702.1 Above-ground sanitary drainage and vent pipe. 
Above-ground soil, waste and vent pipe shall conform to one of 
the standards listed in Table 702.1. 

TABLE 702.1 
ABOVE-GROUND DRAINAGE AND VENT PIPE 



TABLE 702.2 
UNDERGROUND BUILDING DRAINAGE AND VENT PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene 
(ABS) plastic pipe 


ASTMD 2661; ASTMF 628; 
CSAB 181.1 


Brass pipe 


ASTM B 43 


Cast-iron pipe 


ASTM A74;CISPI301; 
ASTM A 888 


Copper or copper-alloy pipe 


ASTM B 42; ASTM B 302 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing 
(TypeK,L) 


ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; 
ASTM B 251; ASTM B 306 


Ductile iron 


AWWAC151 


Galvanized steel pipe 


ASTM A 53 


Glass pipe 


ASTM C 1053 


High silicon cast iron 


ASTM A 518 A/518 M 


Polyolefin pipe 


ASTM F 1412; ASTM D 2657; 
CAN/CSA-B181.3 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 
plastic pipe (Type DWV) 


ASTM D 2665; ASTM D 33 1 1 ; 
ASTMF 1866 


Stainless steel drainage 

systems, Types 304 and 316L 


ASMEA1 12.3.1 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Cast-iron pipe 


ASTMA74;CISPI301; 

ASTM A 888 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing 
(Type K or L) 


ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; 
ASTM B 251; ASTM B 306 


Ductile iron 


AWWAC 151 


Nonasbestos fiber cement pipe 


ASTM C 1449 


Polyethylene (corrugated 12 
inches and larger) 


ASTM F 667 


Stainless steel drainage 
systems, Type 316L 


ASMEAl 12.3.1 



TABLE 702.3 
BUILDING SEWER PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Cast-iron pipe 


ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; 
CISP1301 


Concrete pipe 


ASTM C 14; ASTM C76; 

CAN/CSAA257.1M; 
CAN/CSAA257.2M 


Copper or copper-alloy tubing 
(Type K or L) 


ASTM B 75; ASTM B 88; 

ASTM B 251 


Ductile iron 


AWWAC151 


Nonasbestos fiber cement 
pipe 


ASTM C 1449 


Stainless steel drainage 

systems, Types 304 and 
316L 


ASMEAl 12.3.1 


Vitrified clay pipe 


ASTM C 4; ASTM C 700 



702.5 Chemical waste system. A chemical waste system shall 
be completely separated from the sanitary drainage system. 
The chemical waste shall be treated in accordance with Section 
803.2 before discharging to the sanitary drainage system. Sep- 
arate drainage systems for chemical wastes and vent pipes shall 
be of an approved material that is resistant to corrosion and 
degradation for the concentrations of chemicals involved. 

702.6 Lead bends and traps. Lead bends and traps shall not be 
less than 0.125 inch (3.2 mm) wall thickness. 



702.2 Underground building sanitary drainage and vent 
pipe. Underground building sanitary drainage and vent pipe 
shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table 702.2. 

702.3 Building sewer pipe. Building sewer pipe shall conform 
to one of the standards listed in Table 702.3. 

702.4 Fittings. Pipe fittings shall be approved for installation 
with the piping material installed and shall conform to the 
respective pipe standards or one of the standards listed in Table 
702.4. 



SECTION PC 703 
BUILDING SEWER 

703.1 Building sewer pipe near the water service. Where the 
building sewer is installed within 5 feet (1524 mm) of the water 
service, as provided for in Section 603.2, the building sewer 
pipe shall conform to one of the standards for, cast-iron pipe, 
copper or copper-alloy tubing, or ductile iron listed in Table 
702.3. 



50 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



SANITARY DRAINAGE 



TABLE 702.4 
PIPE FITTINGS 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Acrylonitrile butadiene 
styrene (ABS) plastic pipe 
schedule 40 


ASTMD3311;CSAB181.1; 
ASTM D 2661 


Cast iron 


ASMEB 16.4;ASMEB 16.12; 

ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; 
CISPI 301 


Copper or copper alloy 


ASMEB 16.15; ASME B 16.18; 

ASME B 16.22; ASME B 16.23; 
ASME B 16.26; ASME B 16.29 


Glass 


ASTMC 1053 


Gray iron and ductile iron 


AWWAC110 


High silicon iron 


ASTM A 861 


Malleable iron 


ASMEB 16.3 


Polyethylene (corrugated 1 2 
inches and larger 


ASTM 667 


Poly olefin 


CAN/CSAB 181.3; F 1312; 
D 2657 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 
plastic 


ASTM D 331 1; ASTM D 2665; 
ASTM F 1866 


Stainless steel drainage 
systems, Types 304 and 
316L 


ASME A 112.3.1 



703.2 Drainage pipe in filled ground. Where a building sewer 
or building drain is installed on filled or unstable ground, the 
drainage pipe shall conform to one of the standards for, 
cast-iron pipe, copper or copper- alloy tubing, ductile iron, 
nonasbestos fiber cement or concrete pipe listed in Table 702.3. 

703.3' Sanitary and storm sewers. Where separate systems of 
sanitary drainage and storm drainage are installed in the same 
property, the sanitary and storm building sewers or drains shall 
be permitted to be laid side by side in one trench. 

703.4 Existing building sewers and drains. Existing building 
sewers and drains shall connect with new building sewer and 
drainage systems only where found by examination and test to 
conform to the new system in quality of material. The commis- 
sioner shall notify the owner to make the changes necessary to 
conform to this code. 

703.5 Cleanouts on building sewers. Cleanouts on building 
sewers shall be located as set forth in Section PC 708. 

703.6 Building house traps. Building house traps shall be 
installed on all building drains near the foundation wall of the 
structure, inside of the street line, and on the sewer side of all 
connections except the connection used to receive the dis- 
charge from a sewage ejector, oil separator or leader on com- 
bined systems. If such trap is placed outside of the foundation 
wall or below a cellar floor, it shall be made accessible in a 
manhole with a cover, or by extension of the two handholes that 
shall be provided with cleanouts at the cellar floor or grade. 
Handhold extensions shall be not more than 18 inches (457 
mm) above the centerline of the drain. Building (house) traps 



shall be the same size as the building house drain connected 
thereto. 



SECTION PC 704 
DRAINAGE PIPING INSTALLATION 

704.1 Slope of horizontal drainage piping. Horizontal drain- 
age piping shall be installed in uniform alignment at uniform 
slopes. The minimum slope of a horizontal drainage pipe shall 
be in accordance with Table 704.1 . 

TABLE 704.1 
SLOPE OF HORIZONTAL DRAINAGE PIPE 



SIZE (inches) 


MINIMUM SLOPE 
(inch per foot) 


2'/ 2 or less 


% 


3 to 6 


% 


8 or larger 


'/,6 



For SI: l inch = 25.4 mm, I inch per toot = 83.3 mm/m. 

704.2 Change in size. The size of the drainage piping shall not 
be reduced in size in the direction of the flow. A 4 inch by 3 inch 
(102 mm by 76mm) water closet connection shall not be con- 
sidered as a reduction in size. 

704.3 Connections to offsets and bases of stacks. Horizontal 
branches shall connect to the bases of stacks at a point located 
not less than 1 times the diameter of the drainage stack down- 
stream from the stack. Except as prohibited by Section 71 1 .2, 
horizontal branches shall connect to horizontal stack offsets at 
a point located not less than 10 times the diameter of the drain- 
age stack downstream from the upper stack. 

704.4 Future fixtures. Drainage piping for future fixtures 
shall terminate with an approved cap or plug. 

704.5 Dead ends. In the installation or removal of any part of a 
drainage system, dead ends shall be prohibited. Cleanout 
extensions and approved future fixture drainage piping shall 
not be considered as dead ends. 

704.6 Suds pressure zones vents. Where sinks, laundry trays, 
laundry washing machines, bathtubs, and similar fixtures in 
which detergents producing suds are normally used and dis- 
charged at an upper floor level into a soil or waste stack that 
also serves fixtures in other occupancy units at a lower floor 
level, the drainage and vent piping for such lower fixtures shall 
be arranged so as to avoid connection to suds pressure zones in 
the sanitary drainage and vent systems. If connected to the san- 
itary system, a suds relief vent relieving to a nonpressure zone 
shall be provided at each suds pressure zone where such con- 
nections are installed. The diameter of such relief vent shall be 
at least three-quarters the diameter of the piping in which the 
pressure zone occurs, but not less than 2 inches (5 1mm). Suds 
pressure zones shall be considered to exist at the following 
locations in sanitary drainage and vent systems when the pip- 
ing serves fixtures on two or more floors that receive wastes 
that contain detergents producing suds: 

1 . In a soil or waste stack a zone shall be considered to exist 
in the vertical portion within 40 stack diameters of the 
base fitting. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



51 



SANITARY DRAINAGE 



2. In the horizontal drain at the base of a soil or waste stack a 
zone shall be considered to exist in the horizontal portion 
within 10 stack diameters of the base fitting. Where a 
60-degree (1.05 rad)t or 90-degree (1 .57 rad)i: fitting is 
installed in the horizontal drain, a zone shall be consid- 
ered to exist in the horizontal portion within 40 drain 
diameters upstream of and 10 drain diameters down- 
stream of the fitting in accordance with Figure 704.6(2). 

3 . In a soil or waste stack offset of 60 degrees ( 1 .05 rad)^: or 
90 degrees (1.57 rad):):, a zone shall be considered to 
exist in the vertical portion of the stack within 40 stack 
diameters of the base fitting for the upper section of the 
stack. The zone shall be considered to exist in the hori- 
zontal offset within 10 stack diameters of such base fit- 
ting and within 40 stack diameters of the top fitting for 
the lower section of the stack. 

4. In a vent stack that has its base connected to a suds pres- 
sure zone in the sanitary drainage system, a zone shall be 
considered to exist in the portion of the vent stack 
extending from its base connection up to the lowest 
branch vent fitting located above the level of the suds 
pressure zone in the sanitary drainage system. 



'UPPER SECTION OF 
DRAINAGE STACK 



STACK OFFSET 



VENT STACK T 
I 



SAME ELEVATION it- H- 



1 



40 x 0IA. STACK 



z 



^ ^xLio 



X DIA. STACK 



40 x DIA. STACK 




10 x DIA. STACK 



40 x DIA. STACK 



10 X DIA. STACK 



FIGURE 704.6(2) 
SUDS PRESSURE ZONES* 

SECTION PC 705 
JOINTS 

705.1 General. This section contains provisions applicable to 
joints specific to sanitary drainage piping. 

705.2 ABS plastic. Joints between ABS plastic pipe or fittings 
shall comply with Sections 705.2.1 through 705.2.3. 



705.2.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints on drainage 
pipes shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM C 1173, ASTM D 3212 or CAN/CSA B602. 
Mechanical joints shall be installed only in underground 
systems unless otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed 
in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

705.2.2 Solvent cementing. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. Solvent cement that conforms to 
ASTM D 2235 or CSA B 181.1 shall be applied to all joint 
surfaces. The joint shall be made while the cement is wet. 
Joints shall be made in accordance with ASTM D 2235, 
ASTM D 2661, ASTM F 628 or CSA B 181.1. Sol- 
vent-cement joints shall be permitted above or below 
ground. 

705.23 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to ASME 
B 1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be permitted to 
be threaded with dies specifically designed for plastic pipe. 
Approved thread lubricant or tape shall be applied on the 
male threads only. 

705.3 Asbestos-cement. Joints between asbestos-cement pipe 
or fittings shall be made with a sleeve coupling of the same 
composition as the pipe, sealed with an elastomeric ring con- 
forming to ASTM D 1869. 

705.4 Brass. Joints between brass pipe or fittings shall comply 
with Sections 705.4.1 through 705.4.4. 

705.4.1 Brazed joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint 
shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5.8. 

705.4.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

705.4.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to ASME 
B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on 
the male threads only. 

705.4.4 Welded joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
The joint shall be welded with an approved filler metal. 

705.5 Cast iron. Joints between cast-iron pipe or fittings shall 
comply with Sections 705.5.1 through 705.5.3. 

705.5.1 Caulked joints. Joints for hub and spigot pipe shall 
be firmly packed with oakum or hemp. Molten lead shall be 
poured in one operation to a depth of not less than 1 inch (25 
mm). The lead shall not recede more than 0.125 inch (3.2 
mm) below the rim of the hub and shall be caulked tight. 
Paint, varnish or other coatings shall not be permitted on the 
jointing material until after the joint has been tested and 
approved. Lead shall be run in one pouring and shall be 
caulked tight. Acid-resistant rope and acidproof cement 
shall be permitted. 

705.5.2 Compression gasket joints. Compression gaskets 
for hub and spigot pipe and fittings shall conform to ASTM 
C 564. Gaskets shall be compressed when the pipe is fully 
inserted. 

705.5.3 Mechanical joint coupling. Mechanical joint cou- 
plings for hubless pipe and fittings shall comply with CISPI 
310 or ASTM C 1277. The elastomeric sealing sleeve shall 
conform to ASTM C 564 or CAN/CSA B602 and shall be 



52 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



SANITARY DRAINAGE 



provided with a center stop. Mechanical joint couplings 
shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's 
installation instructions. 

705.6 Concrete joints. Joints between concrete pipe and fit- 
tings shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM C 443, ASTM C 1173, CAN/CSA A257.3M or 
CAN/CSA B602. 

■ 705 .7 Reserved. 

■ 705.8 Reserved. 

705.9 Copper pipe. Joints between copper or copper-alloy 
pipe or fittings shall comply with Sections 705.9.1 through 
705.9.5. 

705.9.1 Brazed joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint 
shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5 .8. 

705.9.2 Mechanical joiets. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

705.9.3 Soldered joints. Solder joints shall be made in 
accordance with the methods of ASTM B 828. All cut tube 
ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube 
end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming 
to ASTM B 81 3 shall be applied. The joint shall be soldered 
with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32. 

705.9.4 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to ASME 
B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be applied on 
the male threads only. 

705.9.5 Welded joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
The joint shall be welded with an approved filler metal. 

705.10 Copper tubing. Joints between copper or copper-alloy 
tubing or fittings shall comply with Sections 705.10.1 through 
705.10.3. 

705.10.1 Brazed joints. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. 
An approved flux shall be applied where required. The joint 
shall be brazed with a filler metal conforming to AWS A5.8. 

705.10.2 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

705.10.3 Soldered joints. Solder joints shall be made in 
accordance with the methods of ASTM B 828. All cut tube 
ends shall be reamed to the full inside diameter of the tube 
end. All joint surfaces shall be cleaned. A flux conforming 
to ASTM B 813 shall be applied. The joint shall be soldered 
with a solder conforming to ASTM B 32. 

705.11 Borosiiicate glass joints. Glass- to-glass connections 
shall be made with a bolted compression-type stainless steel 
(300 series) coupling with contoured acid-resistant elastomeric 
compression ring and a fluorocarbon polymer inner seal ring; 
or with caulked joints in accordance with Section 705.11.1. 

705.11.1 Caulked joints. Every lead-caulked joint for hub 
and spigot soil pipe shall be firmly packed with oakum or 
hemp and filled with molten lead not less than 1 inch (25 
mm) deep and not to extend more than 0.125 inch (3.2 mm) 
below the rim of the hub. Paint, varnish or other coatings 
shall not be permitted on the jointing material until after the 
joint has been tested and approved. Lead shall be run in one 



pouring and shall be caulked tight. Acid-resistant rope and 
acidproof cement shall be permitted. 

705.12 Steel. Joints between galvanized steel pipe or fittings 
shall comply with Sections 705.12.1 and 705.12.2. 

705.12.1 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Pipe-joint compound or tape shall be 
applied on the male threads only. 

705.12.2 Mechanical joints. Joints shall be made with an 
approved elastomeric seal. Mechanical joints shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

705.13 Lead. Joints between lead pipe or fittings shall comply 
with Sections 705.13.1 and 705.13.2, 

705.13.1 Burned. Burned joints shall be uniformly fused 
together into one continuous piece. The thickness of the 
joint shall be at least as thick as the lead being joined. The 
filler metal shall be of the same material as the pipe. 

705.13.2 Wiped. Joints shall be fully wiped, with an 
exposed surface on each side of the joint not less than 0.75 
inch (19.1 mm). The joint shall be at least 0.325 inch (9.5 
mm) thick at the thickest point. 

705.14 PVC plastic. Joints between PVC plastic pipe or fit- 
tings shall comply with Sections 705.14.1 through 705.14.3. 

705.14.1 Mechanical joints. Mechanical joints on drainage 
pipe shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM C 1173, ASTM D 3212 or CAN/CSA B602. 
Mechanical joints shall not be installed in above-ground 
systems, unless otherwise approved. Joints shall be installed 
in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

705.14.2 Solvent cementing. Joint surfaces shall be clean 
and free from moisture. A purple primer that conforms to 
ASTM F 656 shall be applied. Solvent cement not purple in 
color and conforming to ASTM D 2564, CS A B 137.3, CSA 
B 181.2 or CSA B 182. 1 shall be applied to all joint surfaces. 
The joint shall be made while the cement is wet and shall be 
in accordance with ASTM D 2855. Solvent-cement joints 
shall be permitted above or below ground. 

705.14.3 Threaded joints. Threads shall conform to 
ASME B 1.20.1. Schedule 80 or heavier pipe shall be per- 
mitted to be threaded with dies specifically designed for 
plastic pipe. Approved thread lubricant or tape shall be 
applied on the male threads only. 

705.15 Vitrified clay. Joints between vitrified clay pipe or fit- 
tings shall be made with an elastomeric seal conforming to 
ASTM C 425, ASTM C 1 173 or CAN/CSA B602. 

705.16 Joints between different materials. Joints between 
different piping materials shall be made with a mechanical 
joint of the compression or mechanical-sealing type conform- 
ing to ASTM C 1 173, ASTM C 1460 or ASTM C 1 46 1 . Con- 
nectors and adapters shall be approved for the application and 
such joints shall have an elastomeric seal conforming to ASTM 
C 425, ASTM C 443, ASTM C 564, ASTM: C 1440, ASTM D 
1869, ASTM F 477, CAN/CSA A257.3M or CAN/CSA B602, 
or as required in Sections 705.16.1 through 705.16.5. Joints 
between glass pipe and other types of materials shall be made 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



53 



SANITARY DRAINAGE 



with adapters having a TFE seal. Joints shall be installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

705.16.1 Copper or copper-alloy tubing to cast-iron hub 
pipe. Joints between copper or copper-alloy tubing and 
cast-iron hub pipe shall be made with a brass ferrule or com- 
pression joint. The copper or copper-alloy tubing shall be 
soldered to the ferrule in an approved manner, and the fer- 
rule shall be joined to the cast-iron hub by a caulked joint or 
a mechanical compression joint. 

705.16.2 Reserved. 

705.16.3 Cast-iron pipe to galvanized steel or brass pipe. 

Joints between cast-iron and galvanized steel or brass pipe 
shall be made by either caulked or threaded joints or with an 
approved adapter fitting. 

705.16.4 Plastic pipe or tubing to other piping material. 
Joints between different grades of plastic pipe or between 
plastic pipe and other piping material shall be made with an 
approved adapter fitting. Joints between plastic pipe and 
cast-iron hub pipe shall be made by a caulked joint or a 
mechanical compression joint. 

705.16.5 Lead pipe to other piping material. Joints 
between lead pipe and other piping material shall be made 
by a wiped joint to a caulking ferrule, soldering nipple, or 
bushing or shall be made with an approved adapter fitting. 

705.16.6 Borosilicate glass to other materials. Joints 
between glass pipe and other types of materials shall be 
made with adapters having a TFE seal and shall be installed 
in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. 

705.16.7 Stainless steel drainage systems to other mate- 
rials. Joints between stainless steel drainage systems and 
other piping materials shall be made with approved 
mechanical couplings. 

705.17 Drainage slip joints. Slip joints shall comply with Sec- 
tion 405.8. 

705.18 Caulking ferrules. Ferrules shall be of red brass and 
shall be in accordance with Table 705.18. 

TABLE 705.18 
CAULKING FERRULE SPECIFICATIONS 



TABLE 705.19 
SOLDERING BUSHING SPECIFICATIONS 



PIPE SIZES 
(inches) 


INSIDE DIAMETER 
(inches) 


LENGTH 
(inches) 


MINIMUM WEIGHT EACH 


2 


2% 


4>/ 2 


1 pound 


3 


3V 4 


4V 2 


1 pound 12 ounces 


4 


4'/ 4 


4'/, 


2 pounds 8 ounces 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 .mm, 1 ounce = 28.35 g, 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

705.19 Soldering bushings. Soldering bushings shall be of red 
brass and shall be in accordance with Table 705.19. 

705.20 . Stainless steel drainage systems. O-ring joints for 
stainless steel drainage systems shall be made with an 
approved el.asto.rn eric seal. 



PIPE SIZES 
(inches) 


MINIMUM WEIGHT 
EACH 


l'/ 4 


6 ounces 


l'/ 2 


8 ounces 


2 


14 ounces 


2V 2 


1 pound 6 ounces 


3 


2 pounds 


4 


3 pounds 8 ounces 



For ST: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 ounce - 28.35 g, 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 



SECTION PC 706 1 

CONNECTIONS BETWEEN DRAINAGE PIPING AND 
FITTINGS 

706.1 Connections and changes in direction. All connections 
and changes in direction of the sanitary drainage system shall 
be made with approved drainage fittings. Connections between 
drainage piping and fixtures shall conform to Section PC 405 . 1 

706.2 Obstructions. The fittings shall not have ledges, shoul- 
ders or reductions capable of retarding or obstructing flow in 
the piping. Threaded drainage pipe fittings shall be of the 
recessed drainage type. 

706.3 Installation of fittings. Fittings shall be installed to 
guide sewage and waste in the direction of flow. Change in 
direction shall be made by fittings installed in accordance with 
Table 706.3. Change in direction by combination fittings, side 
inlets or increasers shall be installed in accordance with Table 
706.3 based on the pattern of flow created by the fitting. 

TABLE 706.3 
FITTINGS FOR CHANGE IN DIRECTION 



TYPE OF FITTING 
PATTERN 


CHANGE IN DIRECTION 


Horizontal to 
vertical 


Vertical to 
horizontal 


Horizontal to 
horizontal 


Sixteenth bend 


X 


X 


X 


Eighth bend 


X 


X 


X 


Sixth bend 


X 


X 


X 


Quarter bend 


X 


x a 


x a 


Short sweep 


X 


X a.b 


x a 


Long sweep 


X 


X 


X 


Sanitary tee 


x c 


3 / 4 


3 / 4 


Wye 


x 


X 


X 


Combination wye 
and eighth bend 


X 


X 


X 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. The fittings shall only be permitted for a 2-inch or smaller fixture drain. 

b. Three inches or larger. 

c. For a limitation on double sanitary tees, see Section 706.3. 



54 



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SANITARY DRAINAGE 



1 SECTION PC 707 

PROHIBITED JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 

707.1 Prohibited joints. The following types of joints and 
connections shall be prohibited: 

1 . Cement or concrete joints. 

2. Mastic or hot-pour bituminous joints. 

3. Joints made with fittings not approved for the specific 
installation. 

4. Joints between different diameter pipes made with 
elastomeric rolling O-rings. 

5. Solvent-cement joints between different types of plastic 
pipe. 

6. Saddle-type fittings. 



SECTION PC 708 
CLEANOUTS 

708.1 Scope. This section shall govern the size, location, 
installation and maintenance of drainage pipe cleanouts. 

708.2 Cleanout plugs. Cleanout plugs shall be brass or plastic, 
or other approved materials. Brass cleanout plugs shall be uti- 
lized with metallic drain, waste and vent piping only, and shall 
conform to ASTM A 74, ASME Al 12.3.1 or ASME 
Al 12.36.2M. Cleanouts with plate-style access covers shall be 
fitted with corrosion-resisting fasteners. Plastic cleanout plugs 
shall conform to the requirements of Section 702.4. Plugs shall 
have raised square or countersunk square heads. Countersunk 
heads shall be installed where raised heads are a trip hazard. 
Cleanout plugs with borosilicate glass systems shall be of 
borosilicate glass. 

708.3 Where required. Cleanouts shall be located in accor- 
dance with Sections 708.3.1 through 708.3.4. 

708.3.1 Horizontal drains within buildings. All horizon- 
tal drains shall be provided with cleanouts located not more 
than 100 feet (30 480 mm) apart. 

708.3.2 Building sewers. Building sewers shall be pro- 
vided with cleanouts located not more than 1 00 feet (30 480 
mm) apart measured from the upstream entrance of the 
cleanout. For building sewers 8 inches (203 mm) and larger, 
manholes shall be provided and located not more than 200 
feet (60 960 mm) from the junction of the building drain and 
building sewer, at each change in direction and at intervals 
of not more than 400 feet (122 m) apart. Manholes and man- 
hole covers shall be of an approved type. 

708.3.3 Changes of direction. Cleanouts shall be installed 
at each change of direction of the building drain or horizon- 
tal waste or soil lines greater than 45 degrees (0.79 rad). 
Where more than one change of direction occurs in a run of 
piping, only one cleanout shall be required for each 40 feet 
(12 192 mm) of developed length of the drainage piping. 

708.3.4 Base of stack. A cleanout shall be provided at the 
base of each waste or soil stack. 



708.3.5 Manholes. Manholes serving a building drain shall 
have secured gas-tight covers and shall be located in accor- 
dance with Section 708.3.2. 

708.4 Concealed piping. Cleanouts on concealed piping or 
piping under a floor slab or in a crawl space of less than 24 
inches (610 mm) in height or a plenum shall be extended 
through and terminate flush with the finished wall, floor or 
ground surface or shall be extended to the outside of the build- 
ing. Cleanout plugs shall not be covered with cement, plaster or 
any other permanent finish material. Where it is necessary to 
conceal a cleanout or to terminate a cleanout in an area subject 
to vehicular traffic, the covering plate, access door or cleanout 
shall be of an approved type designed and installed for this pur- 
pose. 

708.5 Opening direction. Every cleanout shall be installed to 
open to allow cleaning in the direction of the flow of the drain- 
age pipe or at right angles thereto. 

708.6 Prohibited installation. Cleanout openings shall not be 
utilized for the installation of new fixtures, except where 
approved and where another cleanout of equal access and 
capacity is provided. 

708.7 Minimum size. Cleanouts shall be the same nominal 
size as the pipe they serve up to 4 inches (102 mm). For pipes 
larger than 4 inches (102 mm) nominal size, the minimum size 
of the cleanout shall be 4 inches ( 102 mm). 

Exceptions: 

1. "P" trap connections with slip joints or ground joint 
connections, or stack cleanouts that are not more than 
one pipe diameter smaller than the drain served, shall 
be permitted. 

2. Cast-iron cleanout sizing shall be in accordance with 
referenced standards in Table 702.4, ASTM A 74 for 
hub and spigot fittings or ASTM A 888 or CISPI 301 
for hubless fittings. 

708.8 Clearances. Cleanouts on 6-inch (1.53 mm) and smaller 
pipes shall be provided with a clearance of not less than 18 
inches (457 mm) for rodding. Cleanouts on 8-inch (203 mm) 
and larger pipes shall be provided with a clearance of not less 
than 36 inches (914 mm) for rodding. 

708.9 Access. Access shall be provided to all cleanouts. 



SECTION PC 709 
FIXTURE UNITS 

709.1 Values for fixtures. Drainage fixture unit values as 
given in Table 709.1 designate the relative load weight of dif- 
ferent kinds of fixtures that shall be employed in estimating the 
total load carried by a soil or waste pipe, and shall be used in 
connection with Tables 710.1(1) and 7 1 0. 1 (2) of sizes for soil, 
waste and vent pipes for which the permissible load is given in 
terms of fixture units. 

709.2 Fixtures not listed in Table 709.1. Fixtures not listed in 
Table 709. 1 shall have a drainage fixture unit load based on the 
outlet size of the fixture in accordance with Table 709.2. The 
minimum trap size for unlisted fixtures shall be the size of the 
drainage outlet but not less than 1 .25 inches (32 mm). 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



55 



SANITARY DRAINAGE 



TABLE 709.1 
DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS FOR FIXTURES AND GROUPS 



FIXTURE TYPE 


DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT 
VALUE AS LOAD FACTORS 


MINIMUM SIZE OF TRAP 
(inches) 


Automatic clothes washers, commercial 3 ' 8 


3 


2 


Automatic clothes washers, residential 8 


2 


2 


Bathroom group as defined in Section 202 (1.6 gpf water closet) 1 


5 


— 


Bathroom group as defined in Section 202 (water closet flushing 
greater than 1.6 gpf) f 


6 


— 


Bathtub b (with or without overhead shower or whirpool attachments) 


2 


1V 2 


Bidet 


1 


1V 4 


Combination sink and tray 


2 


1V 2 


Dental lavatory 


1 


iv 4 


Dental unit or cuspidor 


1 


1V 4 


Dishwashing machine, domestic 


2 


17 2 


Drinking fountain 


0.5 


l'/ 4 


Emergency floor drain 





2 


Floor drains 


2 


2 


Kitchen sink, domestic 


2 


J'/ 2 


Kitchen sink, domestic with food waste grinder and/or dishwasher 


2 


l'/ 2 


Laundry tray (1 or 2 compartments) 


2 


1.7 2 


Lavatory 


1 


iv 4 


Shower 


2 


17 2 


Sink 


2 


l'/ 2 


Urinal 


4 


Noted 


Urinal, 1 gallon per flush or Jess 


2 e 


Note d 


Wash sink (circular or multiple) each set of faucets 


2 


i'/ 2 


Water closet, flushometer tank, public or private 


4 e 


Noted 


Water closet, private (1 .6 gpf) 


3 e 


Note d 


Water closet, private (flushing greater than 1.6 gpf) 


4 e 


Note d 


Water closet, public (1.6 gpf) 


4 e 


Note d 


Water closet, public (flushing greater than 1.6 gpf) 


6 e 


Noted 



For SI: 1 inch - 25.4 mm, 1 gallon = 3.785 L. 

a. For traps larger than 3 inches, use Table 709.2. 

b. A showerhead over a bathtub or whirlpool bathtub attachment does not increase the drainage fixture unit value. 

c. See Sections 709.2 through 709.4 for methods of computing unit value of fixtures not listed in this table or for rating of devices with intermittent flows. 

d. Trap size shall be consistent with the fixture outlet size. 

e. For the purpose of computing loads on building drains and sewers, water closets and urinals shall not be rated at a lower drainage fixture unit unless the lower val- 
ues are confirmed by testing. 

f. For fixtures added to a dwelling unit bathroom group, add theDFU value of those additional fixtures to the bathroom group fixture count. 

g. See Section 406.3 for sizing requirements for fixture drain, branch drain, and drainage stack for an automatic clothes washer standpipe. 



56 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



SANITARY DRA5NAGE 



TABLE 709.2 

DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS FOR 

FIXTURE DRAINS OR TRAPS 



FIXTURE DRAIN OR TRAP SIZE 
(inches) 


DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNIT VALUE 


l ! / 4 


1 


l'/ 9 


2 


2 


3 


2V 9 


4 


3 


5 


4 


6 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

709.3 Va!ues for continuous and semicontinuous flow. 
Drainage fixture unit values for continuous and semicontinu- 
ous flow into a drainage system shall be computed on the basis 
that 1 gpm (0.06 L/s) of flow is equivalent to two fixture units. 

709.4 Values for indirect waste receptor. The drainage fix- 
ture unit load of an indirect waste receptor receiving the dis- 
charge of indirectly connected fixtures shall be the sum of the 
drainage fixture unit values of the fixtures that discharge to the 
receptor, but not less than the drainage fixture unit value given 
for the indirect waste receptor in Table 709.1 or 709.2. 



SECTION PC 710 
DRAINAGE SYSTEM SIZING 

710.1 Maximum fixture unit load. The maximum number of 
drainage fixture units connected to a given size of building 
sewer, building drain or horizontal branch of the building drain 
shall be determined using Table 710.1(1). The maximum num- 
ber of drainage fixture units connected to a given size of hori- 
zontal branch or vertical soil or waste stack shall be determined 
using Table 710.1(2). 

710.1.1 Horizontal stack offsets. Horizontal stack offsets 
shall be sized as required for building drains in accordance 
with Table 710.1(1), except as required by Section 71 1.4. 

710.1.2 Vertical stack offsets. Vertical stack offsets shall 
be sized as required for straight stacks in accordance with 
Table 710. 1(2), except where required to be sized as a build- 
ing drain in accordance with Section 711.1.1. 

710.2 Reserved. 



1 SECTION PC 711 

OFFSETS IN DRAINAGE PIPING IN BUILDINGS OF 
FIVE STORIES OR MORE 

711.1 Horizontal branch connections above or below verti- 
cal stack offsets. If a horizontal branch connects to the stack 
within 2 feet (610 mm) above or below a vertical stack offset, 
and the offset is located more than four branch intervals below 
the top of the stack, the offset shall be vented in accordance 
1 with Section PC 915. 

711.1.1 Omission of vents for vertical stack offsets. Vents 
for vertical offsets required by Section 711.1 shall not be 



required where the stack and its offset are sized as a building 
drain [see Table 710.1(1), Column 5]. 1 

711.2 Horizontal branch connections to horizontal stack 
offsets. Where a horizontal stack offset is located more than 
four branch intervals below the top of the stack, a horizontal 
branch shall not connect within the horizontal stack offset or 
within 2 feet (610 mm) above or below such offset. 

711.3 Horizontal stack offsets. A stack with a horizontal off- 
set located more than four branch intervals below the top of the 
stack shall be vented in accordance with Section PC 915 and § 
sized as follows: 

1 . The portion of the stack above the offset shall be sized as 
for a vertical stack based on the total number of drainage 
fixture units above the offset. 

2. The offset shall be sized in accordance with Section 
710.1.1. 

3. The portion of the stack below the offset shall be sized as 
for the offset or based on the total number of drainage 
fixture units on the entire stack, whichever is larger [see 
Table 710.1(2), Column 4]. 

711.3.1 Omission of vents for horizontal stack offsets. 
Vents for horizontal stack offsets required by Section 71 1 .3 
shall not be required where the stack and its offset are one 
pipe size larger than required for a building drain [see Table 
710.1(1), Column 5] and the entire stack and offset are not 
less in cross-sectional area than that required for a straight 
stack plus the area of an offset vent as provided for in Sec- 
tion PC 915. Omission of offset vents in accordance with 1 
this section shall not constitute approval of horizontal 
branch connections within the offset or within 2 feet (610 
mm) above or below the offset. 

711.4 Offsets below lowest branch. Where a vertical offset 
occurs in a soil or waste stack below the lowest horizontal 
branch, change in diameter of the stack because of the offset 
shall not be required. If a horizontal offset occurs in a soil or 
waste stack below the lowest horizontal branch, the required 
diameter of the offset and the stack below it shall be determined 
as for a building drain in accordance with Table 7 10.1 CO- 



SECTION PC 712 

EJECTORS 

712.1 Building subdrains. Building subdrains that cannot be 
discharged to the sewer by gravity flow shall be discharged into 
a tightly covered and vented ejector pit/basin from which the 
liquid shall be lifted and discharged into the building gravity 
drainage system by automatic pumping equipment or other 
approved method. 

712.2 Valves required. A check valve and full open valve, 
located on the discharge side of the check valve, shall be 
installed in the pump or ejector discharge piping between the 
pump or ejector and the gravity drainage system. Access shall 
be provided to such valves. Such valves will be located above 
the sump cover required by Section 712.1 or, where the dis- 
charge pipe from the ejector is below grade, the valves shall be 
accessibly located outside the sump below grade in an access 
pit with a removable access cover. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



57 



SANITARY DRAINAGE 



TABLE 710.1(1) 
BUILDING DRAINS AND SEWERS 



DIAMETER OF PIPE 

(inches) 


MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS CONNECTED TO ANY PORTION OF THE BUILDING DRAIN OR THE 
BUILDING SEWER, INCLUDING BRANCHES OF THE BUILDING DRAIN 3 


Slope per foot 


V 16 inch 


1 / 8 inch 


1 / 4 inch 


1 /2 inch 


iv 4 


— 


— 


1 


I 


17 2 


— 


— 


3 


3 


2 


— 


— 


21 


26 


2'/, 


— 


— 


24 


31 


3 


— 


36 


42 


50 


4 


— 


180 


216 


250 


5 


— 


390 


480 


575 


6 


— 


700 


840 


1,000 


8 


1 ,400 


1,600 


1,920 


2,300 


10 


2,500 


2,900 


3,500 


4,200 


12 


3,900 


4,600 


5,600 


6,700 


15 


7.000 


8,300 


10,000 


12,000 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 
a. The minimum size of any 



1 inch per foot = 83.3 mm/m. 

building drain serving a water closet shall be 3 inches. 



TABLE 710.1(2) 
HORIZONTAL FIXTURE BRANCHES AND STACKS a 



DIAMETER OF PIPE 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM NUMBER OF DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS (dfu) 


Total for horizontal branch 


Stacks b 


Total discharge into one 
branch interval 


Total for stack of three 
branch Intervals or less 


Total for stack greater than 
three branch intervals 


1V 9 


3 


2 


4 


8 


2 


6 


6 


10 


24 


2% 


12 


9 


20 


42 


3 


20 


20 


48 


72 


4 


160 


90 


240 


500 


5 


360 


200 


540 


1,100 


6 


620 


350 


960 


1,900 


8 


1,400 


600 


2,200 


3,600 


10 


2,500 


1,000 


3,800 


5,600 


12 


3,900 


1,500 


6,000 


8,400 


15 


7,000 


Notec 


Notec 


Note c 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Does not include branches of the building drain. Refer to Table 710.1(1). 

b. Stacks shal 1 be sized based on the total accumulated connected load at each story or branch interval. As the total accumulated connected load decreases, stacks are 
permitted to be reduced in size. Stack diameters shall not be reduced to less than one-half of the diameter of the laigest stack size required. 

c. Sizing load based on design criteria. 



58 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



SANITARY DRAINAGE 



I 7123 Ejector design. The ejector pit and discharge piping 
shall conform to the requirements of Sections 712.3.1 through 
712.3.5. 

1 712.3.1 Ejector pump. The ejector pump capacity and head 
shall be appropriate to anticipated use requirements. 

1 712.3.2 Ejector pit. The ejector pit shall be not less than 1 8 
inches (457 mm) in diameter and 24 inches (610 mm) deep, 
unless otherwise approved. The pit shall be accessible and 
located such that all drainage flows into the pit by gravity. 

I The ejector pit shall be constructed of tile, concrete, steel, 
plastic or other approved materials. The pit bottom shall be 
solid and provide permanent support for the pump. The 

§ ejector pit shall be fitted with a gas-tight removable cover 
adequate to support anticipated loads in the area of use. The 

1 ejector pit shall be vented in accordance with Chapter 9. 

712.3.3 Discharge piping. Discharge piping shall meet the 
requirements of Section 712.2. 

712.3.4 Maximum effluent level. The effluent level control 
shall be adjusted and maintained to at all times prevent the 

■# effluent from rising to within 2 inches (5 1 mm) of the invert 
of the gravity drain inlet into the sump. 

712.3.5 Ejector connection to the drainage system. 
Pumps connected to the drainage system shall connect to the 
building sewer or shall connect to a wye fitting in the build- 
ing drain a minimum of 10 feet (3048 mm) from the base of 
any soil stack, waste stack or fixture drain. Where the dis- 
charge line connects into horizontal drainage piping, the 
connector shall be made through a wye fitting into the top of 
the drainage piping. 

712.4 Sewage pumps and sewage ejectors. A sewage pump 
or sewage ejector shall automatically discharge the contents of 

I the pit to the building drainage system downstream of the 
house trap. 

712.4.1 Macerating toilet systems. Macerating toilet sys- 
tems shall comply with CSA B45.9 or ASME Al 12.3.4 and 
shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's 
installation instructions. 

712.4.2 Capacity. A sewage pump or sewage ejector shall 
have the capacity and head for the application requirements. 
Pumps or ejectors that receive the discharge of water closets 
shall be capable of handling spherical solids with a diameter 
of up to and including 2 inches (51 mm). Other pumps or 
ejectors shall be capable of handling spherical solids with a 
diameter of up to and including 1 inch (25.4 mm). The mini- 
mum capacity of a pump or ejector based on the diameter of 
the discharge pipe shall be in accordance with Table 
712.4.2. 

Exceptions: 

1 . Grinder pumps or grinder ejectors that receive the 
discharge of water closets shall have a minimum 
discharge opening of 1.25 inches (32 mm). 

2. Macerating toilet assemblies that serve single 
water closets shall have a minimum discharge 
opening of 0.75 inch (19 mm). 



TABLE 712.4.2 

MINIMUM CAPACITY OF SEWAGE PUMP 

OR SEWAGE EJECTOR 



DIAMETER OF THE DISCHARGE 
PIPE (inches) 


CAPACITY OF PUMP OR EJECTOR 
(gpm) 


2 


21 


2V 2 


30 


3 


46 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m. 



SECTION PC 713 
HEALTH CARE PLUMBING 

713.1 Scope. This section shall govern those aspects of health 
care plumbing systems that differ from plumbing systems in 
other structures. Health care plumbing systems shall conform 
to this section in addition to the other requirements of this code. 
The provisions of this section shall apply to the special devices 
and equipment installed and maintained in the following occu- 
pancies: nursing homes; homes for the aged; orphanages; infir- 
maries; first aid stations; psychiatric facilities; clinics; 
professional offices of dentists and doctors; mortuaries; educa- 
tional facilities; surgery, dentistry, research and testing labora- 
tories; establishments manufacturing pharmaceutical drugs 
and medicines; and other structures with similar apparatus and 
equipment classified as plumbing. 

713.2 Bedpan washers and clinical sinks. Bedpan washers 
and clinical sinks shall connect to the drainage and vent system 
in accordance with the requirements for a water closet. Bedpan 
washers shall also connect to a local vent. 

713.3 Indirect waste. All sterilizers, steamers and condensers 
shall discharge to the drainage through an indirect waste pipe 
by means of an air gap. Where a battery of not more than three 
sterilizers discharges to an individual receptor, the distance 
between the receptor and a sterilizer shall not exceed 8 feet 
(2438 mm). The indirect waste pipe on a bedpan steamer shall 
be trapped. 

713.4 Vacuum system station. Ready access shall be provided 
to vacuum system station receptacles. Such receptacles shall be 
built into cabinets or recesses and shall be visible. 

713.5 Bottle system. Vacuum (fluid suction) systems intended 
for collecting, removing and disposing of blood, pus or other 
fluids by the bottle system shall be provided with receptacles 
equipped with an overflow prevention device at each vacuum 
outlet station. 

713.6 Central disposal system equipment. All central vac- 
uum (fluid suction) systems shall provide continuous service. 
Systems equipped with collecting or control tanks shall pro- 
vide for draining and cleaning of the tanks while the system is 
in operation. In hospitals, the system shall be connected to the 
emergency power system. The exhausts from a vacuum pump 
serving a vacuum (fluid suction) system shall discharge sepa- 
rately to open air above the roof. 

713.7 Central vacuum or disposal systems. Where the waste 
from a central vacuum (fluid suction) system of the baromet- 
ric-lag, collection-tank or bottle-disposal type is connected to 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



59 



SANITARY DRAINAGE 



the drainage system, the waste shall be directly connected to 
the sanitary drainage system through a trapped waste. 

713.7.1 Piping. The piping of a central vacuum (fluid suc- 
tion) system shall be of corrosion-resistant material with a 
smooth interior surface. A branch shall not be less than 0.5 
inch (12.7 mm) nominal pipe size for one outlet and shall be 
sized in accordance with the number of vacuum outlets. A 
main shall not be less than I inch (25 mm) nominal pipe 
size. The pipe sizing shall be increased in accordance with 
the manufacturer's instructions as stations are increased. 

713.7.2 Velocity. The velocity of airflow in a central vac- 
uum (fluid suction) system shall be less than 5,000 feet per 
minute (25 m/s). 

713.8 Vent connections prohibited. Connections between 
local vents serving bedpan washers or sterilizer vents serving 
sterilizing apparatus and normal sanitary plumbing systems are 
prohibited. Only one type of apparatus shall be served by a 
local vent. 

713.9 Local vents and stacks for bedpan washers. Bedpan 
washers shall be vented to open air above the roof by means of 
one or more local vents. The local vent for a bedpan washer 
shall not be less than a 2-inch-diameter (51 mm) pipe. A local 
vent serving a single bedpan washer is permitted to drain to the 
fixture served. 

713.9.1 Multiple installations. Where bedpan washers are 
located above each other on more than one floor, a local vent 
stack is permitted to be installed to receive the local vent on 
the various floors. Not more than three bedpan washers shall 
be connected to a 2-inch (5 1 mm) local vent stack, not more 
than six to a 3-inch (76 mm) local vent stack and not more 
than 12 to a 4-inch (102 mm) local vent stack. In multiple 
installations, the connections between a bedpan washer 
local vent and a local vent stack shall be made with tee or 
tee- wye sanitary pattern drainage fittings installed in an 
upright position. 

713.9.2 Trap required. The bottom of the local vent stack, 
except where serving only one bedpan washer, shall be 
drained by means of a trapped and vented waste connection 
to the sanitary drainage system. The trap and waste shall be 
the same size as the local vent stack. 

713.9.3 Trap seal maintenance. A water supply pipe not 
less than 7 4 inch (6.4 mm) in diameter shall be taken from 
the flush supply of each bedpan washer on the discharge or 
fixture side of the vacuum breaker, shall be trapped to form 
not less than a 3-inch (76 mm) water seal, and shall be con- 
nected to the local vent stack on each floor. The water sup- 
ply shall be installed so as to provide a supply of water to the 
local vent stack for cleansing and drain trap seal mainte- 
nance each time a bedpan washer is flushed. 

713.10 Sterilizer vents and stacks. Multiple installations of 
pressure and nonpressure sterilizers shall have the vent connec- 
tions to the sterilizer vent stack made by means of inverted wye 
fittings. Access shall be provided to vent connections for the 
purpose of inspection and maintenance. 

713.10.1 Drainage. The connection between sterilizer vent 
or exhaust openings and the sterilizer vent stack shall be 
designed and installed to drain to the funnel or basket-type 



waste fitting. In multiple installations, the sterilizer vent 
stack shall be drained separately to the lowest sterilizer fun- 
nel or basket-type waste fitting or receptor. 

713.11 Sterilizer vent stack sizes. Sterilizer vent stack sizes 
shall comply with Sections 713.11.1 through 713.11.4. 

713.11.1 Bedpan steamers. The minimum size of a steril- 
izer vent serving a bedpan steamer shall be 1 .50 inches (38 
mm) in diameter. Multiple installations shall be sized in 
accordance with Table 713.11.1. 

713.11.2 Boiling- type sterilizers. The minimum size of a 
sterilizer vent stack shall be 2 inches (51 mm) in diameter 
where serving a utensil sterilizer and 1.5 inches (38 mm) in 
diameter where serving an instrument sterilizer. Combina- 
tions of boiling-type sterilizer vent connections shall be 
sized in accordance with Table 7 13.1 1 . 1 . 

TABLE 713.11.1 

STACK SIZES FOR BEDPAN STEAMERS AND 

BOILING-TYPE STERILIZERS 

(Number of Connections of Various Sizes 

Permitted to Various-sized Sterilizer Vent Stacks) 



STACK SIZE 
(inches) 


CONNECTION SIZE 


1V 




2" 


l7 2 a 


1 


or 





2 a 


2 


or 


1 


2 b 


1 and 1 


3 a 


4 


or 


2 


3 b 


2 


and 


2 


4 :i 


8 


or 


4 


4 b 


4 


and 


4 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Total of each size. 

b. Combination of sizes. 

713.11.3 Pressure sterilizers. Pressure sterilizer vent 
stacks shall be 2.5 inches (64 mm) minimum. Those serving 
combinations of pressure sterilizer exhaust connections 
shall be sized in accordance with Table 71 3.1 1 .3. 

713.11.4 Pressure Instrument washer sterilizer sizes. 
The minimum diameter of a sterilizer vent stack serving an 
instrument washer sterilizer shall be 2 inches (51 mm). Not 
more than two sterilizers shall be installed on a 2-inch 
(51mm) stack, and not more than four sterilizers shall be 
installed on a 3 -inch (76 mm) stack. 



SECTION PC 714 
COMPUTERIZED DRAINAGE DESIGN 

714.1 Design of drainage system. The sizing, design and lay- 
out of the drainage system shall be permitted to be designed by 
approved computer design methods. 

714.2 Load on drainage system. The load shall be computed 
from the simultaneous or sequential discharge conditions from 
fixtures, appurtenances and appliances or the peak usage 
design condition. 



60 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



TABLE 713.11.3 

STACK SIZES FOR PRESSURE STERILIZERS 

(Number of Connections of Various Sizes Permitted 

To Various-sized Vent Stacks) 



STACK SIZE 
(inches) 


CONNECTION SIZE 


3/ „ 
7 4 


1" 


1V 


iV 


l7 2 a 


3 or 


2 or 


1 


— 


l'/ 2 b 


2 and 


1 


— 


— 


2 a 


6 or 


3 or 


2 or 


1 


2 b 


3 and 


2 


— 


— 


2 b 


2 and 


1 and 


1 


— 


2 b 


I and 


1 and 


— 


1 


3a 


15 or 


7 or 


5 or 


3 


3 b 


1 and 


1 and 
5 and 


2 and 


2 
1 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm. 

a. Total of each size. 

b. Combination of sizes. 

714.2.1 Fixture discharge profiles. The discharge profiles 
for flow rates versus time from fixtures and appliances shall 
be in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications. 

714.3 Selections of drainage pipe sizes. Pipe shall be sized to 
prevent full-bore flow. 

714.3.1 Selecting pipe wall roughness. Pipe size calcula- 
tions shall be conducted with the pipe wall roughness factor 
(ks), in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications 
and as modified for aging roughness factors with deposits 
and corrosion. 

714.3.2 Slope of horizontal drainage piping. Horizontal 
drainage piping shall be designed and installed at slopes in 
accordance with Table 704.1. 



SECTION PC 715 
BACKWATER VALVES 

715.1 Sewage backflow. Where fixtures, floor drains, or area 
drains are subject to overflow as the result of backwater from 
the public sewer system, accessible backwater valves shall be 
installed in the fixture drain pipe from such fixture, in the 
branch drain to such area drain or group of fixtures, or in the 
building drain at its point of exit from the building and down- 
stream from the building trap. 

715.2 Material. All bearing parts of backwater valves shall be 
of corrosion-resistant material. Backwater valves shall comply 
with ASME Al 12.14.1, CSA B181.1 or CSA B181.2. 

715.3 Seal. Backwater valves shall be so constructed as to pro- 
vide a mechanical seal against backflow. The flap shall be so 
designed as to hang partially open when not subject to back- 
water pressure. 

715.4 Diameter. Backwater valves, when fully opened, shall 
have a capacity not less than that of the pipes in which they are 
installed. 



SANITARY DRAINAGE 



715.5 Accessibility. Backwater valves shall be installed so that 
access is provided to the working parts for service and repair. 
Masonry access manholes shall be provided when the center- 
line of any drain line is 18 inches (457 mm) or more below a 
slab on grade. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



61 



62 2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



CHAPTER 8 

INDIRECT/SPECIAL WASTE 



SECTION PC 801 
GENERAL 

801.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern matters concerning 
indirect waste piping and special wastes. This chapter shall fur- 
ther control matters concerning food-handling establishments, 
sterilizers, clear-water wastes, swimming pools, methods of 
providing air breaks or air gaps, and neutralizing devices for 
corrosive wastes. 

801.2 Protection. All devices, appurtenances, appliances and 
apparatus intended to serve some special function, such as ster- 
ilization, distillation, processing, cooling, or storage of ice or 
foods, and that discharge to the drainage system, shall be pro- 
vided with protection against backflow, flooding, fouling, con- 
tamination and stoppage of the drain. 



SECTION PC 802 
INDIRECT WASTES 

802.1 Where required. Food-handling equipment and 
clear- water waste shall discharge through an indirect waste 
pipe as specified in Sections 802.1.1 through 802.1.7. All 
health-care related fixtures, devices and equipment shall dis- 
charge to the drainage system through an indirect waste pipe by 
means of an air gap in accordance with this chapter and Section 
713.3. Fixtures not required by this section to be indirectly con- 
nected shall be directly connected to the plumbing system in 
accordance with Chapter 7. 

802.1.1 Food handling. Equipment and fixtures utilized for 
the storage, preparation and handling of food shall dis- 
charge through an indirect waste pipe by means of an air 
gap. 

802.1.2 Floor drains in food storage areas. Floor drains 
located within walk-in refrigerators or freezers in food ser- 
vice and food establishments shall be indirectly connected 
to the sanitary drainage system by means of an air gap. 
Where a floor drain is located within an area subject to 
freezing, the waste line serving the floor drain shall not be 
trapped and shall indirectly discharge into a waste receptor 
located outside of the area subject to freezing. 

Exception: Where protected against backflow by a 
backwater valve, such floor drains shall be indirectly 
connected to the sanitary drainage system by means of an 
air break or an air gap. 

802.1.3 Potable clear-water waste. Where devices and 
equipment, such as sterilizers and relief valves, discharge 
potable water to the building drainage system, the discharge 
shall be through an indirect waste pipe by means of an air 
gap. 

802.1.4 Swimming pools. Where wastewater from swim- 
ming pools, backwash from filters and water from pool deck 
drains discharge to the building drainage system, the dis- 



charge shall be through an indirect waste pipe by means of 
an air gap. 

802.1.5 Nonpotable clear-water waste. Where devices 
and equipment such as process tanks, filters, drips and boil- 
ers discharge nonpotable water to the building drainage sys- 
tem, the discharge shall be through an indirect waste pipe by 
means of an air break or an air gap. 

802.1.6 Domestic Dishwashing machines. Domestic 
dishwashing machines shall discharge indirectly through an 
air gap or air break into a standpipe or waste receptor in 
accordance with Section 802.2, or discharge into a 
wye-branch fitting on the tailpiece of the kitchen sink or the 
dishwasher connection of a food waste grinder. The waste 
line of a domestic dishwashing machine discharging into a 
kitchen sink tailpiece or food waste grinder shall connect to 
a deck-mounted air gap or the waste line shall rise and be 
securely fastened to the underside of the sink rim or counter. 

802.1.7 Commercial dishwashing machines. The dis- 
charge from a commercial dishwashing machine shall be 
through an air gap or air break into a standpipe or waste 
receptor in accordance with Section 802.2. 

802.2 Installation. All indirect waste piping shall discharge 
through an air gap or air break into a waste receptor or 
standpipe. Waste receptors and standpipes shall be trapped and 
vented and shall connect to the building drainage system. All 
indirect waste piping that exceeds 2 feet (610 mm) in devel- 
oped length measured horizontally, or 4 feet (i 219 mm) in total 
developed length, shall be trapped. 

802.2.1 Air gap. The air gap between the indirect waste 
pipe and the flood level rim of the waste receptor shall be a 
minimum of twice the effective opening of the indirect 
waste pipe. 

802.2.2 Air break. An air break shall be provided between 
the indirect waste pipe and the trap seal of the waste receptor 
or standpipe. 

802.3 Waste receptors. Every waste receptor shall be of an 
approved type. A removable strainer or basket shall cover the 
waste outlet of waste receptors. Waste receptors shall be 
installed in ventilated spaces. Waste receptors shall not be 
installed in bathrooms or toilet rooms or in any inaccessible or 
unventilated space such as a closet or storeroom. Ready access 
shall be provided to waste receptors. 

802.3.1 Size of receptors. A waste receptor shall be sized 
for the maximum discharge of all indirect waste pipes 
served by the receptor. Receptors shall be installed to pre- 
vent splashing or flooding. 

802.3.2 Open hub waste receptors. Waste receptors shall 
be permitted in the form of a hub or pipe extending not less 
than 1 inch (25.4 mm) above a water-impervious floor and 
are not required to have a strainer. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



63 



INDIRECT/SPECIAL WASTE 



802.4 Standpipes. Standpipes shall be individually 
trapped. Standpipes shall extend a minimum of 18 inches (457 
mm) and a maximum of 42 inches (1067 mm) above the trap 
weir. Access shall be provided to all standpipes and drains for 
rodding. 

SECTION PC 803 
SPECIAL WASTES 

803.1 Wastewater temperature. Steam pipes shall not con- 
nect to any part of a drainage or plumbing system and water 
above 1 50°F (66°C) shall not be discharged into any part of a 
drainage system. Such pipes shall discharge into an indirect 
waste receptor connected to the drainage system. 

803.2 Neutralizing device required for corrosive wastes. 
Corrosive liquids, spent acids or other harmful chemicals that 
destroy or injure a drain, sewer, soil or waste pipe, or create 
noxious or toxic fumes or interfere with sewage treatment pro- 
cesses shall not be discharged into the plumbing system with- 
out being thoroughly neutralized or treated in accordance with 
the requirements of the£ Department of Environmental Protec- 
tion. 

803.3 System design. A chemical drainage and vent system 
shall be designed and installed in accordance with this code. 
Chemical drainage and vent systems shall be completely sepa- 
rated from the sanitary systems. Chemical waste shall not dis- 
charge to a sanitary drainage system until such waste has been 
treated in accordance with Section 803.2. 



SECTION PC 804 

MATERIALS, JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 

804.1 General. The materials and methods utilized for the con- 
struction and installation of indirect waste pipes and systems 
shall comply with the applicable provisions of Chapter 7. 



64 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



CHAPTER 9 

VENTS 



1 SECTION PC 901 

GENERAL 

901.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
materials, design, construction and installation of vent sys- 
tems. 

901.2 Trap sea! protection. The plumbing system shall be 
provided with a system of vent piping that will permit the 
admission or emission of air so that the seal of any fixture trap 
shall not be subjected to a pneumatic pressure differential of 
more than 1 inch of water column (249 Pa). 

901.2.1 Venting required. Every trap and trapped fixture 
shall be vented in accordance with one of the venting meth- 
ods specified in this chapter. 

9013 Chemical waste vent system. The vent system for a 
chemical waste system shall be independent of the sanitary 
vent system and shall terminate separately through the roof to 
the open air. 

901.4 Use limitations. The plumbing vent system shall not be 
utilized for purposes other than the venting of the plumbing 
system. 

901.5 Tests. The vent system shall be tested in accordance with 
1 Section PC 312. 

901.6 Engineered systems. Engineered venting systems shall 
1 conform to the provisions of Section PC 918. 



SECTION PC 902 
MATERIALS 

902.1 Vents. The materials and methods utilized for the con- 
struction and installation of venting systems shall comply with 
the applicable provisions of Section PC 702. 

902.2 Sheet copper. Sheet copper for vent pipe flashings shall 
conform to ASTM B 152 and shall weigh not less than 8 ounces 
per square foot (2.5 kg/m 2 ). 

902.3 Sheet lead. Sheet lead for vent pipe flashings shall weigh 
not less than 3 pounds per square foot (15 kg/m 2 ) for field-con- 
structed flashings and not less than 2.5 pounds per square foot 
(12 kg/m 2 ) for prefabricated flashings. 



SECTION PC 903 
VENT STACKS AND STACK VENTS 

903.1 Stack required. Every building in which plumbing is 
installed shall have at least one 4-inch (102 mm) vent stack (or 
stack vent). Such stack shall run undiminished in size and as 
directly as possible from the building drain through to the open 
air above the roof. 

903.1.1 Connection to drainage system. A vent stack shall 
connect to the building drain or to the base of a drainage 



stack in accordance with Section 903.4. A stack vent shall 
be an extension of the drainage stack. 

903.2 Vent stack required. A vent stack shall be required for 
every drainage stack that is three branch intervals or more. 

903.3 Vent termination. Every vent stack or stack vent shall 
terminate outdoors above the roof or to the stack vent portion of 
the soil or waste stack, at least 6 inches (152 mm) above the 
flood level of the highest fixture connection discharging into 
the soil or waste stack. 

903.4 Vent connection at base. Every vent stack shall connect 
to the base of the drainage stack. The vent stack shall connect at 
or below the lowest horizontal branch. Where the vent stack 
connects to the building drain, the connection shall be located 
downstream of the drainage stack and within a distance of 10 
times the diameter of the drainage stack. 

903.5 Vent headers. Stack vents and vent stacks connected 
into a common vent header at the top of the stacks and extend- 
ing to the open air above the roof at one point shall be sized in 
accordance with the requirements of Section 916.1 , but shall 
not be smaller than the smallest stack vent. The number of fix- 
ture units shall be the sum of all fixture units on all stacks con- 
nected thereto, and the developed length shall be the longest 
vent length from the intersection at the base of the most distant 
stack to the vent terminal in the open air, as a direct extension of 
one stack. 

903.6 Sub-stack connections. Where it is desired to terminate 
stacks at a point below the roof terminus of the main vent stack, 
the sub-stack may connect to the main vent stack provided the 
portion of the main vent stack above the connection is sized for 
the total fixture unit load connected thereto, and for the maxi- 
mum developed length of the stack or sub-stack. 



SECTION PC 904 
VENT TERMINALS 

904.1 Roof extension. All open vent pipes that extend through 
a roof shall be terminated at least 24 inches (6 1 mm) above the 
roof, except that where a roof is to be used for any purpose 
other than weather protection or maintenance, the vent exten- 
sions shall be run at least 7 feet (2134 mm) above the roof. 
Approved vandal-resistant vent caps may be used. 

904.2 Frost closure. Where the 97.5-percent value for outside 
design temperature is 0°F (-1 8° C) or less, every vent extension 
through a roof shall be a minimum of 4 inches (102 mm) in 
diameter. Any increase in the size of the vent shall be made 
inside the structure directly below the roof. 

904.3 Flashings. The juncture of each vent pipe with the roof 
line shall be made water tight by an approved flashing. 

904.4 Prohibited use. Vent terminals shall not be used as a flag 
pole or to support flag poles, television aerials or similar items. < 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



65 



VENTS 



904,5 Location of vent terminal. Locations of vent terminals 
shall comply with Sections 904.5.1 and 904.5.2. 

904.5.1 New vent terminals. An open vent terminal from a 
drainage system of the new or altered building shall not be 
located directly beneath any door, operable window, or 
other air intake opening of the building or of an adjacent 
building, and any such vent terminal shall not be within 10 
feet (3048 mm) horizontally of such an opening unless it is 
at least 3 feet (914 mm) above the top of such opening. 
When the consent of the owner of an adjoining taller build- 
ing is obtained, the owner of the new or altered building 
shall be permitted to carry the new vent stack, with adequate 
support, to a level above the higher existing roof. 

904.5.2 New openings. A door, operable window, or other 
air intake opening of the new or altered building shall not be 
located within 1 feet (3048 mm) horizontally from an open 
vent terminal from a drainage system of an existing adjacent 
building unless the existing terminal is at least 3 feet (914 
mm) above such opening. Whenever necessary, the owner 
of the new building shall at his or her own expense, and with 
approval of the adjoining owner, offset the vent stack of the 
adjacent existing building to a distance of 10 feet (3048 mm) 
or more from such openings, or shall extend such vent stack 
to a height of at least 3 feet (924 mm) above the topmost 
opening. 

904.6 Reserved. 

904.7 Reserved. 



§ SECTION PC 905 

VENT CONNECTIONS AND GRADES 

905.1 Connection. All individual, branch and circuit vents 
■► shall connect to a vent stack, stack vent, or extend to the open 

§ air above the roof. 

905.2 Grade. All vent and branch vent pipes shall be so graded 
and connected as to drain back to the drainage pipe by gravity. 

905.3 Vent connection to drainage system. Every dry vent 
connecting to a horizontal drain shall connect above the center- 
line of the horizontal drain pipe. 

1 905.4 Reserved. 

905.5 Height above fixtures. A connection between a vent 
pipe and a vent stack or stack vent shall be made at least 6 
inches ( 1 52 mm) above the flood level rim of the highest fixture 
served by the vent. Horizontal vent pipes forming branch vents, 
relief vents or loop vents shall be at least 6 inches (152 mm) 
above the flood level rim of the highest fixture served. 

905.6 Vent for future fixtures. Where the drainage piping has 
been roughed-in for future fixtures, a rough-in connection for a 

■ vent shall be installed. The vent size shall be not less than one- 
half the diameter of the rough-in drain to be served. The vent 
rough-in shall connect to the vent system, or shall be vented by 
other means as provided for in this chapter. The connection 
shall be identified to indicate that it is a vent. 



SECTION PC 906 
FIXTURE VENTS 

906.1 Reserved. 

906.2 Venting of fixture drains. The vent for a fixture drain, 
except where serving a fixture with integral traps, such as water 
closets, shall connect above the weir of the fixture trap being 
vented. 

906.3 Crown vent. A vent shall not be installed within two 
pipe diameters of the trap weir. 



SECTION PC 907 

INDIVIDUAL VENT 

907.1 Individual vent permitted. Each trap and trapped fix- 
ture is permitted to be provided with an individual vent. The 
individual vent shall connect not more than 4 feet ( 1 2 1 9 mm) to 
the fixture drain of the trap or trapped fixture being vented. 

907.2 Floor drain vents. No vents will be required for piping 
serving floor drains when the floor drain is located not more 
than 15 feet (4572 mm) from a vented line. 



SECTION PC 908 
COMMON VENT 

908.1 Individual vent as common vent. An individual vent is 
permitted to vent two traps or trapped fixtures as a common 
vent. The traps or trapped fixtures being common vented shall 
be located on the same floor level. 

908.2 Connection at the same level. Where the fixture drains 
being common vented connect at the same level, the vent con- 
nection shall be at the interconnection of the fixture drains. 

908.3 Connection at different levels. Where the fixture drains 
connect at different levels, the vent shall connect as a vertical 
extension of the vertical drain. The vertical drain pipe connect- 
ing the two fixture drains shall be considered the vent for the 
lower fixture drain, and shall be sized in accordance with Table 
908.3. The upper fixture shall not be a water closet. 

TABLE 908.3 
COMMON VENT SIZES 



1 

I 



PIPE SIZE (inches) 


MAXIMUM DISCHARGE FROM 
UPPER FIXTURE DRAIN (dfu) 


l 1 /, 


1 


2 


4 


27, to 3 


6 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 r 



SECTION PC 909 

WET VENTING 

909.1 Wet vent permitted. Any combination of fixtures 
within one bathroom group located in the same room are per- 
mitted to be vented by a wet vent. The wet vent shall be consid- 
ered the vent for the fixtures and shall extend from the 
connection of the dry vent along the direction of the flow in the 
drain pipe to the most downstream fixture drain connection to 
the horizontal branch drain. Only the fixtures within the bath- 



66 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



VENTS 



room groups shall connect to the wet- vented horizontal branch 
drain. Any additional fixtures shall discharge downstream of 
the wet vent. 

909.2 Vent connection. The dry vent connection to the wet 
vent shall be an individual vent or common vent to the lavatory, 
bidet, shower or bathtub. The dry vent shall be sized based on 
the largest required diameter of pipe within the wet vent system 
served by the dry vent. 

909.3 Size. The wet vent shall be a minimum size of 2 inches 
(51 mm). 



911.4.2 Fixture drain or branch. The relief vent is permit- 
ted to be a fixture drain or fixture branch for fixtures located 
within the same branch interval as the circuit- vented hori- 
zontal branch. The maximum discharge to a relief vent shall 
be four fixture units. 

911.5 Additional fixtures. Fixtures, other than the cir- 
cuit-vented fixtures, are permitted to discharge to the horizon- 
tal branch drain. Such fixtures shall be located on the same 
floor as the circuit- vented fixtures and shall be either individu- 
ally or common vented. 



i SECTION PC 910 

WASTE STACK VENT 

| RESERVED 



SECTION PC 911 
CIRCUIT VENTING 

911.1 Circuit vent permitted. A maximum of eight fixtures 
connected to a horizontal branch drain shall be permitted to be 
circuit vented. Each fixture drain shall connect horizontally to 
the horizontal branch being circuit vented. The horizontal 
branch drain shall be classified as a vent from the most down- 
stream fixture drain connection to the most upstream fixture 
drain connection to the horizontal branch. 

911.1.1 Multiple circuit- vented branches. Circuit- vented 
horizontal branch drains are permitted to be connected 
together. Each group of a maximum of eight fixtures shall be 
considered a separate circuit vent and shall conform to the 
requirements of this section. 

911.2 Vent connection. The circuit vent connection shall be 
located between the two most upstream fixture drains. The vent 
shall connect to the horizontal branch and shall be installed in 
accordance with Section 905. The circuit vent pipe shall not 
receive the discharge of any soil or waste. 

911.3 Slope and size of horizontal branch. The maximum 
slope of the vent section of the horizontal branch drain shall be 
one unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (8-percent slope). The 
entire length of the vent section of the horizontal branch drain 
shall be sized for the total drainage discharge to the branch. 

911.3.1 Size of multiple circuit vent. Each separate cir- 
cuit-vented horizontal branch that is interconnected shall be 
sized independently in accordance with Section 91 1.3. The 
downstream circuit- vented horizontal branch shall be sized 
for the total discharge into the branch, including the 
upstream branches and the fixtures within the branch. 

911.4 Relief vent A relief vent shall be provided for circuit 
vented horizontal branches receiving the discharge of four or 
more water closets and connecting to a drainage stack that 
receives the discharge of soil or waste from upper horizontal 
branches. 

911.4.1 Connection and installation. The relief vent shall 
connect to the horizontal branch drain between the stack and 
the most downstream fixture drain of the circuit vent. The 
relief vent shall be installed in accordance with Section PC 
905. 



SECTION PC 912 
COMBINATION DRAIN AND VENT SYSTEM 

912.1 Permitted combination waste and vent system. A 
combination waste and vent piping system, limited for use as a 
means of venting the traps of floor drains and laboratory sinks, 
shall be permitted in conjunction with horizontal branch waste 
piping of an independent flammable oil waste system or acid 
waste systems, and as described under indirect wastes and spe- 
cial wastes. 

912.2 Installation. Combination drain and vent system shall 
comply with this section. 

912.2.1 Slope. The horizontal combination drain and vent 
pipe shall have a maximum slope of one-half unit vertical in 
12 units horizontal (4-percent slope). The minimum slope 
shall be in accordance with Table 704. 1 . 

912.2.2 Connection. The combination drain and vent sys- 
tem shall be provided with a dry vent connected at any point 
within the system or the system shall connect to a horizontal 
drain that is vented in accordance with one of the venting 
methods specified in this chapter. Combination drain and 
vent systems connecting to building drains receiving only 
the discharge from a stack or stacks shall be provided with a 
dry vent. The vent connection to the combination drain and 
vent pipe shall extend vertically a minimum of 6 inches ( 152 
mm) above the flood level rim of the highest fixture being 
vented before offsetting horizontally. 

912.2.3 Vent size. The vent shall be sized for the total drain- 
age fixture unit load in accordance with Section 916.2. 

912.3 Size. The minimum size of a combination drain and vent 
pipe shall be in accordance with Table 912.3. 

TABLE 912.3 
SIZE OF COMBINATION DRAIN AND VENT PIPE 



DIAMETER PIPE 
(inches) 


MAXIMUM NUMBER OF 
DRAINAGE FIXTURE UNITS (dfu) 


Connecting to 

a horizontal 

branch or stack 


Connecting to a 
building drain or 
building subdrain 


2 


3 


4 


27 2 


6 


26 


3 


12 


31 


4 


20 


50 


5 


160 


250 


6 


360 


575 



For SI: ] inch = 25.4 mm. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



67 



VEMTS 



SECTION PC 91 3 

ISLAND FIXTURE VENTING 

913.1 Limitation. Island fixture venting shall not be permitted 
for fixtures other than sinks and lavatories. Residential kitchen 
sinks with a dishwasher waste connection, a food waste 
grinder, or both, in combination with the kitchen sink waste, 
shall be permitted to be vented in accordance with this section. 

913.2 Vent connection. The island fixture vent shall connect to 
the fixture drain as required for an individual or common vent. 
The vent shall rise vertically to above the drainage outlet of the 
fixture being vented before offsetting horizontally or vertically 
downward. The vent or branch vent for multiple island fixture 
vents shall extend to a minimum of 6 inches (152 mm) above 
the highest island fixture being vented before connecting to the 
outside vent terminal. 

913.3 Vent installation below the fixture flood level rim. The 
vent located below the flood level rim of the fixture being 
vented shall be installed as required for drainage piping in 
accordance with Chapter 7, except for sizing. The vent shall be 
sized in accordance with Section 916.2. The lowest point of the 
island fixture vent shall connect full size to the drainage sys- 
tem. The connection shall be to a vertical drain pipe or to the top 
half of a horizontal drain pipe. Cleanouts shall be provided in 
the island fixture vent to permit rodding of all vent piping 
located below the flood level rim of the fixtures. Rodding in 
both directions shall be permitted through a cleanout. 



| SECTION PC 914 

RELIEF VENTS— STACKS OF MORE THAN 10 
BRANCH INTERVALS 

914,1 Where required. Soil and waste stacks in buildings hav- 
| ing more than 1 branch intervals shall be provided with a yoke 
relief vent at each tenth interval installed, beginning with the 
top floor. 

1 914.2 Size and connection. The size of the relief yoke vent 
shall be equal to the size of the vent stack to which it connects. 
The lower end of each relief vent shall connect to the soil or 
waste stack through a wye below the horizontal branch serving 
the floor, and the upper end shall connect to the vent stack 

| through a tee or inverted wye not less than 3 feet (914 mm) 
above the floor. 



SECTION PC 915 
VENTS FOR STACK OFFSETS 

915.1 Vent for horizontal offset of drainage stack. Horizon- 
tal offsets of drainage stacks shall be vented where five or more 
branch intervals are located above the offset. The offset shall be 
vented by venting the upper section of the drainage stack and 
the lower section of the drainage stack. 

915.2 Upper section. The upper section of the drainage stack 
shall be vented as a separate stack with a vent stack connection 
installed in accordance with Section 903.4. The offset shall be 
considered the base of the stack. 



915.3 Lower section. The lower section of the drainage stack 
shall be vented by a yoke vent connecting between the offset 
and the next lower horizontal branch. The yoke vent connec- 
tion shall be permitted to be a vertical extension of the drainage 
stack. The size of the yoke vent and connection shall be a mini- 
mum of the size required for the vent stack of the drainage 
stack. 



SECTION PC 916 1 

VENT PIPE SIZING 

916.1 Size of stack vents and vent stacks. The minimum 
required diameter of stack vents and vent stacks shall be deter- 
mined from the developed length and the total of drainage fix- 
ture units connected thereto in accordance with Table 916.1, 
but in no case shall the diameter be less than one-half the diam- 
eter of the drain served or less than 1 7 2 inches (38 mm). 1 

916.2 Vents other than stack vents or vent stacks. The diam- 
eter of individual vents, branch vents, circuit vents and relief 
vents shall be at least one-half the required diameter of the 
drain served. The required size of the drain shall be determined 
in accordance with Table 7 1 0. 1 (2). Vent pipes shall not be less 
than 1V 2 inches (38 mm) in diameter. Vents shall be sized in 1 
accordance with Table 916.1 utilizing the drainage fixture units § 
and the corresponding developed length. Relief vents for soil I 
and waste stacks in buildings having more than .10 branch inter- 
vals shall be sized in accordance with Section 9.1.4.2. 

916.3 Developed length. The developed length of individual, 
branch, circuit and relief vents shall be measured from the far- 
thest point of vent connection to the drainage system to the 
point of connection to the vent stack, stack vent or termination 
outside of the building. 

916.4 Multiple branch vents. Where multiple branch vents 
are connected to a common branch vent, the common branch 
vent shall be sized in accordance with this section based on the 
size of the common horizontal drainage branch that is or would 
be required to serve the total drainage fixture unit (dfu) load 
being vented. 

916.5 Ejector vents. Ejector vent sizes shall be determined in 1 
accordance with Sections 916.5.1 and 916.5.2. 

916.5.1 Sewage pumps and sewage ejectors other than 
pneumatic. Drainage piping below sewer level shall be 
vented in a similar manner to that of a gravity system. Build- 
ing sump vent sizes for sumps with sewage pumps or sew- 
age ejectors, other than pneumatic, shall be determined in 
accordance with Table 916.5.1 . 

916.5.2 Pneumatic sewage ejectors. The air pressure relief 
pipe from a pneumatic sewage ejector shall be connected to 
an independent vent stack terminating as required for vent 
extensions through the roof. The relief pipe shall be sized to 
relieve air pressure inside the ejector to atmospheric pres- 
sure, but shall not be less than 1 V 2 inches (38 mm) in size. § 



68 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



VENTS 



TABLE 916.1 
SIZE AND DEVELOPED LENGTH OF STACK VENTS AND VENT STACKS 



DIAMETER OF SOIL OR 

WASTE STACK 

(inches) 


TOTAL FIXTURE 
UNITS BEING 
VENTED (dfu) 


MAXIMUM DEVELOPED LENGTH OF VENT (feet) a 
DIAMETER OF VENT (inches) 


1V 2 


2 


2\ 


3 


4 


5 


6 


8 


10 


12 


l'/ 2 

l'/ 2 


8 
10 


150 
100 


— 


-— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 

2 

2V 2 


12 
20 

42 


75 
50 
30 


200 
150 
100 


300 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


3 

3 

3 


10 
21 

53 


42 

. 32 
27 


150 
110 
94 


360 
270 
230 


1,040 
810 
680 














3 

4 
4 


102 

43 
140 


25 


86 

35 
27 


210 
85 
65 


620 
250 
200 


980 
750 












4 

4 

5 


320 
540 
190 


— - 


23 
21 


55 
50 
28 


170 
150 

82 


640 
580 
320 


990 


— 


— 


— 


— 


5 
5 
5 


490 

940 

1,400 


— 


— 


21 
18 
16 


63 
53 
49 


250 
210 
190 


760 
670 
590 


— 


— 


— 


_ 


6 
6 
6 


500 
1,100 
2,000 


— 


— 


— 


33 
26 

22 


130 
100 

84 


400 
310 
260 


1,000 
780 
660 


— 


— 


— 


6 

8 
8 


2,900 
1,800 
3,400 


— 


— 


— 


20 


77 
31 

24 


240 
95 

73 


600 

240 
190 


940 

720 


— 


— 


8 
8 
10 


5,600 
7,600 
4,000 


— 


— 


— 


— 


20 
18 


62 
56 
31 


160 
140 

78 


610 
560 
310 


960 


— 


10 
10 
10 


7,200 
11,000 
15,000 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


24 
20 
18 


60 

51 
46 


240 
200 
180 


740 
630 

570 


— 


12 
12 
12 


7,300 
13,000 
20,000 














31 

24 
20 


120 
94 
79 


380 
300 
250 


940 
720 
610 


12 
15 
15 


26,000 
15,000 
25,000 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


18 


72 
40 
31 


230 
130 
96 


500 
310 

240 


15 
15 


38,000 
50,000 


~- 














26 

24 


81 

74 


200 
180 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 

a. The developed length shall be measured from the vent connection to the open air. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



69 



VENTS 







TABLE 916.5.1 
SIZE AND LENGTH OF SUMP VENTS 






DISCHARGE CAPACITY 
OF PUMP 

(gpm) 


MAXIMUM DEVELOPED LENGTH OF VENT (feetf 


Diameter of vent (inches) 




1V 4 


1V 2 


2 


2\ 


3 


4 


JO 


No limit b 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


20 


270 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


40 


72 


160 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


60 


31 


75 


270 


No limit 


No limit 


No limit 


80 


16 


41 


150 


380 


No limit 


No limit 


100 


10 c 


25 


97 


250 


No limit 


No limit 


150 


Not permitted 


10 c 


44 


110 


370 


No limit 


200 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


20 


60 


210 


No limit 


250 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


10 


36 


132 


No limit 


300 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


10 c 


22 


88 


380 


400 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


10 c 


44 


210 


500 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


Not permitted 


24 


130 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 loot = 304.8 mm, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m. 

a. Developed length plus an appropriate allowance for entrance losses and friction due to fittings, changes in direction and diameter. Suggested allowances shall be 
obtained from NSB Monograph 3 1 or other approved sources. An allowance of 50 percent of the developed length shall be assumed if a more precise value is not 
available. 

b. Actual values greater than 500 feet. 

c. Less than 10 feet. 



| SECTION PC 917 

AIR ADMITTANCE VALVES 

§ RESERVED 



SECTION PC 918 
ENGINEERED VENT SYSTEMS 

918.1 General. Engineered vent systems shall comply with 
this section and Section 28-1 13.2.2 of the Administrative Code. 

918.2 Individual branch fixture and individual fixture 
header vents. The maximum developed length of individual 
fixture vents to vent branches and vent headers shall be deter- 
mined in accordance with Table 918.2 for the minimum pipe 
diameters at the indicated vent airflow rates. The individual 
vent airflow rate shall be determined in accordance with the 
following: 



where: 

D - Drainage stack diameter (inches). 

Q w = Design discharge load (gpm). 

r s = Waste water flow area to total area. 

- Q w 



21 & D* 



Q hJ =N nJ? Q v (Equation9-l) 

For SI: G/^ = ^G V (0.471 9 L/s) 

where: 

N flM = Number of fixtures per header (or vent branch) -r total 
number of fixtures connected to vent stack. 

Q hh - Vent branch or vent header airflow rate (cfm). 

Q v = Total vent stack airflow rate (cfm). 

ft, (gpm) - 27.8r, 2/3 . - r s ) D m 

2, (cfm) - 0.134 Q v (gpm) 



Individual vent airflow rates are obtained by equally distrib- 
uting Q htb into one-half the total number of fixtures on the 
branch or header for more than two fixtures; for an odd number 
of total fixtures, decrease by one; for one fixture, apply the full 
value of Q Kb . 

Individual vent developed length shall be increased by 20 
percent of the distance from the vent stack to the fixture vent 
connection on the vent branch or header. 

918.3 A licensed professional engineer shall certify design. 
An engineer shall also inspect and certify the system upon 
completion of the system. 



SECTION PC 919 
COMPUTERIZED VENT DESIGN 

919.1 Design of vent system. The sizing, design and layout of 
the vent system shall be permitted to be determined by 
approved computer program design methods. 



70 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



VENTS 



919.2 System capacity. The vent system shall be based on the 
air capacity requirements of the drainage system under a peak 
load condition. 

9193 Design shall be certified by a licensed professional 
engineer. An engineer shall also inspect and certify the system 
upon completion of the system. 



TABLE 918.2 

MINIMUM DIAMETER AND MAXIMUM LENGTH OF INDIVIDUAL BRANCH FIXTURE VENTS AND 

INDIVIDUAL FIXTURE HEADER VENTS FOR SMOOTH PIPES 



DIAMETER OF 

VENT PIPE 

(inches) 


INDIVIDUAL VENT AIRFLOW RATE (cubic feet per minute) 


Maximum developed length of vent (feet) 




1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


17 

1 

2 
7 


18 


19 


20 


% 


95 


25 


13 


8 


5 


4 


3 


2 


1 


1 


l 


1 


l 


l 


1 


l 


I 


I 


] 


% 


100 


88 


47 


30 


20 


15 


10 


9 


7 


6 


5 


4 


3 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2 


I 


1 


— 


— 


100 


94 


65 


48 


37 


29 


24 


20 


17 


14 


12 


ll 


9 


8 


7 


6 


6 


l'/4 
















100 


87 


73 


62 


53 


46 


40 


36 


32 


29 


26 


23 


21 


l'/ 2 
























100 


96 


84 


75 


65 


60 


54 


49 


45 


2 








































100 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 cubic foot per minute = 0.4719 L/s, 1 foot = 304.8 mm. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



71 



72 2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



CHAPTER 10 

TRAPS, INTERCEPTORS AND SEPARATORS 



SECTION PC 1001 
GENERAL 

1001.1 Scope. This chapter shall govern the material and 
installation of traps, interceptors and separators. 



SECTION PC 1002 
TRAP REQUIREMENTS 

1002.1 Fixture traps. Each plumbing fixture shall be sepa- 
rately trapped by a water-seal trap, except as otherwise permit- 
ted by this code. The trap shall be placed as close as possible to 
the fixture outlet. The vertical di stance from the fixture outlet to 
the trap weir shall not exceed 24 inches (610 mm). The distance 
of a clothes washer standpipe above a trap shall conform to 
Section 802.4. A fixture shall not be double trapped. 

Exceptions: 

1. This section shall not apply to fixtures with integral 
traps. 

2. A combination plumbing fixture is permitted to be 
installed on one trap provided that one compartment 
is not more than 6 inches (152 mm) deeper than the 
other compartment and the waste outlets are not more 
than 30 inches (762 mm) apart. 

3. A grease trap intended to serve as a fixture trap in 
accordance with the manufacturer's installation 
instructions shall be permitted to serve as the trap for a 
single fixture or a combination sink of not more than 
three compartments where the vertical distance from 
the fixture outlet to the inlet of the interceptor does not 
exceed 30 inches (762 mm), and the developed length 
of the waste pipe from the most upstream fixture out- 
let to the inlet of the interceptor does not exceed 60 
inches (1524 mm). 

1002.2 Design of traps. Fixture traps shall be self- scouring. 
Fixture traps shall not have interior partitions, except where 
such traps are integral with the fixture or where such traps are 
constructed of an approved material that is resistant to corro- 
sion and degradation. Slip joints shall be made with an 
approved elastomeric gasket and shall be installed only on the 
trap inlet, trap outlet and within the trap seal. 

1002.3 Prohibited traps. The following types of traps are pro- 
hibited: 

1 . Traps that depend on moving parts to maintain the seal. 

2. Bell traps. 

3. Crown-vented traps. 

4. Traps not integral with a fixture and that depend on inte- 
rior partitions for the seal, except those traps constructed 
of an approved material that is resistant to corrosion and 
degradation. 

5. "S" traps. 



6. Drum traps. 

Exception: Drum traps used as solids interceptors 
and drum traps serving chemical waste systems shall 
not be prohibited. 

1002.4 Trap seals. Each fixture trap shall have a liquid seal of 
not less than 2 inches (51 mm) and not more than 4 inches (102 
mm), or deeper for special designs relating to accessible fix- 
tures. Where a trap seal is subject to loss by evaporation, a trap 
seal primer valve shall be installed. A trap seal primer valve 
shall conform to ASSE 101 8 or ASSE 1 044. 

1002.5 Size of fixture traps. Fixture trap size shall be suffi- 
cient to drain the fixture rapidly and not less than the size indi- 
cated in Table 709. 1 .A trap shall not be larger than the drainage 
pipe into which the trap discharges. 

1002.6 Building traps. Building traps shall be provided with a * 
cleanout and a relief vent or fresh air intake but in no case less 
than 3 inches (76 mm) on the inlet side of the trap. The size of 
the relief vent or fresh air intake shall not be less than one-half 
the diameter of the drain to which the relief vent or air intake 
connects. Such relief vent or fresh air intake shall be carried 
above grade and shall be terminated in a screened outlet located 
outside the building. 

1002.7 Trap setting and protection. Traps shall be set level 
with respect to the trap seal and, where necessary, shall be pro- 
tected from freezing. 

1002.8 Recess for trap connection. A recess provided for con- 
nection of the underground trap, such as one serving a bathtub 
in slab-type construction, shall have sides and a bottom of cor- 
rosion-resistant, insect- and vermin proof construction. 

1002.9 Acid-resisting traps. Where a vitrified clay or other 
brittleware, acid-resisting trap is installed underground, such 
trap shall be embedded in concrete extending 6 inches (152 
mm) beyond the bottom and sides of the trap. 

1002.10 Plumbing in mental health centers. In mental health 
centers, pipes and traps shall not be exposed. 



SECTION PC 1003 
INTERCEPTORS AND SEPARATORS 

1003.1 Where required. Interceptors and separators shall be 
provided to prevent the discharge of oil, grease, sand and other 
substances harmful or hazardous to the building drainage sys- 
tem, the public sewer, or sewage treatment plant or processes. 

1003.2 Approval. The size, type and location of each intercep- 
tor and of each separator shall be designed and installed in 
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions and the 
requirements of this section based on the anticipated condi- 
tions of use. Wastes that do not require treatment or separation 
shall not be discharged into any interceptor or separator. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



73 



TRAPS, INTERCEPTORS AND SEPARATORS 



1003.3 Grease traps and grease interceptors. Grease traps 
and grease interceptors shall comply with the requirements of 
Sections 1003.3.1 through 1003.3.4.2. 

1003.3.1 Grease traps and grease interceptors required. 
A grease trap or grease interceptor shall be required to 
receive the drainage from fixtures and equipment with 
grease-laden waste located in food preparation areas, such 
as in restaurants, hotel kitchens, hospitals, school kitchens, 
bars, factory cafeterias, or restaurants and clubs. 

1003.3.2 Food waste grinders. Where food waste grinders 
connect to grease traps, a solids interceptor shall separate 
the discharge before connecting to the grease trap. Solids 
interceptors and grease interceptors shall be sized and rated 
for the discharge of the food waste grinder. 

1003.3.3 Grease trap and grease interceptor not 
required. A grease trap or a grease interceptor shall not be 
required for individual dwelling units or any private living 
quarters. 

1003.3.4 Grease traps and grease interceptors. Grease 
traps and grease interceptors shall conform to PDI G101, 
ASME Al 12.14.3 or ASME Al 12.14.4 and shall be 
installed in accordance with the manufacturer's instruc- 
tions. 

1003.3.4.1 Grease trap capacity. Grease traps shall 
have the grease retention capacity indicated in Table 

1003.3.4.1 for the flow-through rates indicated. 

1003.3.4.2 Rate of flow controls. Grease traps shall be 
equipped with devices to control the rate of water flow so 
that the water flow does not exceed the rated flow. The 
flow-control device shall be vented and terminate not 
less than 6 inches (152 mm) above the flood rim level or 
be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's 
instructions. 

TABLE 1003.3.4.1 
CAPACITY OF GREASE TRAPS 



TOTAL FLOW-THROUGH RATING 
(gpm) 


GREASE RETENTION CAPACITY 
(pounds) 


4 


8 


6 


12 


7 


14 


9 


18 


10 


20 


12 


24 


14 


28 


15 


30 


18 


36 


20 


40 


25 


50 


35 


70 


50 


100 



For Si: 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m, 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 



1003.4 Oil separators required. At repair garages, car wash- 
ing facilities with engine or undercarriage cleaning capability 
and at factories where oily and flammable liquid wastes are 
produced, separators shall be installed into which all oil-bear- 
ing, grease-bearing or flammable wastes shall be discharged 
before emptying in the building drainage system or other point 
of disposal. 

1003.4.1 Separation of liquids. A mixture of treated or 
untreated light and heavy liquids with various specific grav- 
ities shall be separated in an approved receptacle. 

1003.4.2 Oil separator design. Oil separators shall be 
designed in accordance with Sections 1003.4.2.1 and 
1003.4.2.2. 

1003.4.2.1 General design requirements. Oil separa- 
tors shall have a depth of not less than 2 feet (6.10 mm) 
below the invert of the discharge drain. The outlet open- 
ing of the separator shall have not less than an 18-inch 
(457 mm) water seal. 

1003.4.2.2 Garages and service stations. Where auto- 
mobiles are serviced, greased, repaired or washed or 
where gasoline is dispensed, oil separators shall have a 
minimum capacity of 6 cubic feet (0. 17 m 3 ) for the first 
100 square feet (9.3 m 2 ) of area to be drained, plus 1 
cubic foot (0.028 m 3 ) for each additional 100 square feet 
(9.3 m 2 ) of area to be drained into the separator. Parking 
garages in which servicing, repairing or washing is not 
conducted, and in which gasoline is not dispensed, shall 
not require a separator. Areas of commercial garages uti- 
lized only for storage of automobiles are not required to 
be drained through a separator. 

1003.5 Sand interceptors in commercial establishments. 
Sand and similar interceptors for heavy solids shall be designed 
and located so as to be provided with ready access for cleaning, 
and shall have a water seal of not less than 6 inches (1 52 mm). 

1003.6 Laundries. Commercial laundries shall be equipped 
with an interceptor with a wire basket or similar device, remov- 
able for cleaning, that prevents passage into the drainage sys- 
tem of solids 0.5 inch (12.7 mm) or larger in size, string, rags, 
buttons or other materials detrimental to the public sewage sys- 
tem. 

1003.7 Bottling establishments. Bottling plants shall dis- 
charge process wastes into an interceptor that will provide for 
the separation of broken glass or other solids before discharg- 
ing waste into the drainage system. 

1003.8 Slaughterhouses. Slaughtering room and dressing 
room drains shall be equipped with approved separators. The 
separator shall prevent the discharge into the drainage system 
of feathers, entrails and other materials that cause clogging. 

1003.9 Venting of interceptors and separators. Interceptors 
and separators shall be designed so as not to become air bound 
where tight covers are utilized. Each interceptor or separator 
shall be vented where subject to a loss of trap seal. 

1003.10 Access and maintenance of interceptors and sepa- 
rators. Access shall be provided to each interceptor and sepa- 
rator for service and maintenance. Interceptors and separators 
shall be maintained by periodic removal of accumulated 



74 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



TRAPS, INTERCEPTORS AND SEPARATORS 



grease, scum, oil, or other floating substances and solids depos- 
ited in the interceptor or separator. 



SECTION PC 1004 
MATERIALS, JOINTS AND CONNECTIONS 
1004.1 General. The materials and methods utilized for the 
construction and installation of traps, interceptors and separa- 
tors shall comply with this chapter and the applicable provi- 
sions of Chapters 4 and 7. The fittings shall not have ledges, 
shoulders or reductions capable of retarding or obstructing 
flow in the piping system. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



75 



76 2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



CHAPTER 11 

STORM DRAINAGE 



SECTION PC 1101 
GENERAL 

1101.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
materials, design, construction and installation of storm drain- 
age. Storm water discharge shall be in accordance with:): 
Department of Environmental Protection requirements. 

1101.2 Where required. All roofs, paved areas, yards, courts 
and courtyards shall drain into a separate storm sewer system, 
or a combined sewer system, or to an approved place of dis- 
posal. In accordance with Department of Environmental Pro- 
tection:): requirements, an approved system for beneficial 
collection and use of storm water may be installed in which 
case overflow from such a system shall be discharged to street 
storm sewer or street combined sewer. 

1101.2.1 Increases in existing impervious surfaces. 
Whenever an alteration increases impervious surfaces on 
the lot to greater than 20 percent of the impervious surfaces 
existing when the structure was constructed, such impervi- 
ous surfaces shall drain into a storm sewer system, or a com- 
bined sewer system, or to an approved place of disposal. 

Exception: Where the total area of impervious surfaces 
proposed to be increased by an alteration after the effec- 
tive date of this code is less than or equal to 1 ,000 square 
feet (93 m 2 ). 

1101.3 Prohibited drainage. Storm water shall not be drained 
into sewers intended for sewage only. 

1101.4 Tests. The conductors and the building storm drain 
shall be tested in accordance with Section PC 312. 

1101.5 Change in size. The size of a drainage pipe shall not be 
reduced in the direction of flow. 

1101.6 Fittings and connections. All connections and 
changes in direction of the storm drainage system shall be 
made with approved drainage-type fittings in accordance with 
Table 706.3. The fittings shall not obstruct or retard flow in the 
system. 

1101.7 Roof design. Roofs shall be designed for the maximum 
possible depth of water that will pond thereon as determined by 
the relative levels of roof deck and overflow weirs, scuppers, 
edges or serviceable drains in combination with the deflected 
structural elements. In determining the maximum possible 
depth of water, all primary roof drains shall be assumed to be 
blocked. 

1101.8 Cleanouts required. Cleanouts shall be installed in the 
storm drainage system and shall comply with the provisions of 
this code for sanitary drainage pipe cleanouts. 

Exception: Subsurface drainage system. 



1101.9 Backwater valves. Backwater valves installed in a 
storm drainage system shall conform to Section PC 715. 

1101.10 Plastic pipe. Plastic piping and fittings shall not be 
used. 

Exceptions: 

1. Plastic piping and fittings may be used in residential 
buildings five stories or less in height. 

2. Corrugated polyethylene piping and fittings, with a 
diameter of 12 inches (305 mm) or more may be used 
in connection with any type of building for under- 
ground yard drainage and storm water piping when 
used outside of the foundation wall of the building 
and not connecting to any piping system from the 
interior of the building. 

1101.11 Site grading. Except as otherwise permitted by this 
code, no person shall perform site grading or land contour 
work, as defined in Section 19-146 of the Administrative Code, 
that would cause storm water to flow across sidewalks or onto 
an adjacent property 4 



SECTION 1102 
MATERIALS 

1102.1 General. The materials and methods utilized for the 
construction and installation of storm drainage systems shall 
comply with this section and the applicable provisions of 
Chapter 7. 

1102.2 Inside storm drainage conductors. Inside storm 
drainage conductors installed above ground shall conform to 
one of the standards listed in Table 702.1. 

1102.3 Underground building storm drain pipe. Under- 
ground building storm drain pipe shall conform to one of the 
standards listed in Table 702.2. 

1102.4 Building storm sewer pipe. Building storm sewer pipe 
shall conform to one of the standards listed in Table 1 102.4. 

1102.5 Subsoil drain pipe. Subsoil drains shall be 
open -jointed, horizontally split or perforated pipe conforming 
to one of the standards listed in Table 1 102.5. 

1102.6 Roof drains. Roof drains shall conform to ASME 
Al 12.21.2M or ASME Al 12.3.1 . 

1102.7 Fittings. Pipe fittings shall be approved for installation 
with the piping material installed, and shall conform to the 
respective pipe standards or one of the standards listed in Table 
1 102.7. The fittings shall not have ledges, shoulders or reduc- 
tions capable of retarding or obstructing flow in the piping. 
Threaded drainage pipe fittings shall be of the recessed drain- 
age type. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



77 



STORM DRAINAGE 



TABLE 1102.4 
BUILDING STORM SEWER PIPE 



TABLE 1102.7 
PIPE FITTINGS 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Cast-iron pipe 


ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; 
CISPI301 


Concrete pipe 


ASTMC14;ASTMC76; 
CAN/CSAA257.1M; 
CAN/CSA A257.2M 


Ductile-iron pipe 


AWWAC151 


High denisty polyethylene pipe 
(HIPE) a 


ASTM D 3350 


Nonasbestos liber-cement pipe 


ASTMC1449 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic 
pipe (Type DWV, SDR26, 
SDR35,SDR41,PS50or 
PS 100)" 


ASTM D 2665; ASTM D 3034; 
ASTM F 891 ;CSAB182.2; 
CAN/CSA B 182.4 


Vitrified clay pipe 


ASTM C 4; ASTM C 700 


Stainless steel drainage systems, 
Type 3 1 6L 


ASME A 112.3.1 



i a. Approved plastic sewer for piping .1.2 inches and larger. 



TABLE 1102.5 
SUBSOIL DRAIN PIPE 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Cast-iron pipe 


ASTM A 74; ASTM A 888; 
CISPI301 


Polyethylene (PE) plastic pipe 


ASTM F 405 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 
Plastic pipe (type sewer pipe, 
PS25,PS50orPS100) 


ASTM D 2729; ASTM F 891; 
CSA-B 182.2; 
CAN/CSA-B 182.4 


Porous concrete pipe 


ASTM C 654 


Vitrified clay pipe 


ASTM C 4; ASTM C 700 


Stainless steel drainage systems, 
Type316L 


ASME Al 12.3.1 



SECTION PC 1103 

TRAPS 

1103.1 Main trap. Leaders and storm drains connected to a 
combined sewer shall be trapped. Individual storm water traps 
shall be installed on the storm water drain branch serving each 
conductor, or a single trap shall be installed in the main storm 
drain just before its connection with the combined building 
sewer or the public sewer. A hooded catch basin located within 
the street line shall be the equivalent of a building-house trap 
for the connection to a street combined sewer. 

1103.2 Material. Storm water traps shall be of the same mate- 
rial as the piping system to which they are attached. 

1103.3 Size. Traps for individual conductors shall be the same 
size as the horizontal drain to which they are connected. 

1103.4 Cleanout An accessible cleanout shall be installed on 
the building side of the trap. 



MATERIAL 


STANDARD 


Cast-iron 


ASME B 16.4; ASME B 16. 12; 
ASTM A888;CiSP1301; 

astm: A 74 


Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride 
(CPVC) plastic 


ASTM F 437; ASTM F 438; 
ASTM F 439 


Gray iron and ductile iron 


AWWAC110 


High-density polyethylene 
(HDPE) 


ASTM D 3350 


Malleable iron 


ASME B 16.3 


Plastic, general 


ASTM F 409 


Polyethylene (PE) plastic 


ASTM D 2609 


Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) 
plastic 


ASTM D 2464; ASTM D 2466; 
ASTM D 2467; CSA-B 137.2; 
ASTM D 2665; ASTM F 1866 


Steel 


ASME B16.9; ASME B16.ll; 
ASME B 16.28 


Stainless steel drainage 
Systems, Type 316L 


ASME A 112.3.1 



SECTION PC 1104 
CONDUCTORS AND CONNECTIONS 

1104.1 Prohibited use. Conductor pipes shall not be used as 
soil, waste or vent pipes, and soil, waste or vent pipes shall not 
be used as conductors. 

1104.2 Combining storm with sanitary drainage. The sani- 
tary and storm drainage systems of a structure shall be entirely 
separate except for minor modifications to existing buildings 
having combined systems. Where a combined building drain is 
utilized, the building storm drain shall be connected in the same 
horizontal plane through a single-wye fitting to the combined 
sewer at least 10 feet (3048 mm) downstream from any soil 
stack. If a separate city storm sewer is not available, building 
sanitary drains shall be separate and shall only be permitted to 
connect to a ^common building combined sewer downstream 
of building-house trap. 

1104.3 Clear water drains. Drains carrying clear water, i.e., 
air-conditioning drips, pump drips, cooling water, etc., may 
discharge into the storm water drainage system through an 
indirect waste connection discharging into a trapped funnel or 
raised lip floor drain. 



SECTION PC 1105 
ROOF DRAINS 

1105.1 Strainers. Roof drains shall have strainers extending 
not less than 4 inches (102 mm) above the surface of the roof 
immediately adjacent to the roof drain. Strainers shall have an 
available inlet area, above roof level, of not less than one and 
one-half times the area of the conductor or leader to which the 
drain is connected. 



78 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



STORM DRAINAGE 



1105.2 Flat decks. Roof drain strainers for use on sun decks, 
parking decks and similar areas that are normally serviced and 
maintained shall comply with Section 1 105.1 or shall be of the 
flat-surface type, installed level with the deck, with an available 
inlet area not less than two times the area of the conductor or 
leader to which the drain is connected. 

1105.3 Roof drain flashings. The connection between roofs 
and roof drains which pass through the roof and into the inte- 
rior of the building shall be made water tight by the use of 
approved flashing material, 



SECTION 1106 

SIZE OF CONDUCTORS, LEADERS AND 

STORM DRAINS* 

1106.1 General. The size of the vertical conductors and lead- 
ers, gutters, building storm drains, building storm sewers, and 
any horizontal branches of such drains or sewers shall be based 
on the 100-year hourly rainfall rate of 3 inches (76 mm) per 
hour. Sizing for secondary and combined primary and second- 
ary conductors, leaders and drains shall be in accordance with 
Section PC 1 107. 

1106.2 Vertical conductors and leaders. Vertical conductors 
and leaders shall be sized for the maximum projected roof area, 
in accordance with Table 1 106.2. 

TABLE 1106.2 
SIZE OF VERTICAL CONDUCTORS AND LEADERS 



TABLE 1106.3 
SIZE OF HORIZONTAL STORM DRAINGE PIPING 



DIAMETER OF LEADER 

(inches) 3 


HORIZONTALLY PROJECTED 
ROOF AREA (square feet) 


Rainfall rate (inches per hour) 


3 


2 


960 


3 


2,930 


4 


6,130 


5 


11,530 


6 


17,995 


8 


38,660 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 . 
a. Sizes indicated are the diameter of circular piping. This table is applicable to 

piping of other shapes provided the cross- sectional shape fully encloses a 

circle of the diameter indicated in this table. 

1106.3 Building storm drains and sewers. The size of the 
building storm drain, building storm sewer and their horizontal 
branches having a slope of one-half unit or less vertical in 12 
units horizontal (4-percent slope) shall be based on the maxi- 
mum projected roof area in accordance with Table 1 106.3. The 
minimum slope of horizontal branches shall be one-eighth unit 
vertical in 12 units horizontal (1 -percent slope) unless other- 
wise approved. 

1106.4 Vertical wails. In sizing roof drains and storm drainage 
piping, one-half of the area of any vertical wall that diverts rain- 
water to the roof shall be added to the projected roof area for 
inclusion in calculating the required size of vertical conduc- 
tors, leaders and horizontal storm drainage piping. 



SIZE OF 

HORIZONTAL PIPING 

(inches) 


HORIZONTALLY PROJECTED ROOF AREA 
(square feet) 


Rainfall rate (inches per hour) 


3 


6 


7 8 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (1 -percent slope) 


3 
4 
5 
6 
8 

10 
12 
15 


1,096 

2,506 

4,453 

7,133 

15,330 

27,600 

44,400 

72,800 


548 

1,253 

2,227 

3,566 

7,600 

13,800 

22,200 

39,650 


l / 4 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) 


3 
4 
5 
6 
8 

10 
12 
15 


1,546 

3,533 
6,293 
10,066 
21,733 
38,950 
62,600 
112,000 


773 

1,766 

3,146 

5,033 

10,866 

19,450 

31,350 

56,000 


7 2 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (4-percent slope) 


3 
4 
5 
6 
8 

10 
12 
15 


2,295 
5,010 
8,900 
13,700 
30,650 
55,200 
88,800 
158,800 


1,096 

2,500 

4,450 

7,140 

15,320 

27,600 

44,400 

79,250 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 . 

1106.5 Parapet wall scupper location. Parapet wall roof 
drainage scupper and overflow scupper location shall comply 
with the requirements of the New York City Building Code. 

1106.6 Size of roof gutters. The size of semicircular gutters 
shall be based on the maximum projected roof area in accor- 
dance with Table 1 106.6. 



SECTION PC 1107 
SECONDARY (EMERGENCY) ROOF DRAINS 

1107.1 Secondary drainage required. Secondary (emer- 
gency) roof drains or scuppers shall be provided where the roof 
perimeter construction extends above the roof in such a manner 
that water will be entrapped if the primary drains allow buildup 
for any reason. The inlet elevation of secondary (overflow) 
drains and the invert elevation of overflow scuppers should be 
not less than 2 inches (5 1 mm) or more than 4 inches ( 102 mm) 
above the low point of the (adjacent to) roof surface unless a 
safer water depth loading, including the required hydraulic 
head to maintain required flow rate out of the overflow drain- 
age system that has been determined by the structural design. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



79 



STORM DRAINAGE 



TABLE 1106.6 


SIZE OF SEMICIRCULAR ROOF GUTTERS 




HORIZONTALLY PROJECTED 


DIAMETER OF GUTTERS 


ROOF AREA (square feet) 


Rainfall rate (inches per hour) 




(inches) 


3 


7, 6 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (0.5 -percent slope) 


3 


226 


4 


480 


5 


834 


6 


1,280 


7 


1,840 


8 


2,655 


10 


4,800 


V 8 unit vertical 12 units horizontal (1 -percent slope) 


3 


320 


4 


681 


5 


1,172 


6 


1,815 


7 


2,600 


8 


3,740 


10 


6,800 


V 4 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (2-percent slope) 


3 


454 


4 


960 


5 


1,668 


6 


2,560 


7 


3,860 


8 


5,310 


10 


9,600 


V 2 unit vertical in 12 units horizontal (4-percent) 


3 


640 


4 


1,360 


5 


2,360 


6 


3,695 


7 


5,200 


8 


7,460 


10 


13,330 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, J square foot = 0.0929 m 2 . 

1107.2 Primary and secondary storm systems. Where prac- 
tical secondary roof drain systems shall have the end point of 
discharge separate from the primary system. Discharge shall be 
above grade, in a location which would normally be observed 
by the building occupants or maintenance personnel. Where 
separate systems are impractical and to prevent water from 
flowing over sidewalk or pedestrian walkways, secondary 
drainage system may tie into the primary drainage system in 
the vertical conductors. 

1107.3 Sizing of secondary drains. Secondary (emergency) 

I roof drain systems shall be sized in accordance with Section PC 
1106 based on the rainfall rate of 3 inches (76 mm) per hour. 
Scuppers shall be sized to prevent the depth of ponding water 



from exceeding that for which the roof was designed as deter- 
mined by Section 1101.7. Scuppers shall not have an opening 
dimension of less than 4 inches (102 mm). Where secondary 
drainage systems tie into primary drainage systems, the com- 
bined primary and secondary system shall be sized based on 
their combined rainfall rate of 6 inches (152 mm) per hour. 



SECTION PC 1108 
COMBINED SANITARY AND STORWS SYSTEM 

1108.1 Size of combined drains and sewers. The size of a 
combination sanitary and storm drain or sewer shall be com- 
puted in accordance with the method in Section 1106.3. The 
fixture units shall be converted into an equivalent projected 
roof or paved area. Where the total fixture load on the com- 
bined drain is less than or equal to 256 fixture units, the equiva- 
lent drainage area in horizontal projection shall be taken as 
1 ,333 square feet ( 124 m 2 ). Where the total fixture load exceeds 
256 fixture units, each additional fixture unit shall be consid- 
ered the equivalent of 5.2 square feet (0.48 m 2 ) of drainage 
area. These values are based on a rainfall rate of 3 inch (75 mm) 
per hour. 



SECTION PC 1109 
VALUES FOR CONTINUOUS FLOW 

1109,1 Equivalent roof area. Where there is a continuous or 
semicontinuous discharge into the building storm drain or 
building storm sewer, such as from a pump, ejector, air condi- 
tioning plant or similar device, each gallon per minute of such 
discharge shall be computed as being equivalent to 32 square 
feet (2.97 m 2 ) of roof area, based on a rainfall rate of 3 inches 
(75 mm) per hour. 



SECTION PC 1110 § 

CONTROLLED FLOW ROOF DRAIN SYSTEMS 

1110.1 General. The roof of a structure shall be designed for 
the storage of water where the storm drainage system is engi- 
neered for controlled flow. The controlled flow roof drain sys- 
tem shall be an engineered system in accordance with this 
section and Section 28-113.2.2 of the Administrative Code. § 
The controlled flow system shall be designed based on the 
design rainfall rate in accordance with Section 1 106.1. § 

1110.2 Control devices. The control devices shall be installed 
so that the rate of discharge of water per minute shall not 
exceed the values for continuous flow as indicated in Section 
1109.1. 

1110.3 Installation. Runoff control shall be by control 
devices. Control devices shall be protected by strainers. 

1110.4 Minimum number of roof drains. Not less than two 
roof drains shall be installed in roof areas 10,000 square feet 
(929 m 2 ) or less and not less than four roof drains shall be 1 
installed in roofs over 10,000 square feet (929 m 2 ) in area. 1 



80 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



STORM DRAINAGE 



SECTION PC 1111 
SUBSOIL DRAINS 

1111.1 Subsoil drains. Subsoil drains shall be open-jointed, 
horizontally split or perforated pipe conforming to one of the 
standards listed in Table 1 102.5. Such drains shall not be less 
than 4 inches (102 mm) in diameter. Where the building is sub- 
ject to backwater, the subsoil drain shall be protected by an 
accessibly located backwater valve. Where subsoil drainage is 
discharged into a public sewer, the subsoil drains shall dis- 
charge into a readily accessible silt and sand interceptor before 
being connected into the gravity drainage or sump system. 
Subsoil drainage shall discharge to a trapped area drain, sump, 
dry well or approved location above ground. The subsoil sump 
shall not be required to have either a gas-tight cover or a vent. 
The sump and pumping system shall comply with Section 
1113.1. 



SECTION 1112 
BUILDING SUBDRAINS 

1112.1 Building subdrains. Building subdrains located below 
the public sewer level shall discharge into a sump or receiving 
tank, the contents of which shall be automatically lifted and 
discharged into the drainage system as required for building 
sumps. The sump and pumping equipment shall comply with 
Section 1113.1. 



SECTION PC 1113 
SUMPS AND PUMPING SYSTEMS 

1113.1 Pumping system. The sump pump, pit and discharge 
piping shall conform to Sections 1113.1.1 through 1113.1.4. 

1113.1.1 Pump capacity and head. The sump pump shall 
be of a capacity and head appropriate to anticipated use 
requirements. 

1113.1.2 Sump pit. The sump pit shall not be less than 18 
inches (457 mm) in diameter and 24 inches (610 mm) deep, 
unless otherwise approved. The pit shall be accessible and 
located such that all drainage flows into the pit by gravity. 
The sump pit shall be constructed of tile, steel, plastic, 
cast-iron, concrete or other approved material, with a 
removable cover adequate to support anticipated loads in 
the area of use. The pit floor shall be solid and provide per- 
manent support for the pump. 

1113.1.3 Electrical. Electrical service outlets, when 
required, shall meet the requirements of the New York City 
Electrical Code. 

1113.1.4 Piping. Discharge piping shall meet the require- 
ments of Section 1 102.2, 1 102.3 or 1 102.4 and shall include 
a gate valve and a full flow check valve. Pipe and fittings 
shall be the same size as, or larger than, pump discharge tap- 
ping. 

Exception: In one- and two-family dwellings, only a 
check valve shall be required, located on the discharge 
piping from the pump or ejector. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 81 



82 2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



CHAPTER 12 

SPECIAL PIPING AND STORAGE SYSTEMS 



SECTION PC 1201 
GENERAL 

1201.1 Scope. The provisions of this chapter shall govern the 
design and installation of piping and storage systems for non- 
flammable medical gas systems and nonmedical oxygen sys- 
tems. All maintenance and operations of such systems shall be 
in accordance with the New York City Fire Code. 



1 SECTION PC 1202 

MEDICAL GASES 

1202.1 Nonflammable medical gases. Nonflammable medi- 
cal gas systems, inhalation anesthetic systems and vacuum pip- 
ing systems shall be designed and installed in accordance with 
1 NFPA 99 and 99C. 

Exceptions: 

1 . This section shall not apply to portable systems or cyl- 
inder storage. 

2. Vacuum system exhaust shall comply with the New 
1 York City Mechanical Code. 



SECTION PC 1203 
OXYGEN SYSTEMS 

1203.1 Design and installation. Nonmedical oxygen systems 
shall be designed and installed in accordance with NFPA 50 
and NFPA 51. 



SECTION PC 1204 
OTHER CRYOGENIC SYSTEMS 

1204.1 Design and installation. Design and installation of 
cryogenic systems shall be in accordance with Sectionst 1 202, 
1203 and the New York City Fire Code. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 83 



84 2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



CHAPTER 13 

REFERENCED STANDARDS 



This chapter lists the standards that are referenced in various sections of this document. The standards are listed herein by the pro- 
mulgating agency of the standard, the standard identification, the effective date and title and the section or sections of this document 
that reference the standard. Refer to the rules of the department for any subsequent modifications that may have been made to the 
referenced national standards set forth herein in accordance with the exception contained in Section 28- 1 03. 19 of the Administra- 
tive Code. The application of the referenced standards shall be as specified in Section 102.8. 



ANSI 



Standard 

Reference 

Number 



American National Standards Institute 
25 West 43rd Street, Fourth Floor 

New York, NY 10036 

Referenced 

in code 

Title __ section num ber 

Minimum Requirements for Non sewered Waste-Disposal Systems 311.1 

Relief Valves for Hot Water Supply Systems 504.2, 504.4, 504.5 

Plastic Bathtub Units 407. | 

Plastic Shower Receptors and Shower Stalls 417.1 

Plastic Lavatories 4 1.6. 1 , 41 6.2 

Plastic Water Closet Bowls and Tanks 420. 1 

Plastic Sinks 415.1, 418.1 



Z4.3— 95 
Z2 1.22—99 
Zl .24. 1—95 
Z124.2— 95 
Zl 24.3— 95 
Z124.4— 96 
Z124.6— 97 



AM 



Standard 
reference 
number 



1010—94 



Air-Conditioning & Refrigeration Institute 
4100 North Fairfax Drivc'Suite 200 
Arlington, VA 22203 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



Self-Contained, Mechanically-Refrigerated Drinking- Water Coolers 410. 1 



ASME 

Standard 
Reference 
Number 



American Society of Mechanical Engineers 

Three Park Avenue 

New York, NY 10016-5990 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



A112.1.2— 1 99 1 (R 1998) 
All 2.1.3—2000 
Al 12.3.1— 1993 



Al 12.3.4—2000 

A 1 1 2.4. 1 — 1 993(R 1 998) 

Al 12.4.3—1999 

A112.6.1M— 1997 

Al 12.6.2—2000 

All 2.6.3— 2001 

A 112.6.7— 2001 

Al. 12.14.1— 1975(R1998) 

Al 12.14.3— 2000 

Al 12.14.4—2001 

Al 12.18.1—2000 

A112.18.3M— 1996 

Al 12. 18.7— 1999 

A112.19.1M— 1994(R1999) 



Air Gaps in Plumbing Systems Table 608. 1 , 608.13. 1 

Air Gap Fittings for Use with Plumbing Fixtures, Appliances and Appurtenances 608.13.1, Table 608.1 

Performance Standard and Installation Procedures for Stainless Steel Drainage Systems or Sanitary, Storm and 

Chemical Applications, Above and Below Ground 412. 1, Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3, 

Table 702.4, 708.2, Table 1 102.4, Table 1 102.5, ! 102.6, Table 1 102.7 

Macerating Toilet Systems and Related Components 71 2.4. 1 

Water Heater Relief Valve Drain Tubes 504.6.2 

Plastic Fittings for Connecting Water Closets to the Sanitary Drainage System 405.4 

Floor- Affixed Supports for Off the-Floor Plumbing Fixtures for Public Use. 405.4.3 

Framing- Affixed Supports for Offthe-Floor Water Closets with Concealed Tanks 405.4.3 

Floor and Trench Drains 4 1 2. 1 

Enameled and Epoxy-coated Cast-iron and PVC plastic Sanitary Floor Sinks 427.1 

Backwater Valves 715.2 

Grease Interceptors 1003.3.4 

Grease Removal Devices 1 003.3.4 

Plumbing Fixture Fittings 424. 1 

Performance Requirements for Backflow Protection Devices and Systems in Plumbing Fixture Fittings 424.4 

Deck mounted Bath/Shower Transfer Valves with Integral Backflow Protection 424.6 

Enameled Cast Iron Plumbing Fixtures 407.1, 410.1, 415.1, 416.1, 418.1 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



85 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



AU2.19.2M— 1998 
A1.1.2.19.3M— 1987(R1996) 
A 1 12. 1 9.4M— 1 994(R 1 999) 
A.1 12.19.5— 1999 
All 2.. 19. 6— 1995 
A1.12.19.7M— 1995 
A112.19.8M— 1987(R1996) 
A112.19.9M— 1998 
Al 12.19.12 — 2000 
Al 12.19. 13 — 2001 
A 112. 19. 15 — 2001 
A 112.2 1. 2M— 1983 
A1J2.36.2M— 199 1(R 1998) 
Bl.20.1— J983(R1999) 
B 16.3— 1999 
B 16.4— 1998 
B 16.9— 1993 
B16.il — 1996 
B 16. .1.2— 1998 
B16.15— 1985(R 1 994) 
B16.18— 1984(R1994) 
B 16.22— 1995 
B 16.23— 1992 
B 16.26— 1988 
B 16.28— 1994 
B 16.29— 1994 
B40.I00— 98 



ASME — continued 

Vitreous China Plumbing Fixtures 401.2,405.9,408.1,410.1,416.1,418.1,419.1,420.1 

Stainless Steel Plumbing Fixtures (Designed for Residential Use) 405.9, 415.1, 416.1, 418.1 

Porcelain Enameled Formed Steel Plumbing Fixtures 407.1, 416.1, 41 8.1 

Trim for Water-Closet Bowls, Tanks, and Urinals 425.4 

Hydraulic Performance Requirements for Water Closets and Urinals 419.1, 420.1 

Whirlpool Bathtub Appliances 421.1 

Suction Fittings for Use in Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, Hot Tubs, and Whirlpool Bathtub Appliances 421.4 

Non-Vitreous Ceramic Plumbing Fixtures 407.1, 408.1, 410.1, 415.1, 416.1, 417.1, 418.1, 420.1 

Wall Mounted and Pedestal Mounted, Adjustable and Pivoting Lavatory and Sink Carrier Systems 416.4, 418.3 

Electrohydraulic Water Closets 420. 1 

Bathtub/Whirlpool Bathtubs with Pressure Sealed Doors .407.4, 421 .5 

Roof Drains 1 102.6 

Cleanouts 708.2 

Pipe Threads, General Purpose (inch) 605.12.3, 605.14.4, 705.2.3, 705.4.3,705.9.4, 705.12.1 , 705.14.3 

Malleable Iron Threaded Fittings Classes 150 and 300 Table 702.4, Table 1102.7 

Gray Iron Threaded Fittings Classes 125 and 250 Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.7 

Factory-Made Wrought Steel Buttwelding Fittings Table 605.5, Table 1 102.7 

Forged Fittings, Socket- Welding and Threaded Table 605.5, Table 1102.7 

Cast-iron Threaded Drainage Fittings Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.7 

Cast Bronze Threaded Fittings Table 605.5, Table 702.4, Table 1 102.7 

Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings Table 605.5, Table 702.4 

Wrought Copper and Copper Alloy Solder Joint Pressure Fittings Table 605.5, Table 702.4 

Cast Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings DWV Table 605.5, Table 702.4 

Cast Copper Alloy Fittings for Flared Copper Tubes Table 605.5, Table 702.4 

Wrought Steel Buttwelding Short Radius Elbows and Returns Table 605.5, Table 1. 102.7 

Wrought Copper and Wrought Copper Alloy Solder Joint Drainage Fittings— DWV Table 605.5, Table 702.4 

Pressure Gauges and Gauge Attachments 



ASSE 



American Society of Sanitary Engineering 
901 Canterbury Road, Suite A 
Westlake, OH 44145 



Standard 




Referenced 


Reference 




in code 


Number 


Title 


section number 



1001—90 
1002—99 

1003—95 
1004—90 
1005—99 
1006—89 
1007—92 
1008—89 
1010—98 
1011—95 
1012—95 

1013—99 

1014—90 
1015—99 

10.16—96 

1017—99 

10.1.8 — 86 

1019 — 97 

1020—98 
1022—98 



Performance Requirements for Pipe Applied Atmospheric Type Vacuum Breakers 425.2, Table 608.1, 608.13.6, 608.16.4 

Performance Requirements for Antisiphon Fill Valves (Ballcocks) for Gravity 

Water Closet Flush Tanks 425.3.1, Table 608.1 

Performance Requirements for Water-Pressure Reducing Valves 604.8 

Performance Requirements for Backflow Prevention Requirements for Commercial Dishwashing Machines 409.1 

Performance Requirements for Water Heater Drain Valves 501 .3 

Performance Requirements for Residential-Use Dishwashers 409.1 

Performance Requirements for Home-Laundry Equipment 406.1 , 406.2 

Performance Requirements for Household Food Waste Disposer Units 413.1 

Performance Requirements for Water Hammer Arresters 604.9 

Performance Requirements for Hose Connection Vacuum Breakers Table 608.1 , 608. 1.3.6 

Performance Requirements for Backflow Preventers with 

Intermediate Atmospheric Vent Table 608.1, 608.13.3, 608.16.2 

Performance Requirements for Reduced-Pressure Principle Backflow Preventers and 

Reduced-Pressure Fire Protection Principle Backflow Preventers Table 608.1, 608.13.2, 608.16.2 

Performance Requirements for Handheld Showers 424.2 

Performance Requirements for Double Check Backflow Prevention Assemblies 

And Double Check Fire Protection Backflow Prevention Assemblies Table 608.1, 608.1 3.7 

Performance Requirements for Individual Thermostatic, Pressure Balancing and 

Combination Control Valves for Individual Fixture Fittings 424.3, 607.4, 613.1 

Performance Requirements for Temperature-Actuated Mixing Valves for Hot Water 

Distribution Systems 424.3, 501.2, 613,1 

Performance Requirements for Trap Seal Primer Valves; Water Supply Fed 1002.4 

Performance Requirements for Vacuum Breaker Wall Hydrants, Freeze Resistant, 

Automatic Draining Type Table 608. 1, 608.1 3.6 

Performance Requirements for Pressure Vacuum Breaker Assembly Table 608.1 , 608.13.5 

Performance Requirements for Backflow Preventer for Carbonated Beverage Machines Table 608.1, 608.16.1 



86 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



1024 — 98 

1035—95 

1037—90 
1044—86 
1047—99 

1048—99 

1052—94 
1055—97 
1056—95 
1060—96 
1062—97 

1066—97 

5013—98 

5015—98 
5020—98 
5047—98 

5048—98 
5052—98 
5056—98 



ASSE — continued 

Performance Requirements for Dual Check Valve Type Backflow Preventers 

(for Residential Supply Service or Individual Outlets) 605.3. 1 , 608. 1. 

Performance Requirements for Laboratory Faucet Backflow Preventers Table 608. 1 , 608. 1 3.6 

Performance Requirements for Pressurized Flushing Devices for Plumbing Fixtures 425.2 

Performance Requirements for Trap Seal Primer Valves; Drainage Type 1 002.4 

Performance Requirements for Reduced Pressure Detector Fire Protection Backflow 

Prevention Assemblies Table 608.1, 608.13.2 

Performance Requirements for Double-Check Detector Fire Protection Backflow 

Prevention Assemblies , Table 608. 1, 608.13.7 

Performance Requirements for Hose Connection Backflow Preventers Table 608. 1 , 608. 1 3.6 

Performance Requirements for Chemical-Dispensing Systems 608. 13.9 

Performance Requirements for Back-Siphonage Vacuum Breaker Table 608. 1 , 608. 1 3.5, 608. 13.8 

Performance Requirements for Outdoor Enclosures for Backflow Prevention Assemblies 608. 14. 1 

Performance Requirements for Temperature Actuated, Flow Reduction Valves to 

Individual Fixture Fittings 424.5 

Performance Requirements for Individual Pressure Balancing ln-Line Valves for Individual Fixture Fittings 604. 1 1 

Performance Requirements for Testing Reduced Pressure Principle Backflow Prevention Assembly (RPA) 

and Reduced Pressure Fire Protection Principle Backflow Preventers (RFP) 31 2.9.2 

Performance Requirements for Testing Double-Check Valve Backflow Prevention Assembly (DCVA) 312.9.2 

Performance Requirements for Testing Pressure Vacuum Breaker Assembly (PVBA) 3 12.9.2 

Performance Requirements for Testing Reduced Pressure Detector Fire Protection 

Backflow Prevention Assemblies (RPDF) 3] 2.9.2 

Performance Requirements for Testing Double-Check Valve Detector Assembly (DCDA) 3 12.9.2 

Performance Requirements for Testing Hose Connection Backflow Preventers 3 12.9.2 

Performance Requirements for Testing Spill-Resistant Vacuum Breaker 3 12.9.2 



ASTM 



Standard 

Reference 

Number 



A 53—01 
A 74—98 

A 312— 01 

A 778—01 
A 888— 98el 

B 32—00 
B 42—98 
B 43—98 
B 75—99 
B 88— 99el 

B 152/B 152M— 00 
B 251—97 

B 302—00 
B 306—99 
B 447—00 
B 687—99 



ASTM International 
1 00 Barr Harbor Drive 
WestConshohocken, PA 19428-2959 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 
section number 



Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, Zinc-Coated Welded and Seamless Table 702. 1 

Specification for Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings Table 702. 1 , Table 702.2, Table 702.3. 

Table 702.4, 708.2, 708.7, Table 1 102.4, Table I 102.5, Table 1 102.7 

Specification for Seamless and Welded Austenitic Stainless Steel Pipes Table 605.4, Table 605.5, 

Table 605.6, 605.23.2 

Specification for Welded Unannealed Austenitic Stainless Steel Tubular Products Table 605.3, Table 605.4, Table 605.5 

Specification for Hubless Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings for Sanitary and 

Storm Drain, Waste, and Vent Piping Application Table 702. 1 , Table 702.2, Table 702.3, Table 702.4, 

708.7, Table 1 102.4, Table I 102.5, Table I 102.7 

Specification for Solder Metal 605. 14.3, 605. 1 5.4, 705.9.3, 705. 10.3 

Specification for Seamless Copper Pipe, Standard Sizes Table 605.3, Table 605.4, Table 702. 1 

Specification for Seamless Red Brass Pipe, Standard Sizes Table 605.3, Table 605.4, Table 702. 1 

Specification for Seamless Copper Tube Table 605.3, Table 605.4, Table 702. 1 , Table 702.2, Table 702.3 < 

Specification for Seamless Copper Water Tube Table 605.3, Table 605.4, Table 702. 1, < 

Table 702.2, Table 702.3 
Specification for Copper Sheet, Strip Plate and Rolled Bar 402.3, 425.3.3, 902,2 < 

Specification for General Requirements for Wrought Seamless Copper and Copper-Alloy Tube Table 605.3,Table 605.4, 

'Table 702, 1 , Table 702,2, Table 702.3 < 

Specification for Threadless Copper Pipe, Standard Sizes Table 605.3, Table 605.4, Table 702. 1 

Specification for Copper Drainage Tube (DWV) Table 702, 1 , Table 702.2 * 

Specification for Welded Copper Tube Table 605.3, Table 605.4 

Specification for Brass, Copper, and Chromium-Plated Pipe Nipples Table 605.8 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



87 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



B8I3— OOeOl 

B 828—00 

C4— 00 
C 14—99 
C 76—00 
C 296—00 
C 425—01 
C 443— 01 
C 564—97 
1 C 654— 03 
C 700—00 

C 1053—00 

1 C 1173—97 
C J277 — 97 
C 1440—99 

| c 1449/C1449M— 05 
C 1460—00 

C 1461—00 

1 D 1869—95(2000) 
D 2235 — OJ 

D 2464—99 
D 2466—01 

^ D 2467—99 
■^ D 2564— 96a 
■* D 2609—00 
| D 2657— 97 
w+ D 2661— 01 

I D 2665— OJ 

^ D 2729— 96a 
D 2855—96 

-:> D 3034—00 
■♦ D 321 2— 96a 

ID 33 11— 94 
D 3350— 02a 
"^ F 405—97 
F 409— 99a 

m$> F 437— 99 
LT -> f 438— 01 
■#> p 439—0 J 
"^ F 477—99 
F 628— J 

F 656— 96a 

F 891—00 
F 1 866— 98 



ASTM-— continued 

Specification for Liquid and Paste Fluxes for Soldering of Copper and 

Copper Alloy Tube 605.14.3, 605.15.4, 705.9.3, 705.10.3 

Practice for Making Capillary Joints by Soldering of Copper and 

Copper Alloy Tube and Fittings 605.14.3, 605.15.4, 705.9.3, 705.10.3 

Specification for Clay Drain Tile and Perforated Clay Drain Tile Table 702.3, Table 1 1 02.4, Table 1 1 02.5 

Specification for Concrete Sewer, Storm Drain, and Culvert Pipe Table 702.3, Table 1 102.4 

Specification for Reinforced Concrete Culvert, Storm Drain, and Sewer Pipe Table 702.3, Table 1 102.4 

Specification for Asbestos-Cement Pressure Pipe Table 605.4 

Specification for Compression Joints for Vitrified Clay Pipe and Fittings 705.15, 705.16 

Specification for Joints for Concrete Pipe and Manholes, Using Rubber Gaskets 705.6, 705.16 

Specification for Rubber Gaskets for Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings 705.5.2, 705.5.3, 705.16 

Standard Specification for Porous Concrete Pipe Table 1 102.5 

Specification for Vitrified Clay Pipe, Extra Strength, Standard Strength, and Perforated Table 702.3, Table 1 102.4, 

Table 1102.5 
Specification for Borosilicate Glass Pipe and Fittings for Drain, Waste, and 

Vent (DWV) Applications Table 702.1, Table 702.4 

Specification for Flexible Transition Couplings for Underground Piping System 705.2.1, 705.6, 705. 14.1, 705. 15, 705.16 

Specification for Shielded Coupling Joining Hubless Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings 705.5.3 

Specification for Thermoplastic Elastomeric (TPE) Gasket Materials for Drain, Waste, 

and Vent (DWV), Sewer, Sanitary and Storm Plumbing Systems 705.16 

Standard Specification for Non Asbestos Fiber-Cement Nonpressure Sewer Pipe Table 1102.4 

Specification for Shielded Transition Couplings for Use with Dissimilar DWV Pipe 

and Fittings Above Ground 705,16 

Specification for Mechanical Couplings Using Thermoplastic Elastomeric (TPE) Gaskets for 

Joining Drain, Waste, and Vent (DWV) Sewer, Sanitary and Storm Plumbing Systems 

for Above and Below Ground Use 705. 1 6 

Specification for Rubber Rings for Asbestos-Cement Pipe 605.23, 705.3, 705.16 

Specification for Solvent Cement for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Plastic Pipe and 

Fittings 705.2.2 

Specification for Threaded Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80 Table 1 1 02.7 

Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 40 Table 1 102.7 

Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80 Table 1 102.7 

Specification for Solvent Cements for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Piping Systems 705. 14.2 

Specification for Plastic Insert Fittings for Polyethylene (PE) Plastic Pipe Table 1 102.7 

Standard Practice for Heat Fusion-Joining of Polyolefin Pipe and Fitting Table 702.1 , Table 702.4 

Specification for Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Schedule 

40 Plastic Drain. Waste, and Vent Pipe and Fittings Table 702. 1 , Table 702.4, 

705.2.2, 705.7.2 

Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Drain, Waste, and 

Vent Pipe and Fittings Table 702.1, Table 702.4, 1 102.4, Table 1102.7 

Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Sewer Pipe and Fittings Table 1 1 02.5 

Standard Practice for Making Solvent-Cemented Joints with 

Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe and Fittings 705.14.2 

Specification for Type PSM Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Sewer Pipe and Fittings Table 1 102.4 

Specification for Joints for Drain and Sewer Plastic Pipes Using Flexible Elastomeric Seals 705.2.1 , 705. 14.1 

Specification for Drain, Waste and Vent (DWV) Plastic Fittings Patterns Table 702.1, Table 702.4 

Specification for High Density Polyethylene Pipe (HPDE) Table 1102.4, Table 1 102.7 

Specification for Corrugated Polyethylene (PE) Tubing and Fittings Table 1 102.5 

Specification for Thermoplastic Accessible and Replaceable Plastic Tube and 

Tubular Fittings 424. 1 .2, Table 1102.7 

Specification for Threaded Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80 Table 1 102.7 

Specification for Socket-Type Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 40 ... . Table 1.102.7 
Specification for Socket-Type Chlorinated Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (CPVC) Plastic Pipe Fittings, Schedule 80 ... . Table 1 102.7 

Specification for Elastomeric Seals (Gaskets) for Joining Plastic Pipe 605.22, 705.16 

Specification for Acryionitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) Schedule 40 Plastic Drain, 

Waste, and Vent Pipe with a Cellular Core Table 702.1, 705.2.2 

Specification for Primers for Use in Solvent Cement Joints of Poly (Vinyl Chloride) 

(PVC) Plastic Pipe and Fittings 705.14.2 

Specification for Coextruded Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Pipe with a Cellular Core Table 1 1 02.4, Table 1 102.5 

Specification for Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Plastic Schedule 40 Drainage and 

DWV Fabricated Fittings Table 702.1, Table 702.4, Table 1102.7 



88 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



AWS 



American Welding Society 
550 N.W. LeJeune Road 
Miami, FL 33126 



Standard 

Reference 

Number 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



A5.8--92 



Specifications for Filler Metals for Brazing and Braze Welding. 



. 605.12.1, 605.14.1, 605. 15. 1 , 705.4. 1 , 705.9. 1 , 705. 10. 1 



AWWA 



Standard 




Referenced 


Reference 




in code 


Number 


Title 


section number 



CI 04— 95 

C110— 98 

C1 11— 00 

C1 15— 99 
CI 5 1—02 
CI 53— 00 
C510— 00 
C511— 00 
C651— 99 
C652— 92 



American Water Works Association 
6666 West Quincy Avenue 
Denver, CO 80235 

Title 

Standard for Cement-Mortar Lining for Ductile-Iron 

Pipe and Fittings for Water 605.3, 605.5 

Standard for Ductile-Iron and Gray-Iron Fittings, 

3 Inches through 48 Inches, for Water . . . ." Table 605.5, Table 702,4, Table 1 102.7 

Standard for Rubber-Gasket Joints for Ductile-Iron 

Pressure Pipe and Fittings 605. 1 3 

Standard for Flanged Ductile-Iron Pipe with Ductile-Iron or Gray-Iron Threaded Flanges Table 605.3 

Standard for Ductile-Iron Pipe, Centrifugally Cast for Water Table 605.3 

Standard for Ductile-Iron Compact Fittings for Water Service Table 605.5 

Double Check Valve Backflow Prevention Assembly Table 608. 1 , 608. 1 3.7 

Reduced-Pressure Principle Backflow Prevention Assembly Table 608.1, 608.13.2, 608.16.2 

Disinfecting Water Mains 6 1 0. 1 

Disinfection of Water-Storage Facilities 6 10. 1 



CISPI 



Cast Iron Soil Pipe Institute 
5959 Shallowford Road, Suite 419 

Chattanooga, TN 37421 



Standard 
Reference 

Number 


Title 


Referenced 

in code 

section number 



301 — 00 Specification for Hubless Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings for Sanitary and 

Storm Drain, Waste and Vent Piping Applications Table 702.1, Table 702.2, Table 702.3, Table 702.4, 

Table 1 102.4, Table 1 102.5, Table 1 102.7 
310 — 97 Specification for Coupling for Use in Connection with Hubless Cast Iron Soil Pipe and Fittings 

for Sanitary and Storm Drain, Waste and Vent Piping Applications 705.5.3 



CSA 



Canadian Standards Association 

178 Rexdale Blvd. 

Rexdale (Toronto), Ontario, Canada M9W 1R3 

Referenced 
in code 

Title section number 

Ceramic Plumbing Fixtures 408.1, 416.1, 418.1,419.1 ■ 

Enameled Cast-Iron Plumbing Fixtures 407. 1 , 41 5. 1 , 41 6.1, 418 

Porcelain Enameled Steel Plumbing Fixtures 407. 1 , 4 1 6. 1 , 41 8. 1 

Stainless-Steel Plumbing Fixtures 415.1, 41.6.1, 41.8.1, 420.1 

Plastic Plumbing Fixtures 407.1,416.2,417.1,419.1,420.1,421.1 

Macerating Systems and Related Components 712.4. 1 

Hydromassage Bathtubs 42 1 . 1 

Vacuum Breakers, Laboratory Faucet Type (LFVB) Table 608. 1 , 608. 1 3.6 

Floor, Area and Shower Drains, and Cleanouts for Residential Construction 412. 1 

Plumbing Fittings 424.1, 424.2, 424.3, 425.3.1,425.5, Table 608.1 

PVC Injection-Moulded Gasketed Fittings for Pressure Applications Table 1 102.7 ' 

Rigid Poly (Vinyl Chloride) (PVC) Pipe for Pressure Applications 705. 14.2 - 

ABS Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Pipe Fittings Table 702. 1 , Table 702.4, 705.2.2, 715.2 

PVC Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Pipe Fittings — with Revisions 

through December 1993 Table 702. 1, 705. 14.2, 7 15.2 



Standard 
Reference 

Number 



B45.1— 99 
B45.2— 99 
B45.3— 99 
B45.4— 99 
B45.5— 99 
B45.9— 99 
B45.10— 01 
B64.7— 94 
B79— 94(2000) 
B 125—98 
B 137.2— 99 
B 137.3— 99 
Bl 81—99 
B 181.2—99 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



89 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



B 1 82. 1—99 
B J 82.2—99 

CA.N/CSA-A257.IM— 92 
CAN/CSA-A257.2M— 92 

CAN/CSA-A257.3M— 92 

CAN/CSA-B64.1.I — 01 
CAN/CSA-B64.2— 01 

CAN/CSA-B64.2.2— 01 
CAN/CSA-B64.3— 0.1 
■* CAN/CSA-B64.4— 0.1 

CAN/CSA-B64J.0— 0.1 
5 C AN/CSA-B 1 8 1 .3—99 
■+ CAN/CSA-B .1.82.4—99 
■+ CAN/CSA-B602— 99 



CSA — continued 

Plastic Drain and Sewer Pipe and Pipe Fittings 705.14.2 

PVC Sewer Pipe and Fittings (PSM Type) Table 1 102.4, Table 1 102.5 

Circular Concrete Culvert, Storm Drain, Sewer Pipe and Fittings Table 702.3, Table 1102.4 

Reinforced Circular Concrete Culvert, Storm Drain, Sewer Pipe and Fittings Table 702.3, Table 1 102.4 

Joints for Circular Concrete Sewer and Culvert Pipe, Manhole Sections, and Fittings Using 

Rubber Gaskets 705.6, 705.16 

Vacuum Breakers, Atmospheric Type (AVB) 425.2, Table 608.1, 608.13.6 

Vacuum Breakers, Hose Connection Type (HCVB) Table 608.1, 608.13.6 

Vacuum Breakers, Hose Connection Type (HCVB) with Automatic Draining Feature Table 608.1, 608.13.6 

Backflow Preventers, Dual Check Valve Type with Atmospheric Port (DCAP) Table 608. 1 , 608.13.3, 608. 16.2 

Backflow Preventers, Reduced Pressure Principle Type (RP) Table 608. 1 , 608. 1 3.2, 608. 16.2 

Manual for the Selection, Installation, Maintenance and Field Testing of Backflow Prevention Devices 312.9.2 

Polyolefin Laboratory Drainage Systems Table 702.1 

Profile PVC Sewer Pipe and Fittings Table 1 102.4, Table 1 102.5 

Mechanical Couplings for Drain, Waste, and Vent Pipe and Sewer Pipe 705.2. 1 , 705.5.3, 705.6, 

705.14.1,705.15,705.16 



FS 

Standard 
Reference 
Number 



Federal Specification 

1941 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 104 

Arlington, VA 22202 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



TT-P-!536A(1975) 



Federal Specification for Plumbing Fixture Setting Compound 405.4 



* Standards are available from the Supt. of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402-9325. 



IAPMO 



International Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials 
5001 E.Philadelphia Street 
Ontario, CA 91761 



Standard 
Reference 

Number 



Title 



Referenced 
in code 

section number 



PS48— 92 
PS74—95 



Material Safety Data Verification for Plumbing Products 
Reinforced Water Connectors 



.605.6 
.605.6 



ISEA 

Standard 
Reference 

Number 

Z358.1— 98 



Industry Safety Equipment Association 
1901 N. Moore Street, Suite 808 

Arlington, VA 22209 



Title 



Emergency Eyewash and Shower Equipment. 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



.411.1 



NFPA 



50—01 
51—97 
99—99 
99C— 99 



National Fire Protection Association 
Battery march Park 
Quincy, MA 02269 

Title 

Bulk Oxygen Systems at Consumer Sites 1203.1 

Design and Installation of Oxygen-Fuel Gas Systems for Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes 1203.1 

Health Care Facilities 1202.1 

Gas and Vacuum Systems 1202. 1 



Standard 




Referenced 


Reference 




in code 


Number 


Title 


section number 



90 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



REFERENCED STANDARDS 



NSF 



Standard 
Reference 

Number 



NSF International 
789 Dixboro Road 

Ann Arb or, MI 48105 

Referenced 

in code 

Title sectio n n tun be r 

Commercial Spray-Type Dishwashing and Glasswashing Machines 409. 1 

Manual Food and Beverage Dispensing Equipment , 426. 1 

Plastic Piping System Components and Related Materials 303.3, 61 1 .3 

Drinking Water Treatment Units— Aesthetic Effects 611.1,611.3 

Residential Cation Exchange Water Softeners 611.1,611.3 

Drinking Water Treatment Units — Health Effects 611.1,611.3 

Reverse Osmosis Drinking Water Treatment Systems 6 1 1 .2, 6 1 1 .3 

Drinking Water System Components— Health Effects 410.1, 424.1, 605.3, 605.4, 605.5, 61 1.3 

Drinking Water Distillation Systems . 611.1 



3— 1996a 
18—1996 
14—1999 
42—2000 
44—2000 
53—2001 
58—2001 
61—2001 
62—1999 



NYC/NYS 



New York City Codes / New York State Codes/New York City Agencies 

Referenced 
in code 

Title section number 

New York City Building Code based on 2003 IBC 201.3, 305.4,307.1, 307.2, 307.3, 308.2, 309.!. 31.0.1, 

310.3, 403.1, Table 403.1, 404.1, 407.3, 417.6, 502.4, 606.5.2, 1 106.5 

New York City Department of Environmental Protection 302.2, 312.9.2, 603.2. 1 , 701.2, 701 .5, 803.2, 1 101 . 1, 1101 .2 

New York City Electrical Code based on 2002 NEC 20 1 .3, 502. 1 , 504.3, 1113.1.3 

New York City Fire Code 20 1 .3, 1 20.1. 1 

New York City Fuel Gas Code based on 2003 IFGC |()f .2, 201 .3, 502.1 

New York City Mechanical Code based on 2003 IMC 201 .3, 307.6, 3 1 0. 1 , 422.9, 502. 1 . 61 2. 1 , 1 202. 1 

New York City Residential Code based on 2003 IRC 101.2 

New York State Energy Conservation Construction Code 3.13.1, 607.2, 607.2. 1 



Standard 
Reference 

Number 



PDI 



Standard 

Reference 

Number 



G 10 1(1.998) 
WH201 (1992) 



Plumbing and Drainage Institute 
800 Turnpike Street, Suite 300 
North Andover, MA 01845 



Title 



Referenced 

in code 

section number 



Testing and Rating Procedure for Grease Interceptors with Appendix of Sizing and Installation Data. 
Water Hammer Arrester Standard 



1003.3.4 
. . .604.9 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



91 



92 2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



APPENDIX A 

PLUMBING PERMIT FEE SCHEDULE 
RESERVED 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 93 



94 2008 MEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



APPENDIX B 

RATES OF RAINFALL FOR VARIOUS CITIES 

RESERVED 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 95 



96 2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



APPENDIX C 

WATER CONSERVATION SYSTEMS 



PCC101 
WATER RECYCLING SYSTEMS 

C101.1 General. Water recycling systems shall receive storm 
water captured from roofs and balconies, condensate reclama- 
tion systems, gray water discharge only of lavatories from pub- 
lic restrooms in commercial office buildings, and the treated 
effluent from an approved black water treatment system as reg- 
ulated by the:): Department of Health and Mental Hygiene. 
Recycled water shall be utilized only for flushing water closets 
and urinals, cooling tower makeup and irrigation systems that 
are located in the same lot as the water recycling system. Recy- 
cled water shall be considered nonpotable. Such systems shall 
comply with Sections C101.2 through C101.12. 

C101.2 Definitions. The following terms shall have the mean- 
ings shown herein. 

BLACK WATER. Waste water discharged from water closets, 
urinals and any other fixtures discharging animal or vegetable 
matter in suspension or solution. 

GRAY WATER. Waste water discharged from lavatories, 
bathtubs, showers, clothes washers and laundry sinks. 

C101.3 Installation. All drain, waste and vent piping associ- 
1 ated with gray or black water recycling systems shall be 
installed in full compliance with this code. 

I C101.4 Reservoir. Water captured for recycling purposes shall 
be collected in an approved reservoir constructed of durable, 
nonabsorbent and corrosion-resistant materials. The reservoir 
shall be a closed and gas-tight vessel. Access openings shall be 
provided to allow inspection and cleaning of the reservoir inte- 
rior. The holding capacity of the reservoir shall be a minimum 
of twice the volume of water required to meet the daily flushing 

I requirements of the fixtures supplied with recycled water, but 
■+ not less than 50 gallons (189 L). 

1 C101.5 Filtration. AH water entering the reservoir shall pass 
through an approved filter such as a media, sand or 
diatomaceous earth filter. Filter may be installed in a 
sidestream arrangement sized to filter the entire volume of the 
tank at a rate equal to four times the recycled water in a 1-hour 
period. 

C101.6 Disinfection. Recycled water shall be disinfected by 
an approved method that employs ultraviolet or one or more 
disinfectants such as chlorine, iodine or ozone. 

C101.7 Makeup water. Potable water shall be supplied as a 
1 source of makeup water for the recycled water system. The 

potable water supply shall be protected against backflow in 
I accordance with Section PC 608. There shall be a full-open 

valve on the makeup water supply line to the reservoir. 

C101.8 Overflow. The collection reservoir shall be equipped 
with an overflow pipe of the same diameter as the influent pipe 

if or the captured water. The overflow shall be directly con- 
nected to the building house drainage system. 



C101.9 Drain. A drain shall be located at the lowest point of 
the collection reservoir and shall be directly connected to the 
sanitary drainage system. The drain shall be a minimum of 4- 
inch (102 mm) diameter and shall be provided with a full-open 
valve. 

C101.10 Vent required. The reservoir shall be provided with a 
vent sized in accordance with Chapter 9 based on the size of the 
reservoir influent pipe. 

C101.ll Coloring. The recycled water shall be dyed blue or 
green with a food grade vegetable dye before such water is sup- 
plied to the fixtures. 

C101.12 Identification. All recycled water distribution piping 
and reservoirs shall be identified as containing nonpotable 
water. Piping identification shall be in accordance with Section 
608.8. 



PCC102 

WATERLESS URINALS 

C102.1 Waterless urinals. Approved waterless urinals may be 
utilized only as part of an approved building water conserva- 
tion plan. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



97 



98 2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



APPENDIX D 

DEGREE DAY AND DESIGN TEMPERATURES 

RESERVED 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 99 



100 2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



APPENDIX E 

SIZING OF WATER PIPING SYSTEM 



SECTION PC E1 01 

GENERAL 

E101.1 Scope. 

E101.1.1 This appendix outlines two procedures for sizing 
a water piping system (see Section E103.3). The design pro- 
cedures are based on the minimum static pressure available 
from the supply source, the head charges in the system 
caused by friction and elevation, and the rates of flow neces- 
sary for operation of various fixtures. 



SECTION PC E1 02 
INFORMATION REQUIRED 

E102.1 Preliminary. Obtain the necessary information 
regarding the minimum daily static service pressure in the area 
where the building is to be located. If the building supply is to 
be metered, obtain information regarding friction loss relative 
to the rate of flow for meters in the range of sizes likely to be 
used. Friction loss data can be obtained from most manufactur- 
ers of water meters. 

E102.2 Demand load. 

E102.2.1 Estimate the supply demand of the building main 
and the principal branches and risers of the system by total- 
ing the corresponding demand from the applicable part of 
Table E 103.3(3). 

E102.2.2 Estimate continuous supply demands in gallons 
per minute (L/m) for lawn sprinklers, air conditioners, etc., 
and add the sum to the total demand for fixtures. The result 
is the estimated supply demand for the building supply. 



SECTION PC E1 03 
SELECTION OF PIPE SIZE 

E103.1 General. Decide from Table 604.3 what is the desir- 
able minimum residual pressure that should be maintained at 
the highest fixture in the supply system. If the highest group of 
fixtures contains flush valves, the pressure for the group should 
not be less than 15 psi (103.4 kPa) flowing. For flush tank sup- 
plies, the available pressure should not be less than 8 psi (55.2 
kPa) flowing, except blowout action fixtures must not be less 
than 25 psi (172.4 kPa) flowing. 

E103.2 Pipe sizing. 

E103.2.1 Pipe sizes can be selected according to the follow- 
ing procedure or by other design methods conforming to 
acceptable engineering practice and approved by the depart- 
ment. The sizes selected must not be less than the minimum 
required by this code. 

E103.2.2 Water pipe sizing procedures are based on a sys- 
tem of pressure requirements and losses, the sum of which 



must not exceed the minimum pressure available at the sup- 
ply source. These pressures are as follows: 

1 . Pressure required at fixture to produce required flow. 
See Section 604.3 and Section 604.5. 

2. Static pressure loss or gain (due to head) is computed 
at 0.433 psi per foot (9.8 kPa/m) of elevation change. 

Example: Assume that the highest fixture supply 
outlet is 20 feet (6096 mm) above or below the sup- 
ply source. This produces a static pressure differ- 
ential of 8.66 psi (59.8 kPa) loss. 

3. Loss through water meter. The friction or pressure 
loss can be obtained from meter manufacturers. 



water main. [See Table 



4. Loss through taps in 
E103.3.4(4)]. 1 

5. Losses through special devices such as filters, soften- 
ers, backflow prevention devices and pressure regula- 
tors. These values must be obtained from the 
manufacturers. 

6. Loss through valves and fittings. Losses for these 
items are calculated by converting to equivalent 
length of piping and adding to the total pipe length. 
[See Tables E103.3(5) and E103.3(6)]. § 

7. Loss due to pipe friction can be calculated when the 
pipe size, the pipe length and the flow through the 
pipe are known. With these three items, the friction 
loss can be determined using Figures E103.3(2) 1 
through E1.03.3(7). For piping flow charts not 1 
included, use manufacturers' tables and velocity rec- 
ommendations. 

Note: For the purposes of all examples, the following 
metric conversions are applicable: 

1 cubic foot per minute = 0.47 1 9 L/s 

1 square foot = 0.0929 m 2 

1 degree = 0.0175 rad 

1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kPa 

1 inch = 25.4 mm 

1 foot = 304.8 mm 

1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m 

E103.3 Segmented loss method. The size of water service 
mains, branch mains and risers by the segmented loss method, 
must be determined according to water supply demand gpm 
(L/m), available water pressure psi (kPa) and friction loss 
caused by the water meter and developed length of pipe feet 
(m), including equivalent length of fittings. This design proce- 
dure is based on the following parameters: 

• Calculate the friction loss through each length of the pipe. 



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101 



APPENDIX E 



• Based on a system of pressure losses, the sum of which 
must not exceed the minimum pressure available at the 
street main or other source of supply. 

@ Pipe sizing shall be based on (1) estimated peak demand, 
(2) total pressure losses caused by difference in elevation, 
equipment, developed length and pressure required at most 
remote fixture, (3) loss through taps in water main, (4) 
losses through fittings, filters, backflow prevention de- 
vices, valves and pipe friction. 

Because of the variable conditions encountered in hydraulic 
design, it is impractical to specify definite and detailed rules for 
sizing of the water piping system. Current sizing methods do 
not address the differences in the probability of use and flow 
characteristics of fixtures between types of occupancies. Creat- 
ing an exact model of predicting the demand for a building is 
impossible and final studies assessing the impact of water con- 
servation on demand are not yet complete. The following steps 
are necessary for the segmented loss method. 

1. Preliminary. Obtain the necessary information regard- 
ing the minimum daily static service pressure in the area 
where the building is to be located. If the building supply 
is to be metered, obtain information regarding friction 
loss relative to the rate of flow for meters in the range of 
sizes to be used. Friction loss data can be obtained from 
manufacturers of water meters. It is essential that enough 
pressure be available to overcome all system losses 
caused by friction and elevation so that plumbing fix- 
tures operate properly. Section 604.6 requires the water 
distribution system to be designed for the minimum pres- 
sure available taking into consideration pressure fluctua- 
tions. The lowest pressure must be selected to guarantee 
a continuous, adequate supply of water. The lowest pres- 
sure in the public main usually occurs in the summer 
because of lawn sprinkling and supplying water for 
air-conditioning cooling towers. Future demands placed 
on the public main as a result of large growth or expan- 
sion should also be considered. The available pressure 
will decrease as additional loads are placed on the public 
system. 

2. Demand load. Estimate the supply demand of the build- 
ing main and the principal branches and risers of the sys- 
tem by totaling the corresponding demand from the 
applicable part of Table E103.3(3). When estimating 
peak demand sizing methods typically use water supply 
fixture units (see Table El 03.3(2)). This numerical fac- 
tor measures the load-producing effect of a single 
plumbing fixture of a given kind. The use of such fixture 
units can be applied to a single basic probability curve (or 
table), found in the various sizing methods (Table 
E103.3(3)). The fixture units are then converted into gal- 
lons per minute (L/m) flow rate for estimating demand. 

2.1. Estimate continuous supply demand in gallons 
per minute (L/m) for lawn sprinklers, air condi- 
tioners, etc., and add the sum to the total demand 
for fixtures. The result is the estimated supply 
demand for the building supply. Fixture units 
cannot be applied to constant use fixtures such as 
hose bibbs, lawn sprinklers and air conditioners. 



These types of fixtures must be assigned the gal- 
lon per minute (L/m.) value, 

3. Selection of pipe size. This water pipe sizing procedure 
is based on a system of pressure requirements and losses, 
the sum of which must not exceed the minimum pressure 
available at the supply source. These pressures are as fol- 
lows: 

3.1. Pressure required at the fixture to produce 
required flow. See Section 604.3 and Section 
604,5. 

3.2. Static pressure loss or gain (due to head) is com- | 
puted at 0.433 psi per foot (9.8 kPa/m) of eleva- 
tion change. 

3.3. Loss through a water meter. The friction or pres- 
sure loss can be obtained from the manufacturer. 

3.4. Loss through taps in water main (see Table 
E103.3(4)). 

3.5. Losses through special devices such as filters, 
softeners, backflow prevention devices and pres- 
sure regulators. These values must be obtained 
from the manufacturers. 

3.6. Loss through valves and fittings. Losses for ^ 
these items are calculated by converting to equiv- 
alent length of piping and adding to the total pipe 
length, [see Tables E103.3(5) and El 03.3(6)]. I 

3.7. Loss due to pipe friction can be calculated when § 
the pipe size, the pipe length and the flow through 
the pipe are known. With these three items, the 
friction loss can be determined using Figures 
E103.3(2) through E103.3(7). When using 
charts, use pipe inside diameters. For piping flow 
charts not included, use manufacturers' tables 
and velocity recommendations. Before attempt- 
ing to size any water supply system, it is neces- 
sary to gather preliminary information which 
includes available pressure, piping material, 
select design velocity, elevation differences and 
developed length to most remote fixture. The 
water supply system is divided into sections at 
major changes in elevation or where branches 
lead to fixture groups. The peak demand must be 
determined in each part of the hot and cold water 
supply system which includes the corresponding 
water supply fixture unit and conversion to gal- 
lons per minute (L/m) flow rate to be expected 
through each section. Sizing methods require the 
determination of the "most hydraulically 
remote" fixture to compute the pressure loss 
caused by pipe and fittings. The hydraulically 
remote fixture represents the most downstream 
fixture along the circuit of piping requiring the 
most available pressure to operate properly. 
Consideration must be given to all pressure 
demands and losses, such as friction caused by 
pipe, fittings and equipment, elevation and the 
residual pressure required by Table 604.3. The 
two most common and frequent complaints 



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APPENDIX E 



about the water supply system operation are lack 
of adequate pressure and noise. 

Problem: What size Type L copper water pipe, service and dis- 
tribution will be required to serve a two-story factory building 
having on each floor, back-to-back, two toilet rooms each 
equipped with hot and cold water? The highest fixture is 21 feet 
(640 1 mm) above the street main, which is tapped with a 2-inch 
(51 mm) corporation cock at which point the minimum pres- 
sure is 55 psi (379.2 kPa). In the building basement, a 2-inch 
(5 1 mm) meter with a maximum pressure drop of 1 1 psi (75.8 
kPa) and 3-inch (76 mm) reduced pressure principle backflow 
preventer with a maximum pressure drop of 9 psi (621 kPa) are 
to be installed. The system is shown by Figure El .03.3(1). To be 
determined are the pipe sizes for the service main and the cold 
and hot water distribution pipes. 

Solution: A tabular arrangement such as shown in Table 
El 03.3(1 ) should first be constructed. The steps to be followed 
are indicated by the tabular arrangement itself as they are in 
sequence, columns 1 through 10 and lines A through L. 

Step 1 Columns 1 and 2: Divide the system into sections 
breaking at major changes in elevation or where 
branches lead to fixture groups. After point B (see 
Figure E103.3(l)), separate consideration will be 
given to the hot and cold water piping. Enter the 
sections to be considered in the service and cold 
water piping in Column 1 of the tabular arrange- 
ment. Column 1 of Table El 03. 3(1) provides a 
line-by-line recommended tabular arrangement 
for use in solving pipe sizing. 

The objective in designing the water supply sys- 
tem is to ensure an adequate water supply and pres- 
sure to all fixtures and equipment. Column 2 
provides the pounds per square inch (psi) to be 
considered separately from the minimum pressure 
available at the main. Losses to take into consider- 
ation are the following: the differences in eleva- 
tions between the water supply source and the 
highest water supply outlet, meter pressure losses, 
the tap in main loss, special fixture devices such as 
water softeners and prevention devices and the 
pressure required at the most remote fixture outlet. 
The difference in elevation can result in an 
increase or decrease in available pressure at the 
main. Where the water supply outlet is located 
above the source, this results in a loss in the avail- 
able pressure and is subtracted from the pressure at 
the water source. Where the highest water supply 
outlet is located below the water supply source, 
there will be an increase in pressure that is added to 
the available pressure of the water source. 

Column 3: According to Table E103.3(3), deter- 
mine the gpm (L/m) of flow to be expected in each 
section of the system. These flows range from 28.6 
to 1 08 gpm. Load values for fixtures must be deter- 
mined as water supply fixture units and then con- 
verted to a gallon-per-minute (gpm) rating to 
determine peak demand. When calculating peak 
demands, the water supply fixture units are added 



and then converted to the gallon-per-minute rat- 
ing. For continuous flow fixtures such as hose 
bibbs and lawn sprinkler systems, add the gal- 
lon-per-minute demand to the intermittent demand 
of fixtures. For example, a total of 120 water sup- 
ply fixture units is converted to a demand of 48 
gallons per minute. . Two hose bibbs x 5 gpm 
demand = 10 gpm. Total gpm rating = 48.0 gpm + 
10 gpm = 58.0 gpm demand. 

Step 2 Line A: Enter the minimum pressure available at 
the main source of supply in Column 2. This is 55 
psi (379.2 kPa). The local water authorities gener- 
ally keep records of pressures at different times of 
day and year. The available pressure can also be 
checked from nearby buildings or from fire depart- 
ment hydrant checks. 

Line B: Determine from Section 604.3 the highest 
pressure required for the fixtures on the system, 
which is 15 psi (103.4 kPa), to operate a 
flushometer valve. The most remote fixture outlet 
is necessary to compute the pressure loss caused 
by pipe and fittings, and represents the most down- 
stream fixture along the circuit of piping requiring 
the available pressure to operate properly as indi- 
cated by Table 604.3. 

Line C: Determine the pressure loss for the meter 
size given or assumed. The total water How from 
the main through the service as determined in Step 
1 will serve to aid in the meter selected. There are 
three common types of water meters; the pressure 
losses are determined by the American Water 
Works Association Standards for displacement 
type, compound type and turbine type. The maxi- 
mum pressure loss of such devices takes into con- 
sideration the meter size, safe operating capacity 
(gpm) and maximum rates for continuous opera- 
tions (gpm). Typically, equipment imparts greater 
pressure losses than piping. 

LineD: Select from Table El 03.3(4) and enter the 
pressure loss for the tap size given or assumed. The 
loss of pressure through taps and tees in pounds per 
square inch (psi) are based on the total gal- 
lon-per-minute flow rate and size of the tap. 

Line E: Determine the difference in elevation 
between the main and source of supply and the 
highest fixture on the system. Multiply this figure, 
expressed in feet, by 0.43 psi (2.9 kPa). Enter the 
resulting psi loss on Line E. The difference in ele- 
vation between the water supply source and the 
highest water supply outlet has a significant 
impact on the sizing of the water supply system. 
The difference in elevation usually results in a loss 
in the available pressure because the water supply 
outlet is generally located above the water supply 
source. The loss is caused by the pressure required 
to lift the water to the outlet. The pressure loss is 
subtracted from the pressure at the water source. 
Where the highest water supply outlet is located 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



103 



APPENDIX E 



below the water source, there will be an increase in 
pressure which is added to the available pressure 
of the water source. 

Lines F, G and H: The pressure losses through fil- 
ters, backflow prevention devices or other special 
fixtures must be obtained from the manufacturer 
or estimated and entered on these lines. Equipment 
such as backflow prevention devices, check 
valves, water softeners, instantaneous or tankless 
water heaters, filters and strainers can impart a 
much greater pressure loss than the piping. The 
pressure Josses can range from 8 psi to 30 psi. 

Step 3 Line I: The sum of the pressure requirements and 
losses that affect the overall system (Lines B 
through H) is entered on this line. Summarizing 
the steps, all of the system losses are subtracted 
from the minimum water pressure. The remainder 
is the pressure available for friction, defined as the 
energy available to push the water through the 
pipes to each fixture. This force can be used as an 
average pressure loss, as long as the pressure avail- 
able for friction is not exceeded. Saving a certain 
amount for available water supply pressures as an 
area incurs growth, or because of aging of the pipe 
or equipment added to the system is recom- 
mended. 

Step 4 Line J: Subtract Line I from Line A. This gives the 
pressure that remains available from overcoming 
friction losses in the system. This figure is a guide 
to the pipe size that is chosen for each section, 
incorporating the total friction losses to the most 
remote outlet (measured length is called devel- 
oped length). 

Exception: When the main is above the highest 
fixture, the resulting psi must be considered a pres- 
sure gain (static head gain) and omitted from the 
sums of Lines B through H and added to Line J. 

The maximum friction head loss that can be tol- 
erated in the system during peak demand is the dif- 
ference between the static pressure at the highest 
and most remote outlet at no-flow conditions and 
the minimum flow pressure required at that outlet. 
If the losses are within the required limits, then 
every run of pipe will also be within the required 
friction head loss. Static pressure loss is the most 
remote outlet in feet x 0.433 = loss in psi caused by 
elevation differences. 

Step 5 Column 4: Enter the length of each section from 
the main to the most remote outlet (at Point E). 
Divide the water supply system into sections 
breaking at major changes in elevation or where 
branches lead to fixture groups. 

Step 6 Column 5: When selecting a trial pipe size, the 
length from the water service or meter to the most 
remote fixture outlet must be measured to deter- 
mine the developed length. However, in systems 
having a flush valve or temperature controlled 



shower at the top most floors the developed length 
would be from the water meter to the most remote 
flush valve on the system. A rule of thumb is that 
size will become progressively smaller as the sys- 
tem extends farther from the main source of sup- 
ply. Trial pipe size may be arrived at by the 
following formula: 

Line J (Pressure available to overcome pipe fric- 
tion) x 100/equivalent length of run total devel- 
oped length to most remote fixture x percentage 
factor of 1 .5 (note: a percentage factor is used only 
as an estimate for friction losses imposed for fit- 
tings for initial trial pipe size) = psi (average pres- 
sure drops per 100 feet of pipe). 

For trial pipe size see Figure E 103.3(3) (Type L 
copper) based on 2.77 psi and a 108 gpm = 27 2 
inches. To determine the equivalent length of run 
to the most remote outlet, the developed length is 
determined and added to the friction losses for fit- 
tings and valves. The developed lengths of the des- 
ignated pipe sections are as follows: 

A - B 54 feet 



B-C 



feet 



C-D 13 feet 

D-E 150 feet 

Total developed length = 225 feet 

The equivalent length of the friction loss in fit- 
tings and valves must be added to the developed 
length (most remote outlet). Where the size of fit- 
tings and valves is not known, the added friction 
loss should be approximated. A general rule that 
has been used is to add 50 percent of the developed 
length to allow for fittings and valves. For exam- 
ple, the equivalent length of run equals the devel- 
oped length of run (225 ft xl.5 = 338 feet). The § 
total equivalent length of run for determining a 
trial pipe size is 338 feet. 

Example: 9.36 (pressure available to overcome 
pipe friction) x 100/ 338 (Equivalent length of 
run = 225 x 1.5) = 2.77 psi (average pressure 
drop per 100 feet of pipe). 

Step? Column 6: Select from Table E103.3(6) the 
equivalent lengths for the trial pipe size of fittings 
and valves on each pipe section. Enter the sum for 
each section in Column 6. (The number of fittings 
to be used in this example must be an estimate.) 
The equivalent length of piping is the developed 
length plus the equivalent lengths of pipe corre- 
sponding to friction head losses for fittings and 
valves. Where the size of fittings and valves is not 
known, the added friction head losses must be 
approximated. An estimate for this example is as 
follows: 

Step 8 Column 7: Add the figures from Column 4 and 
Column 6, and enter in Column 7. Express the sum 
in hundreds of feet. 



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2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



APPENDIX E 



COLD WATER 
PIPE SECTION 


FITTINGS/VALVES 


PRESSURE LOSS 

EXPRESSED AS 

EQUIVALENT LENGTH 

OF TUBE (FEET) 


HOT WATER PIPE 
SECTION 


FITTINGS/VALVES 


PRESSURE LOSS 

EXPRESSED AS 

EQUIVALENT OF TUBE 

(FEET) 


A-B 


3-2 ! / 2 " Gate valves 


3 


A-B 


3-2 '// Gate valves 


3 


1 -2 7 2 " Side branch tee 


1.2 




1-2V 2 " Side branch tee 


12 


B-C 


l-2'/ 2 " Straight run tee 


0.5 


B-C 


1-2" Straight run tee 


7 








l-2"90-degreeeli 


0.5 


OF 


]-2'/ 2 " Side branch tee 


12 


C-F 


1-1 7 2 " Side branch tee 


7 


C-D 


l^V/QO-degreeell 


7 


C-D 


l-'/ 2 "90-degreeel! 


4 


D-E 


l-2'/ 2 " Side branch tee 


12 


D-E 


1-1 V 2 " Side branch tee 


7 



Step 9 Column 8: Select from Figure El 03.3(3) the fric- 
tion loss per 100 feet (30 480 mm) of pipe for the 
gallon-per-minute flow in a section (Column 3) 
and trial pipe size (Column 5). Maximum friction 
head loss per 100 feet is determined on the basis of 
total pressure available for friction head loss and 
the longest equivalent length of run. The selection 
is based on the gallon-per-minute demand, the uni- 
form friction head loss, and the maximum design 
velocity. Where the size indicated by hydraulic 
table indicates a velocity in excess of the selected 
velocity, a size must be selected which produces 
the required velocity. 

Step 10 Column 9: Multiply the figures in Columns 7 and 
8 for each section and enter in Column 9. 

Total friction loss is determined by multiplying 
the friction loss per 100 feet (30 480 mm) for each 
pipe section in the total developed length by the 
pressure loss in fittings expressed as equivalent 
length in feet. Note: section C-F should be consid- 
ered in the total pipe friction losses only if greater 
loss occurs in section C-F than in pipe section D-E. 
section C-F is not considered in the total developed 
length. Total friction loss in equivalent length is 
determined as follows: 

Step 11 Line K: Enter the sum of the values in Column 9. 
The value is the total friction loss in equivalent 
length for each designated pipe section. 



Step 12 Line L: Subtract Line J from Line K and enter in 
Column 10. 

The result should always be a positive or plus 
figure. If it is not, repeat the operation using Col- 
umns 5, 6, 8 and 9 until a balance or near balance is 
obtained. If the difference between Lines J and K is 
a high positive number, it is an indication that the 
pipe sizes are too large and should be reduced, thus 
saving materials. In such a case, the operations 
using Columns 5, 6, 8 and 9 should again be 
repeated. 

The total friction losses are determined and sub- 
tracted from the pressure available to overcome 
pipe friction for trial pipe size. This number is criti- 
cal as it provides a guide to whether the pipe size 
selected is too large and the process should be 
repeated to obtain an economically designed sys- 
tem. 

Answer: The final figures entered in Column 5 . 
become the design pipe size for the respective sec- 
tions. Repeating this operation a second time using 
the same sketch but considering the demand for 
hot water, it is possible to size the hot water distri- 
bution piping. This has been worked up as a part of 
the overall problem in the tabular arrangement 
used for sizing the service and water distribution 
piping. Note that consideration must be given to 
the pressure losses from the street main to the 
water heater (section A-B) in determining the hot 
water pipe sizes. 



PIPE SECTIONS 


FRICTION LOSS EQUIVALENT LENGTH (feet) 


Cold Water 


Hot Water 


A-B 


0.69x3.2 = 2.21 


0.69x3.2 = 2.21 


B-C 


0.085x3.1 =0.26 


0.16 x 1.4 = 0.22 


C-D 


0.20x1.9-0.38 


0.17x3.2 = 0.54 


D-E 


1.62x1.9 = 3.08 


1.57x3.2 = 5.02 


Total pipe friction losses 
(Line K) 


5.93 


7.99 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



105 



APPENDIX E 



A 

O — 
MAIN 



HOT WATER 

COLD WATER 

M = METER 

BFP = BACKFLOW PREVENTER 

I =90 DEGREE ELBOW 

I I = T 

N = VALVE 



FLOOR 2 




288 fu, 108 gpm- 



54 FT. 



132 fu, 
77gpm 



FLOOR 1 



264 fu, _ 
104.5 gpm 



-MO— MOM- 

M BFP 



% 



1 50 FT. 



■ — 132 fu, 77 gpm 



D ; 



-I-— * 



++4 



-^1 



\: 



12 fu, 28.6 gpm 



-132 fu, 77 gpm 



c"-\Z 



12 fu, 28.6 gpm 
24 fu, 38 gpm 



WATER HEATER 



"^^ _ 



'I 

E' 



For SI: l foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gpm = 3.785 L/m. 



FIGURE E103.3(1) 
EXAMPLE-SIZING 



106 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



APPENDIX E 




PRESSURE DROP PER 100 FEET OF TUBE, POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH 

Note: Fluid velocities in excess of 5 to 8 feet/second are not usually recommended. 



FIGURE E1 03.3(2) 
FRICTION LOSS IN SMOOTH PIPE 3 (TYPE K, ASTM B 88 COPPER TUBING) 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, I gpm = 3.785 L/m, 1 psi = 6.895 kPa, 

1 foot per second - 0.305 m/s. 
a. This chart applies to smooth new copper tubing with recessed (streamline) soldered joints and to the actual sizes of types indicated on the diagram. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



107 



APPENDIX E 



FIT-IT- = 


= =F 


rmi = 


= =f 


fi-m-- 


--r 


r~IT!T~~ 


~T 


UHflT - 


~T 


1-1 -Mi-- 

1 1 1 1 1 - 


-i- 

1 


1 1 i 1 ly 

<l ML/ 


1 

' 1 


1 LK1 

FITT^ 


.1 



: T==F=FH : 

TTTrr 
t-i-' 
i I 



ttrrm 

"CTTTIT; 

TriT 



^9000 

1 

~-\ 

-J5000 

^4000 

^3000 

1 
-| 2000 



d 1000 

1 
~-\ 

■i 

H400 
300 

"200 

I 

J 100 




PRESSURE DROP PER 100 FEET OF TUBE-; POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH 
Note: Fluid velocities in excess of 5 to 8 feet/second are not usually recommended. 



FIGURE E1 03.3(3) 
FRICTION LOSS IN SMOOTH PIPE 3 (TYPE L, ASTM B 88 COPPER TUBING) 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, I gpm = 3.785 Urn, 1 psi = 6.895 kPa, 

1 foot per second = 0.305 m/s. 
a. This chart applies to smooth new copper tubing with recessed (streamline) soldered joints and to the actual sizes of types indicated on the diagram. 



108 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



APPENDIX E 



7 7 7 p| y\ 1 5000 

rTTnri^ 4000 

j-j -|-| -1 3000 

I I I I 1 

p| -| 2000 

Mil 
I I I i ■ 




PRESSURE DROP PER 100 FEET OF TUBE, POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH 

Note: Fluid velocities in excess of 5 to 8 feet/second are not usually recommended. 



FIGURE E1 03.3(4) 
FRICTION LOSS IN SMOOTH PIPE 3 (TYPE M, ASTM B 88 COPPER TUBING) 

For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gpm = 3.785 L/m, 1 psi = 6.895 kPa, 

1 foot per second = 0.305 m/s. 
a. This chart applies to smooth new copper tubing with recessed (streamline) soldered joints and to the actual sizes of types indicated on the diagram. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



109 



APPENDIX E 



FRICTION LOSS POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH HEAD PER 100 FEET LENGTH 



10000 
9000 
8000 
7000 
6000 

5000 

4000 

3000 



1000 
900 
800 
700 

600 

500 



o-i « >*in to r^oooiT- 



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90 
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10000 

9000 

8000 

7000 

6000 

5000 

4000 



1000 

900 

800 

700 

600 

500 
400 

300 



100 


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80 


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40 

:i- 30 



20 



10 

9 

8 

7 

6 

5 



CO Th 1T> C0h-®O>O 



FRICTION LOSS POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH HEAD PER 100 FEET LENGTH 



FIGURE E1 03.3(5) 
FRICTION LOSS IN FAIRLY SMOOTH PIPE 3 



For SI: ! inch = 25.4 mm, i foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gpm = 3.785 L/m, 1 psi = 6.895 kPa, 

1 foot per second = 0.305 m/s. 
a. This chart applies to smooth new steel (fairly smooth) pipe and to actual diameters of standard-weight pipe. 



110 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



APPENDIX E 



FRICTION LOSS POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH HEAD PER 100 FEET LENGTH 



10000 
9000 
8000 
7000 
6000 

5000 

4000 

3000 

2000 



1000 
900 
800 
700 
600 

500 
400 



CM rt +in (DNCO (3>t- 





100 


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70 
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10000 

9000 

8000 

7000 

6000 

5000 

4000 
3000 

2000 



1000 

900 

800 

700 
600 

500 
400 
300 



30 






100 


LU 


90 


Q- 


80 


7 


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<) 


60 


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50 


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40 






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FRICTION LOSS POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH HEAD PER 100 FEET LENGTH 



FIGURE E103.3(6) 
FRICTION LOSS IN FAIRLY ROUGH PIPE 3 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gpm = 3.785 L/m, 1 psi = 6.895 kPa, 

1 foot per second = 0.305 m/s. 
a. This chart applies to fairly rough pipe and to actual diameters which in general will be less than the actual diameters of the new pipe of the same kind. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



111 



APPENDIX E 



FRICTION LOSS POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH HEAD PER 100 FEET LENGTH 




FRICTION LOSS POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH HEAD PER 100 FEET LENGTH 



RGUREE1 03.3(7) 
FRICTION LOSS IN FAIRLY ROUGH PIPE 3 



For SI: I inch = 25.4 mm, I foot = 304.8 mm, 1 gpm = 3.785 L/m, 1 psi = 6.895 kPa, 

1 foot per second - 0.305 m/s. 
a. This chart applies to very rough pipe and existing pipe and to their actual diameters. 



112 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



APPENDIX E 



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IS 

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o 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



113 



APPENDIX E 



TABLE E1 03.3(2) 
LOAD VALUES ASSIGNED TO FIXTURES 3 



FIXTURE 


OCCUPANCY 


TYPE OF SUPPLY 
CONTROL 


LOAD VALUES, IN WATER SUPPLY FIXTURE UNITS (wsfu) 


Cold 


Hot 


Total 


Bathroom group 


Private 


Flush tank 


2.7 


1.5 


3.6 


Bathroom group 


Private 


Flush valve 


6.0 


3.0 


8.0 


Bathtub 


Private 


Faucet 


1.0 


1.0 


1.4 


Bathtub 


Public- 


Faucet 


3.0 


3.0 


4.0 


Bidet 


Private 


Faucet 


1.5 


1.5 


2.0 


Combi nation f i xture 


Private 


Faucet 


2.25 


2.25 


3.0 


Dishwashing machine 


Private 


Automatic 


— 


1.4 


1.4 


Drinking fountain 


Offices, etc. 


3 / g " valve 


0.25 


— 


0.25 


Kitchen sink 


Private 


Faucet 


1.0 


1.0 


1.4 


Kitchen sink 


Hotel, restaurant 


Faucet 


3.0 


3.0 


4.0 


Laundry trays (1 to 3) 


Private 


Faucet 


1.0 


1.0 


1.4 


Lavatory 


Private 


Faucet 


0.5 


0.5 


0.7 


Lavatory 


Public 


Faucet 


1.5 


1.5 


2.0 


Service sink 


Offices, etc. 


Faucet 


2.25 


2.25 


3.0 


Shower head 


Public 


Mixing valve 


3.0 


3.0 


4.0 


Shower head 


Private 


Mixing valve 


1.0 


1.0 


1.4 


Urinal 


Public 


1" flush valve 


10.0 


— 


10.0 


Urinal 


Public 


3 / 4 " flush valve 


5.0 


— 


5.0 


Urinal 


Public 


Flush tank 


3.0 


— 


3.0 


Washing machine (8 lb) 


Private 


Automatic 


1.0 


1.0 


1.4 


Washing machine (8 lb) 


Public 


Automatic 


2.25 


2.25 


3.0 


Washing machine (15 lb) 


Public 


Automatic 


3.0 


3.0 


4.0 


Water closet 


Private 


Flush valve 


6.0 


— 


6.0 


Water closet 


Private 


Flush tank 


2.2 


— 


2.2 


Water closet 


Public 


Flush valve 


10.0 


— 


10.0 


Water closet 


Public 


Flush tank 


5.0 


— 


5.0 


Water closet 


Public or private 


Flushometer tank 


2.0 


— 


2.0 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound = 0.454 kg. 

a. For fixtures not listed , loads should be assumed by comparing the fixture to one listed using water in similar quantities and at similar rates. The assigned loads for 

fixtures with both hot and cold water supplies are given for separate hot and cold water loads and for total load. The separate hot and cold water loads being 

three-fourths of the total load for the fixture in each case. 



114 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



APPENDIX E 



TABLE E1 03.3(3) 
TABLE FOR ESTIMATING DEMAND 



SUPPLY SYSTEMS PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSH TANKS 


SUPPLY SYSTEMS PREDOMINANTLY FOR FLUSH VALVES 


Load 


Demand 


Load 


Demand 


(Water supply fixture units) 


(Gallons per minute) 


(Cubic feet per minute) 


(Water supply fixture units) 


(Gallons per minute) 


(Cubic feet per minute) 


l 


3.0 


0.04104 


— 








2 


5.0 


0.0684 











3 


6.5 


0.86892 











4 


8.0 


1.06944 











5 


9.4 


1.256592 


5 


15.0 


2.0052 


6 


10.7 


1.430376 


6 


17.4 


2.326032 


7 


11.8 


1 .577424 


7 


19.8 


2.646364 


8 


12.8 


1.711104 


8 


22.2 


2.967696 


9 


13.7 


1.831416 


9 


24.6 


3.288528 


10 


14.6 


1.951728 


1.0 


27.0 


3.60936 


11 


15.4 


2.058672 


11 


27.8 


3.716304 


12 


16.0 


2.13888 


12 


28.6 


3.823248 


13 


16.5 


2.20572 


13 


29.4 


3.930192 


14 


17.0 


2.27256 


14 


30.2 


4.037136 


15 


17.5 


2.3394 


15 


31.0 


4.14408 


16 


18.0 


2.90624 


\6 


31.8 


4.241024 


17 


18.4 


2.459712 


17 


32.6 


4.357968 


18 


18.8 


2.513184 


18 


33.4 


4.464912 


19 


19.2 


2.566656 


19 


34.2 


4.57 1 856 


20 


19.6 


2.620128 


20 


35.0 


4.6788 


25 


21.5 


2.87412 


25 


38.0 


5.07984 


30 


23.3 


3.114744 


30 


42.0 


5.61356 


35 


24.9 


3.328632 


35 


44.0 


5.88192 


40 


26.3 


3.515784 


40 


46.0 


6.14928 


45 


27.7 


3.702936 


45 


48.0 


6.41664 


50 


29.1 


3.890088 


50 


50.0 


6.684 


60 


32.0 


4.27776 


60 


54.0 


7.21872 


70 


35.0 


4.6788 


70 


58.0 


7.75344 


80 


38.0 


5.07984 


80 


61.2 


8.181216 


90 


41.0 


5.48088 


90 


64.3 


8.595624 


100 


43.5 


5.81508 


100 


67.5 


9.0234 


120 


48.0 


6.41664 


120 


73.0 


9.75864 


140 


52.5 


7.0182 


140 


77.0 


10.29336 


160 


57.0 


7.61976 


160 


81.0 


10.82808 


180 


61.0 


8.15448 


180 


85.5 


1 1 .42964 


200 


65.0 


8.6892 


200 


90.0 


12.0312 


225 


70.0 


9.3576 


225 


95.5 


12.76644 


250 


75.0 


10.026 


250 


101.0 


13.50168 


275 


80.0 


10.6944 


275 


104.5 


13.96956 


300 


85.0 


11.3628 


300 


108.0 


14.43744 


400 


105.0 


14.0364 


400 


127.0 


16.97736 


500 


124.0 


16.57632 


500 


143.0 


19.11624 


750 


170.0 


22.7256 


750 


177.0 


23.66136 


1,000 


208.0 


27.80544 


1,000 


208.0 


27.80544 


1,250 


239.0 


31.94952 


1,250 


239.0 


31.94952 


1,500 


269.0 


35.95992 


1,500 


269.0 


35.95992 


1,750 


297.0 


39.70296 


1,750 


297.0 


39.70296 


2,000 


325.0 


43.446 


2,000 


325.0 


43.446 


2,500 


380.0 


50.7984 


2,500 


380.0 


50.7984 


3,000 


433.0 


57.88344 


3,000 


433.0 


57.88344 


4,000 


535.0 


70.182 


4,000 


525.0 


70.182 


5,000 


593.0 79.27224 


5,000 


593.0 


79.27224 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



(continued) 



115 



APPENDIX E 



TABLE E1 03.3(4) 
LOSS OF PRESSURE THROUGH TAPS AND TEES IN POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH (psi) 



GALLONS PER MINUTE 


SIZE OF TAP OR TEE (inches) 


% 


3 / 


1 


1V 4 


1V 2 


2 


3 


10 


1.35 


0.64 


0.18 


0.08 


— 


— 


— 


20 


5.38 


2.54 


0.77 


0.31 


0.14 


— 


— 


30 


12.10 


5.72 


- 1.62 


0.69 


0.33 


0.10 





40 


— 


10.20 


3.07 


1.23 


0.58 


0.18 


— 


50 


— 


15.90 


4.49 


1.92 


0.91 


0.28 


— 


60 


— 


— 


6.46 


2.76 


1.31 


0.40 


— 


70 


— 


— 


8.79 


3.76 


1.78 


0.55 


0.10 


80 


— 


— 


11.50 


4.90 


2.32 


0.72 


0.13 


90 


— 


— 


14.50 


■6.21 


2.94 


0.91 


0.16 


100 


— 


— 


17.94 


7.67 


3.63 


1.12 


0.21 


120 


— 


— 


25.80 


11.00 


5.23 


1.61 


0.30 


140 


— 


__ 


35.20 


15.00 


7.12 


2.20 


0.41 


150 


— 


— 


— 


17.20 


8.16 


2.52 


0.47 


160 


— 


— 


— 


19.60 


9.30 


2.92 


0.54 


180 


— 


— 


— 


24.80 


11.80 


3.62 


0.68 


200 


— 


— 


— 


30.70 


14.50 


4.48 


0.84 


225 


— 


— 


— 


38.80 


18.40 


5.60 


1.06 


250 


— 


— 


— 


47.90 


22.70 


7.00 


1.31 


275 


— 


— 


— 


— 


27.40 


7.70 


1.59 


300 


— 


— 


__ 


— 


32.60 


10.10 


1.88 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 pound per square inch = 6.895 kpa, 1 gallon per minute = 3.785 L/m. 

TABLE E1 03.3(5) 
ALLOWANCE SN EQUIVALENT LENGTHS OF PIPE FOR FRICTION LOSS IN VALVES AND THREADED FITTINGS (feet) 



FITTING OR VALVE 


PIPE SIZE (inches) 


X 


% 


1 


1V 4 


1V 2 


2 


2V 2 


3 


45-degree elbow 


1.2 


1.5 


1.8 


2,4 


3.0 


4.0 


5.0 


6.0 


90-degree elbow 


2.0 


2.5 


3.0 


4.0 


5.0 


7.0 


8.0 


10.0 


Tee, run 


0.6 


0.8 


0.9 


1.2 


1.5 


2.0 


2.5 


3.0 


Tee, branch 


3.0 


4.0 


5.0 


6.0 


7.0 


10.0 


12.0 


15.0 


Gate valve 


0.4 


0.5 


0.6 


0.8 


1.0 


1.3 


1.6 


2.0 


Balancing valve 


0.8 


1.1 


1.5 


1.9 


2.2 


3.0 


3.7 


4.5 


Plug-type cock 


0.8 


1.1 


1.5 


1.9 


2.2 


3.0 


3.7 


4.5 


Check valve, swing 


5.6 


8.4 


11.2 


14.0 


16.8 


22.4 


28.0 


33.6 


Globe valve 


15.0 


20.0 


25.0 


35.0 


45.0 


55.0 


65.0 


80.0 


Angle valve 


8.0 


12.0 


15.0 


18.0 


22.0 


28.0 


34.0 


40.0 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 degree = 0.0175 rad. 



116 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



APPENDIX E 



TABLE E1 03.3(6) 
PRESSURE LOSS IN FITTINGS AND VALVES EXPRESSED AS EQUIVALENT LENGTH OF TUBE 3 (feet) 



NOMINAL OR 

STANDARD SIZE 

(inches) 


FITTINGS 


Coupling 


VALVES 


Standard Ell 


90-Degree Tee 


Ball 


Gate 


Butterfly 


Check 


90 Degree 


45 Degree 


Side Branch 


Straight Run 


\ 


0.5 


— 


1.5 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


1.5 


\ 


1 


0.5 


2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2 


% 


1.5 


0.5 


2 


— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


2.5 


% 


2 


0.5 


3 








— 


— 


— 


3 


1 


2.5 


1 


4.5 


— 


— 


0.5 


— 


— 


4.5 


1V 4 


3 


1 


5.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


— 


— 


5.5 


1% 


4 


1.5 


7 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 








6.5 


2 


5.5 


2 


9 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


0.5 


7.5 


9 


2% 


7 


2.5 


12 


0.5 


0.5 





1 


10 


1. 1 .5 


3 


9 


3.5 


15 


1 


1 


— 


1.5 


15.5 


14.5 


3'/ 2 


9 


3.5 


14 


1 


1 





2 


— 


12.5 


4 


12.5 


5 


21 


1 


1 


— 


2 


16 


18.5 


5 


16 


6 


27 


1.5 


1.5 


— 


3 


11.5 


23.5 


6 


19 


7 


34 


2 


2 


— 


3.5 


13.5 


26.5 


8 


29 


11 


50 


3 


3 


— 


5 


12.5 


39 



For SI: 1 inch = 25.4 mm, 1 foot = 304.8 mm, 1 degree = 0.01745 rad. 

a. Allowances are for streamlined soldered fittings and recessed threaded fittings. For threaded fittings, double the allowances shown in the table. The equivalent 
lengths presented above are based on a C factor of 150 in the Hazen-Williams friction loss formula. The lengths shown are rounded to the nearest half-foot. 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



117 



APPENDIX E 



SECTION PC E201 

SELECTION OF PIPE SIZE 

RESERVED 



1 1 8 2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



APPENDIX Ft 

STRUCTURAL SAFETY 

RESERVED 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 119 



120 2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



APPENDIX G* 

VACUUS! DRAINAGE SYSTEM. 
RESERVED 



2008 NEW YORK CSTY PLUMBING CODE 1 21 



122 2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 



INDEX 
RESERVED 



2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 12 3 



124 2008 NEW YORK CITY PLUMBING CODE 




"\ 



.J. 



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